[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rare cases of thymic granulomatous lesions were found in pigs. The lesions consisted of epithelioid cells, multinucleated giant cells, and lymphocytes. Such lesions also were observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, kidney, and stomach. The cytoplasm of the majority of giant cells and some epithlioid cells was periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive. All cells were positive for vimentin, lysozyme, and desmin. Ultrastructurally, the giant cells were rich in organella and attached to adjacent epithelioid cells by membrane interdigitation. The cells included numerous coated vesicles and granules. No etiologic pathogen, including porcine circovirus type 2, was detected in the lesions. This is the rare case of idiopathic thymic granulomatous lesion in pigs.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the expression profiles of 9 cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYPs) proteins and those of 40 CYPs genes in pregnant rat's liver, placenta and fetal liver after treatment with pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) or phenobarbital (PB). This study was carried out focusing on the gene expression profiles of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, Glutathione S-transferase isozymes (GSTs) and UDP-glycosyltransferase isozymes (UDPGTs). Fischer 344 (F344) pregnant rats were daily treated intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of PCN or 80 mg/kg of PB from 13 to 16 days of gestation (DG). They were sacrificed on 17 DG, and microarray analysis using Affymetrix Rat Expression Array 230 A was performed. Among 16 GSTs genes examined in this study, 7 genes were significantly induced in dam's liver and 3 genes in fetal liver, respectively, in the PCN-group, while 8 genes were significantly induced in dam's liver and 1 gene in fetal liver, respectively, in the PB-group. On the other hand, among 11 UDPGTs genes examined, 5 genes were significantly induced in dam's liver and 3 genes in fetal liver, respectively, in the PCN-group, while 5 genes were significantly induced in dam's liver and 1 gene in fetal liver, respectively, in the PB-group. There were no significant changes in the placenta of all groups. This is the first report of the gene expression profiles of Phase II drug metabolizing enzymes in pregnant rat and fetal livers and placenta after treatment with typical inducers of drug metabolizing enzymes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that the strain difference in the development of porcine-serum (PS)-induced rat hepatic fibrosis was closely related to the difference in the mode of MHC class-II-related genes expression. This study was carried out to clarify the serological and immunohistochemical changes in this hepatic fibrosis model. Six-week-old male Brown Norway (BN) and Wistar rats were injected with 0.5 ml of sterile PS twice a week for up to 8 weeks. The serum levels of PS-specific IgG1, IgG2a, and IgM were elevated more prominently in BN rats than Wistar rats. In the liver, significant increases in the numbers of PS-, OX-6 (RT1.B)-, CD4-, CD8, ED1-, and ED2-positive cells occurred earlier in BN rats than Wistar rats. At 8 weeks, deposition of PS and immunoglobulins was observed in hepatic fibrous septa and renal glomerular mesangium, and IgG1- and IgG2a-positive cells were found in the white pulp of the spleen. The present results suggest that humoral immunity probably regulated by MHC class II molecules and inflammatory cells may be involved in PS-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported the protein expression profiles of nine cytochrome P450 isozymes (CYPs) in pregnant rat's liver, fetal liver, and placenta after treatment with pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), dexamethasone (DEX), or phenobarbital (PB). In this study, the gene expression of 40 CYPs and 2 orphan nuclear receptors for CYP inducers, that is, Nr1i2 (CYP3A subfamily inducible by PCN) and Nr1i3 (CYP2B subfamily inducible by PB), in pregnant rat's liver, fetal liver, and placenta was investigated at one time. Fischer 344 (F344) pregnant rats were daily treated intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of PCN or 80 mg/kg of PB from 13 to 16 days of gestation (DG). They were sacrificed on 17 DG, and microarray analysis using Affymetrix Rat Expression Array 230A was performed. Ten genes expression significantly increased in dam's liver in PCN group, and seven genes expression in PB group. On the other hand, four genes expression increased in fetal liver in PCN group, and three genes expression increased in PB group. Being common to dam's and fetal livers, the gene expression of Cyp3A1 (CYP3A subfamily) and cytochrome P-450e (CYP2B subfamily) increased in both PCN and PB groups. In placenta, the expression of Cyp3A1 gene was significantly induced in PB group, and it also showed a tendency to increase in PCN group. The expression of Nr1i2 gene was significantly elevated only in dam's liver of PCN group, while the expression of Nr1i3 gene showed no changes in all groups. The results of the present study of 40 CYPs gene expression mostly corresponded to our previous reports on 9 CYPs protein expression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A five-month-old, female Japanese domestic shorthair cat with proportionate dwarfism developed neurological disorders, including ataxia, decreased postural responses and generalised body and head tremors, at between two and five months of age. Leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis with abnormal cytoplasmic vacuolations was observed. The concentration of G(M2)-ganglioside in its cerebrospinal fluid was markedly higher than in normal cats, and the activities of beta-hexosaminidases A and B in its leucocytes were markedly reduced. On the basis of these biochemical data, the cat was diagnosed antemortem with G(M2)-gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff-like disease). The neurological signs became more severe and the cat died at 10 months of age. Histopathologically, neurons throughout the central nervous system were distended, and an ultrastructural study revealed membranous cytoplasmic bodies in these distended neurons. The compound which accumulated in the brain was identified as G(M2)-ganglioside, confirming G(M2)-gangliosidosis. A family study revealed that there were probable heterozygous carriers in which the activities of leucocyte beta-hexosaminidases A and B were less than half the normal value. The Sandhoff-like disease observed in this family of Japanese domestic cats is the first occurrence reported in Japan.
The Veterinary record 01/2005; 155(23):739-44. DOI:10.1136/vr.155.23.739 · 1.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genes, especially MHC class II-related genes, expression was examined in porcine-serum (PS)-induced hepatic fibrosis model. Brown-Norway (BN) and Wistar rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml sterile porcine serum twice a week for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks. Histopathologically, inflammation started at 2 weeks in BN and at 4 weeks in Wistar rats, and hepatic fibrosis developed at 4 weeks in BN rats and at 8 weeks in Wistar rats. Microarray analysis done at 2 and 4 weeks revealed that the expression of MHC class II-related genes and acute phase inflammation-related genes significantly increased at 2 weeks in BN and at 4 weeks in Wistar rats. On the other hand, the expression of some transcription-related genes was down-regulated in both strains. In BN rats, the results of semiquantitative RT-PCR analysis done on four MHC class II-related genes mRNAs corresponded well with those of microarray analysis. MHC class II is considered to be involved in the initiation of PS-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine morphological and gene expression changes induced by T-2 toxin in the fetal brain in detail, pregnant rats on day 13 of gestation were treated orally with a single dose of T-2 toxin (2 mg/kg) and sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after treatment (HAT). Histopathologically, the number of apoptotic neuroepithelial cells in the telencephalon increased from 1 HAT and peaked at 12 HAT. Based on the histopathological examinations, microarray analysis was performed at 6, 12 and 24 HAT. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of oxidative stress-related genes (heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and heme oxygenase (HO)) was strongly induced by T-2 toxin at 12 HAT, the peak time point of apoptosis induction. The expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-related genes (MEKK1 and c-jun) and other apoptosis-related genes (caspase-2 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGF-BP3)) was also induced by the T-2 toxin treatment. The changes observed by microarray analysis were confirmed for four up-regulated genes (HSP70, HO, IGF-BP3 and VEGF-A) using real-time RT-PCR. Our results suggest that the T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in the fetal brain is due to oxidative stress, and that the MAPK pathway may be involved in T-2 toxin-induced toxicity.
Food and Chemical Toxicology 12/2004; 42(11):1727-36. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2004.06.006 · 2.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rat strain differences in the early development of porcine serum (PS)-induced hepatic fibrosis were histologically and immunohistochemically examined using Brown Norway (BN), Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar rats. They were injected i.p. with 0.5 ml sterile PS twice a week for 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, rats treated with physiological saline in the same way served as controls. At 4 weeks, hepatic fibrosis accompanying fibrous septa mainly composed of type III collagens developed in BN and SD rats but not in Wistar rats. In addition, the numbers of eosinophils, CD3-positive cells and ED-1-positive cells significantly increased in BN and SD rats, that of CD45RA-positive cells in BN rats, and that of alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA)-positive cells in SD rats, respectively. Such differences in the number of inflammatory cells may be related with the absence of hepatic fibrosis in Wistar rats at 4 weeks. At 8 weeks, hepatic fibrosis with formation of many small-sized pseudolobules was observed in all strains at almost similar degree, and the numbers of infiltrating cells increased in all strains of rats with some exception. In addition, the main location of inflammatory cells was different, suggesting a different role of each inflammatory cell in the process of hepatic fibrosis.