S. Zibetti

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (109)311.03 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We map the neutral atomic gas content of M33 using high resolution VLA and GBT observations and fit a tilted ring model to determine the orientation of the extended gaseous disk and its rotation curve. The disk of M33 warps from 8 kpc outwards without substantial change of its inclination with respect to the line of sight. Rotational velocities rise steeply with radius in the inner disk, reaching 100 km/s in 4 kpc, then the rotation curve becomes more perturbed and flatter with velocities as high as 120-130 km/s out to 23 kpc. We derive the stellar mass surface density map of M33's optical disk, via pixel -SED fitting methods based on population synthesis models, which highlights variations in the mass-to-light ratio. The stellar mass surface further out is estimated from deep images of outer disk fields. Stellar and gas maps are then used in the dynamical analysis of the rotation curve to constrain the dark matter distribution which is relevant at all radii. A dark matter halo with a Navarro-Frenk-White density profile in a LCDM cosmology, provides the best fit to the rotation curve for a dark halo concentration C=10 and a total halo mass of 4.3 10^{11}Msun. This imples a baryonic fraction of order 0.02 and the evolutionary history of this galaxy should account for loss of a large fraction of its original baryonic content.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We describe and discuss the selection procedure and statistical properties of the galaxy sample used by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area Survey (CALIFA), a public legacy survey of 600 galaxies using integral field spectroscopy. The CALIFA "mother sample" was selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 photometric catalogue to include all galaxies with an r-band isophotal major axis between 45" and 79.2" and with a redshift 0.005 < z < 0.03. The mother sample contains 939 objects, 600 of which will be observed in the course of the CALIFA survey. The selection of targets for observations is based solely on visibility and thus keeps the statistical properties of the mother sample. By comparison with a large set of SDSS galaxies, we find that the CALIFA sample is representative of galaxies over a luminosity range of -19 > Mr > -23.1 and over a stellar mass range between 10^9.7 and 10^11.4Msun. In particular, within these ranges, the diameter selection does not lead to any significant bias against - or in favour of - intrinsically large or small galaxies. Only below luminosities of Mr = -19 (or stellar masses < 10^9.7Msun) is there a prevalence of galaxies with larger isophotal sizes, especially of nearly edge-on late-type galaxies, but such galaxies form < 10% of the full sample. We estimate volume-corrected distribution functions in luminosities and sizes and show that these are statistically fully compatible with estimates from the full SDSS when accounting for large-scale structure. We also present a number of value-added quantities determined for the galaxies in the CALIFA sample. We explore different ways of characterizing the environments of CALIFA galaxies, finding that the sample covers environmental conditions from the field to genuine clusters. We finally consider the expected incidence of active galactic nuclei among CALIFA galaxies.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: While studies of gas-phase metallicity gradients in disc galaxies are common, very little has been done in the acquisition of stellar abundance gradients in the same regions. We present here a comparative study of the stellar metallicity and age distributions in a sample of 62 nearly face-on, spiral galaxies with and without bars, using data from the CALIFA survey. We measure the slopes of the gradients and study their relation with other properties of the galaxies. We find that the mean stellar age and metallicity gradients in the disc are shallow and negative. Furthermore, when normalized to the effective radius of the disc, the slope of the stellar population gradients does not correlate with the mass or with the morphological type of the galaxies. Contrary to this, the values of both age and metallicity at $\sim$2.5 scale-lengths correlate with the central velocity dispersion in a similar manner to the central values of the bulges, although bulges show, on average, older ages and higher metallicities than the discs. One of the goals of the present paper is to test the theoretical prediction that non-linear coupling between the bar and the spiral arms is an efficient mechanism for producing radial migrations across significant distances within discs. The process of radial migration should flatten the stellar metallicity gradient with time and, therefore, we would expect flatter stellar metallicity gradients in barred galaxies. However, we do not find any difference in the metallicity or age gradients in galaxies with without bars. We discuss possible scenarios that can lead to this absence of difference.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past 18 months we have revisited the science requirements for a multi-object spectrograph (MOS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These efforts span the full range of E-ELT science and include input from a broad cross-section of astronomers across the ESO partner countries. In this contribution we summarise the key cases relating to studies of high-redshift galaxies, galaxy evolution, and stellar populations, with a more expansive presentation of a new case relating to detection of exoplanets in stellar clusters. A general requirement is the need for two observational modes to best exploit the large (>40 sq. arcmin) patrol field of the E-ELT. The first mode ('high multiplex') requires integrated-light (or coarsely resolved) optical/near-IR spectroscopy of >100 objects simultaneously. The second ('high definition'), enabled by wide-field adaptive optics, requires spatially-resolved, near-IR of >10 objects/sub-fields. Within the context of the conceptual study for an ELT-MOS called MOSAIC, we summarise the top-level requirements from each case and introduce the next steps in the design process.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The fraction of galaxies with red colours depends sensitively on environment, and on the way in which environment is measured. To distinguish competing theories for the quenching of star formation, a robust and complete description of environment is required, to be applied to a large sample of galaxies. The environment of galaxies can be described using the density field of neighbours on multiple scales - the multiscale density field. We are using the Millennium simulation and a simple HOD prescription which describes the multiscale density field of Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 galaxies to investigate the dependence of the fraction of red galaxies on the environment. Using a volume limited sample where we have sufficient galaxies in narrow density bins, we have more dynamic range in halo mass and density for satellite galaxies than for central galaxies. Therefore we model the red fraction of central galaxies as a constant while we use a functional form to describe the red fraction of satellites as a function of halo mass which allows us to distinguish a sharp from a gradual transition. While it is clear that the data can only be explained by a gradual transition, an analysis of the multiscale density field on different scales suggests that colour segregation within the haloes is needed to explain the results. We also rule out a sharp transition for central galaxies, within the halo mass range sampled.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 12/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of SDSS imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC5387. A blue overdensity was also identified in SDSS coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC5387 disk. The overdensity was also detected in the GALEX Deep Imaging Survey and found to contribute 38% of the total FUV integrated flux from NGC5387, which suggests that the region is actively forming stars. Deeper imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) in the B, V, and R filters that confirmed the presence of both the stellar stream and the blue overdensity. Analysis of the VATT photometry indicates the stellar stream is red in color, B-V = 0.7, and has a stellar mass of 6x10^8 M$_{\odot}$, which implies a merger ratio of 1:50. Assessment of the stream morphology suggests that the merger event has a circular radius, R~16 kpc, the stream formed in ~400 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ~2x10 M$_{\odot}$. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC5387, consists of young stellar populations (~10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log(O/H) = 8.03), and forming stars at an enhanced rate (~1-3 M$_{\odot}$/year) given its total stellar mass (2x10^7 M$_{\odot}$). Several interpretations are posited to explain these observational data, of which the most likely are (i) that the blue overdensity is a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC5387 induced by the minor accretion event, and (ii) that the blue overdensity is the progenitor of the stellar stream undergoing a period of enhanced star formation as a result of its interaction with NGC5387. Confirmation and theoretical exploration of these scenarios are presented in a companion paper.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Passive early-type galaxies (ETGs) provide an ideal laboratory for studying the interplay between dust formation around evolved stars and its subsequent destruction in a hot gas. Using Spitzer-IRS and Herschel data we compare the dust production rate in the envelopes of evolved AGB stars with a constraint on the total dust mass. Early-type galaxies which appear to be truly passively evolving are not detected by Herschel. We thus derive a distance independent upper limit to the dust grain survival time in the hostile environment of ETGs of <46 ± 25 Myr for amorphous silicate grains. This implies that ETGs which are detected at far-infrared wavelengths have acquired a cool dusty medium via interaction. Given likely time-scales for ram-pressure stripping, this also implies that only galaxies with dust in a cool (atomic) medium can release dust into the intra-cluster medium.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L50.
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    ABSTRACT: The origin of the far-infrared emission from the nearby radio galaxy M 87 remains a matter of debate. Some studies find evidence of a far-infrared excess due to thermal dust emission, whereas others propose that the far-infrared emission can be explained by synchrotron emission without the need for an additional dust emission component. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE observations of M 87, taken as part of the science demonstration phase observations of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We compare these data with a synchrotron model based on mid-infrared, far-infrared, submm and radio data from the literature to investigate the origin of the far-infrared emission. Both the integrated SED and the Herschel surface brightness maps are adequately explained by synchrotron emission. At odds with previous claims, we find no evidence of a diffuse dust component in M 87, which is not unexpected in the harsh X-ray environment of this radio galaxy sitting at the core of the Virgo cluster.
    A&A. 10/2013; 518:L53.
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    ABSTRACT: We use high-resolution VLT/HAWK-I and HST/WFC3 imaging to study the structural evolution of early-type galaxies since z˜2. Mass-selected samples are drawn from pre-existing photometric redshift surveys, which are then separated into actively star-forming and passive galaxies. The (projected) axis-ratio distributions are compared with those of lower redshift samples, and we reconstruct intrinsic axis-ratio distributions by assuming that galaxies are simple, axi-symmetric systems. We find that at all redshifts z<˜2 more massive galaxies are rounder. That is, at all epochs stars are predominantly formed in disk-like systems, whereas early-type galaxies are more bulge dominated, especially at higher masses.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We use dust scaling relations to investigate the hypothesis that Virgo cluster transition-type dwarfs are infalling star-forming field galaxies, which is argued based on their optical features (e.g. disks, spiral arms, bars) and kinematic properties similar to late-type galaxies. After their infall, environmental effects gradually transform them into early-type galaxies through the removal of their interstellar medium and quenching of all star formation activity. In this paper, we aim to verify whether this hypothesis holds using far-infrared diagnostics based on Herschel observations of the Virgo cluster taken as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). We select transition-type objects in the nearest cluster, Virgo, based on spectral diagnostics indicative for their residual or ongoing star formation. We detect dust Md ~ 10^{5-6} Msun in 36% of the transition-type dwarfs located on the high end of the stellar mass distribution. This suggests that the dust reservoirs present in non-detections fall just below the Herschel detection limit (< 1.1x10^5 Msun). Dust scaling relations support the hypothesis of a transformation between infalling late-type galaxies to quiescent low-mass spheroids governed by environmental effects, with dust-to-stellar mass fractions for transition-type dwarfs in between values characteristic for late-type objects and the lower dust fractions observed in early-type galaxies. Several transition-type dwarfs demonstrate blue central cores, hinting at the radially outside-in removal of gas and quenching of star formation activity. The fact that dust is also confined to the inner regions suggests that metals are stripped in the outer regions along with the gas. In the scenario of most dust being stripped from the galaxy along with the gas, we argue that... (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The sample of ETG to be searched for dust within HeViCS was selected at optical wavelengths using the GOLDMine compilation (Gavazzi et al. 2003A&A...400..451G, http:goldmine.mib.infn.it), which is mostly based on the Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC, Binggeli et al. 1985, Cat. J/AJ/90/1681, 1993A&AS...98..275B), including all morphological types from -3 to 2 (i.e. galaxies earlier than S0a-S0/Sa) and excluding galaxies with radial velocity larger than 3000km/s, since these are background galaxies; we have retained galaxies without a measured radial velocity. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers ~55deg2 in five bands (100-500um), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 and M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 deg2. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. (2 data files).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 08/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: By combining Herschel-SPIRE observations obtained as part of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey with 21 cm Hi data from the literature, we investigate the role of the cluster environment on the dust content of Virgo spiral galaxies. We show for the first time that the extent of the dust disk is significantly reduced in Hi-deficient galaxies, following remarkably well the observed “truncation” of the Hi disk. The ratio of the submillimetre-to-optical diameter correlates with the Hi-deficiency, suggesting that the cluster environment is able to strip dust as well as gas. These results provide important insights not only into the evolution of cluster galaxies but also into the metal enrichment of the intra-cluster medium. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigates the effect of the aperture size on derived galaxy properties for which we have spatially-resolved optical spectra. We focus on some indicators of star formation activity and dust attenuation for spiral galaxies that have been widely used in previous work on galaxy evolution. We have used 104 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey for which 2D spectroscopy with complete spatial coverage is available. From the 3D cubes we have derived growth curves of the most conspicuous Balmer emission lines (Halpha, Hbeta) for circular apertures of different radii centered at the galaxy's nucleus after removing the underlying stellar continuum. We find that the Halpha flux (f(Halpha)) growth curve follows a well defined sequence with aperture radius showing low dispersion around the median value. From this analysis, we derive aperture corrections for galaxies in different magnitude and redshift intervals. Once stellar absorption is properly accounted for, the f(Halpha)/f(Hbeta) ratio growth curve shows a smooth decline, pointing towards the absence of differential dust attenuation as a function of radius. Aperture corrections as a function of the radius are provided in the interval [0.3,2.5]R_50. Finally, the Halpha equivalent width (EW(Halpha)) growth curve increases with the size of the aperture and shows a very large dispersion for small apertures. This large dispersion prevents the use of reliable aperture corrections for this quantity. In addition, this result suggests that separating star-forming and quiescent galaxies based on observed EW(Halpha) through small apertures is likely to result in low EW(Halpha) star-forming galaxies begin classified as quiescent.
