E.K. Karuppiah

University of Science Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

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Publications (6)0 Total impact

  • T. Narayanan, E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdullah
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    ABSTRACT: Routing is a fundamental mechanism in any IP communication network, which takes place at the network layer. Anycasting is a new mechanism introduced recently for IP packet delivery from a sending node to any one of a group of receiving nodes with the same IP addresses. Any one and only one node from the group will reply to the sender. The birth of IPv6 has enabled service locating using anycasting method, which was not possible in IPv4. Generally packets are routed by static or dynamic routing method. Packets can be routed by using single path routing (SPR), multiple path routing (MPR) or integrated routing (SPR&MPR) techniques. In this paper we have implemented and analyzed single path routing tree algorithms with two routing strategies: static and semi-dynamic. Bellman ford algorithm was used to develop our new semi-dynamic anycast routing mechanisms. Routing tree formation (RTF) protocol that we implemented includes anycast group based shortest path first (AGBSPF) algorithm, load-balanced AGBSPF algorithm, load propagation algorithm for server load announcement and core-based tree (CBT). Besides we have also implemented packet forwarding (PF) algorithms to perform well with the RTF where it helps to forward the packets based on the costs and server load. Semi-dynamic method has proved to be better then the static where it provides alternative path for packets transmission in the case of link or node down.
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003
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    E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdullah
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    ABSTRACT: The rapid growth of the Internet has resulted in the invention of the new Internet protocol version 6 (IPv6) to support the addressing needs, ignites new services and meet the demands of new requirements to interconnect all network equipments. Anycasting is one of the new service technologies produced by this invention and requires a new addressing scheme, routing protocols, group management protocol and application support. Address look-up, a novel IP packet forwarding problem needs to be tackled for easy and effective anycast service deployment. Various methods have been proposed for IPv6 global unicast address lookup for high-speed networks, but not for anycast address. This paper discusses the analysis, design and implementation of anycast address look-up mechanism in network processor (NP) for gigabit networks which is an integral part of our SLINA (service locating using initial network layer anycast) architecture for global IPv6 anycast service locating. Our simple and effective solution can be easily adopted and integrated for today's network equipment which supports global unicast addresses. We also discuss the methods for integrated global unicast and anycast address lookup.
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003
  • Chan Pui Shan, E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdullah
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    ABSTRACT: The Internet protocol anycasting allows communication from a specific node to any one of the nodes in a group of nodes, which share the same IP address. The two main protocols involve in the packet transmission are the routing tree formation protocol (RTFP) and the packet forwarding protocol (PFP). Besides that, several types of routing techniques such as single path routing (SPR) and multi-path routing (MPR) are being used by current communication services. In this paper we have analyzed static and dynamic routing mechanism for anycast packets in SPR and MPR. New RTFP have been designed and proposed for this new anycast mechanism based on our research. The tree of each network topology can be determined and formed by different routing tree formation protocol like AGBSPF algorithm (SPF), load-balanced AGBSPF algorithm, load propagation algorithm for server over-load announcement and core-based tree (CBT). We have implemented the dynamic routing algorithms, which are suitable for IP anycast packet forwarding. The objective of the dynamic routing algorithm is to minimize the computational complexity to update the tree and maintain the routing stability by making minimal changes to the current routing tree of the network. After the tree formations, the packet forwarding protocol will decide the transmission of the packets based on the cost factor. The major outcome of this paper is new dynamic RTFP and PFP.
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003
  • V. Ponnusamy, E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdullah
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    ABSTRACT: A group of hosts which belong to a particular IP address and inter-networked need to be coordinated, organized and managed for their network activities. Multicast and anycast are the popular group services used for group network activities. This group of hosts in one or more networks requires a management service that allows new members to join or leave as they wish. This information is then used by end host to acquire group services. In IPA and IPv6 multicast, