[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The standard treatment for tethered cord syndrome (operative vs nonoperative management) that presents in adulthood remains controversial. A comparative study of tethered cord syndrome in adulthood is needed.
A retrospective chart-based analysis.
Patients admitted to Gulhane Military Medical Academy Department of Neurosurgery for management of caudal spinal cord tethering from June 1999 through December 2006 (N = 22).
Conus level was normal in 1 patient with split cord malformation and dermal sinus. Tight terminal filum was found in 21 patients, including postrepair myelomeningocele tethered cord in 4, lipomyelomeningocele/meningocele in 8, split cord malformation in 3, dermal sinus in 7, and syringomyelia in 3. The most common complaints were back pain (15 patients, 68.1%), bladder dysfunction (8, 36.3%), fecal incontinence (2, 9.09%), and leg pain (7, 31.8%). One patient had hydrocephalus (4.5%). Ten of 22 patients underwent surgery; 8 of 10 patients had detethering; and 12 patients refused surgery. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage requiring reinforcement sutures occurred in 1 patient. There were no infectious complications. Neurologic status and outcomes were compared with preoperative findings.
Some patients refuse surgery despite severe neurologic disturbances. Neurosurgeons should fully explain the risks and benefits of surgery for tethered cord to the patient and family. A much larger and prospective randomized series is needed to determine the effects of operative vs nonoperative management of tethered cord syndrome in adulthood.
The journal of spinal cord medicine 02/2008; 31(3):272-8. · 1.54 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Various approaches to expose the orbit have been used, such as cranial, lateral, and medial approaches. In an effort to gain exposure to the orbit without necessitating a craniotomy, we have developed a transmaxillary approach to the orbit.
An approach was developed that uses data obtained by performing 24 orbit dissections in 12 cadaveric heads. After sublabial incision to expose the maxilla, maxillotomy is performed and the course of the infraorbital nerve is identified. The orbital floor is opened, and the orbit is accessed.
This technique offers access to the inferomedial and inferolateral orbit and to the inferior aspect of the optic nerve.
The transmaxillary approach provides an entirely extradural approach to the orbit. This technique combines the benefits of a cosmetically acceptable approach with orbitotomy and avoids the use of craniotomy and brain retraction to access the deep medial, lateral, and inferior orbit. We advocate the transmaxillary approach to the orbit in cases of inferomedial posterior intraconal and inferolateral lesions as an alternative and adjunct to the standard techniques of orbital surgery.