    04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We study the dust content of a large optical input sample of 910 early-type galaxies (ETG) in the Virgo cluster, extending also to the dwarf ETG, and examine the results in relation with those on the other cold ISM components. Methods. We searched for far-infrared emission in all galaxies of the input sample using the 250 micron image of the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS). This image covers a large fraction of the cluster. For the detected ETG we measured fluxes in 5 bands from 100 to 500 micron, and estimated the dust mass and temperature with modified black-body fits. Results. Dust is detected above the completeness limit of 25.4 mJy at 250 micron in 46 ETG, 43 of which are in the optically complete part of the input sample. In addition dust is present at fainter levels in another 6 ETG. We detect dust in the 4 ETG with synchrotron emission, including M 87. Dust appears to be much more concentrated than stars and more luminous ETG have higher dust temperatures. Dust detection rates down to the 25.4 mJy limit are 17% for ellipticals, about 40% for lenticulars (S0 + S0a) and around 3% for dwarf ETG. Dust mass does not correlate clearly with stellar mass and is often much more than that expected for a passive galaxy in a closed-box model. The dust-to-stars mass ratio anticorrelates with galaxy luminosity, and for some dwarf ETG reaches values as high as for dusty late-type galaxies. In the Virgo cluster slow rotators appear more likely to contain dust than fast ones. Comparing the dust results with those on HI from ALFALFA, there are only 8 ETG detected both in dust and in HI in the HeViCS area; 39 have dust but only an upper limit on HI, and 8 have HI but only an upper limit on dust. The locations of these galaxies in the cluster are different, with the dusty ETG concentrated in the densest regions, while the HI rich ETG are at the periphery.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The relation between metallicity and stellar mass (MZR) among galaxies is one of the fundamental relations in astronomy, key to understanding galaxy mass assembly and evolution. In the Local Universe the MZR has been extensively studied using the SDSS survey, and extended, with IRAC, to low surface-brightness dwarf galaxies with low star-formation rates (SFRs). Although quite tight for the original sample, the IRAC MZR breaks down when applied to metal-poor low-mass galaxies with high SFRs - i.e., the types of galaxies expected to be abundant in the early universe. Our new formulation of the MZR, which encompasses both the quiescent mode of star formation (SF, the main sequence) and the starburst SF mode, better predicts the position of metal-deficient starbursts in the MZR. However, it is based on a very small number of these metal-poor galaxies which occupy a key position in the MZR. To fill this gap, we propose IRAC imaging of 45 extremely metal-deficient star-forming dwarf galaxies. Our proposed observations will be combined with data for existing (higher-metallicity) dwarf galaxies already in the archive in order to: (1) assess gas and hot dust contamination to the IRAC colors as a function of SFR, age, and metallicity; (2) infer stellar mass from corrected IRAC fluxes, combined with optical photometry, and re-assess the MZR down to the lowest abundances known for star-forming galaxies; (3) investigate trends with specific SFR locally and compare with those at high-redshift; (4) examine the various hypotheses possibly underlying the MZR, including outflow in low-mass galaxies, inflow of pristine gas, and chemical downsizing. Ultimately, our proposed observations will enable a more reliable assessment of fundamental scaling relations among stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR, and help constrain mass assembly over cosmic epochs.
    Spitzer Proposal. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We use high-resolution K-band VLT/HAWK-I imaging over 0.25 square degrees to study the structural evolution of massive early-type galaxies since z~1. Mass-selected samples, complete down to log(M/M_sun)~10.7 such that `typical' L* galaxies are included at all redshifts, are drawn from pre-existing photometric redshift surveys. We then separated the samples into different redshift slices and classify them as late- or early-type galaxies on the basis of their specific star-formation rate. Axis-ratio measurements for the ~400 early-type galaxies in the redshift range 0.6<z<1.8 are accurate to 0.1 or better. The projected axis-ratio distributions are then compared with lower redshift samples. We find strong evidence for evolution of the population properties: early-type galaxies at z>1 are, on average, flatter than at z<1 and the median projected axis ratio at a fixed mass decreases with redshift. However, we also find that at all epochs z<~2 the very most massive early-type galaxies (log(M/M_sun)>11.3) are the roundest, with a pronounced lack among them of galaxies that are flat in projection. Merging is a plausible mechanism that can explain both results: at all epochs merging is required for early-type galaxies to grow beyond log(M/M_sun)~11.3, and all early types over time gradually and partially loose their disk-like characteristics.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 762(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the first public data release of the CALIFA survey. It consists of science-grade optical datacubes for the first 100 of eventually 600 nearby (0.005<z<0.03) galaxies, obtained with the integral-field spectrograph PMAS/PPak mounted on the 3.5m telescope at the Calar Alto observatory. The galaxies in DR1 already cover a wide range of properties in color-magnitude space, morphological type, stellar mass, and gas ionization conditions. This offers the potential to tackle a variety of open questions in galaxy evolution using spatially resolved spectroscopy. Two different spectral setups are available for each galaxy, (i) a low-resolution V500 setup covering the nominal wavelength range 3745-7500A with a spectral resolution of 6.0A (FWHM), and (ii) a medium-resolution V1200 setup covering the nominal wavelength range 3650-4840A with a spectral resolution of 2.3A (FWHM). We present the characteristics and data structure of the CALIFA datasets that should be taken into account for scientific exploitation of the data, in particular the effects of vignetting, bad pixels and spatially correlated noise. The data quality test for all 100 galaxies showed that we reach a median limiting continuum sensitivity of 1.0x10^-18erg/s/cm^2/A/arcsec^2 at 5635A and 2.2x10^-18erg/s/cm^2/A/arcsec^2 at 4500A for the V500 and V1200 setup respectively, which corresponds to limiting r and g band surface brightnesses of 23.6mag/arcsec^2 and 23.4mag/arcsec^2, or an unresolved emission-line flux detection limit of roughly 1x10^-17erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2 and 0.6x10^-17erg/s/cm^2/arcsec^2, respectively. The median spatial resolution is 3.7", and the absolute spectrophotometric calibration is better than 15% (1sigma). We also describe the available interfaces and tools that allow easy access to this first public CALIFA data.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) is the deepest, confusion-limited survey of the Virgo Cluster at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. The entire survey at full depth covers $\sim$55 sq. deg. in 5 bands (100-500 \micron), encompassing the areas around the central dominant elliptical galaxies (M87, M86 & M49) and extends as far as the NW cloud, the W cloud and the Southern extension. The survey extends beyond this region with lower sensitivity so that the total area covered is 84 sq. deg. In this paper we describe the data, the data acquisition techniques and present the detection rates of the optically selected Virgo Cluster Catalogue (VCC). We detect 254 (34%) of 750 VCC galaxies found within the survey boundary in at least one band and 171 galaxies are detected in all five bands. For the remainder of the galaxies we have measured strict upper limits for their FIR emission. The population of detected galaxies contains early- as well as late-types although the latter dominate the detection statistics. We have modelled 168 galaxies, showing no evidence of a strong synchrotron component in their FIR spectra, using a single-temperature modified blackbody spectrum with a fixed emissivity index ($\beta = 2$). A study of the $\chi^2$ distribution indicates that this model is not appropriate in all cases, and this is supported by the FIR colours which indicate a spread in $\beta$=1--2. Statistical comparison of the dust mass and temperature distributions from 140 galaxies with $\chi^2_{dof=3} < 7.8$ (95% confidence level) shows that late-types have typically colder, more massive dust reservoirs; the early-type dust masses have a mean of ${\rm log}( / M_{\sun}) = 6.3 \pm 0.3 $, while for late-types ${\rm log}( / M_{\sun}) =7.1 \pm 0.1$... (abridged)
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2012; 428(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
311.03 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2008–2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2006–2013
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Dark Cosmology Centre (DARK)
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
  • 2009–2011
    • Dark Cosmology Centre
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 2005–2008
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
  • 2005–2006
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 2004
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2003
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States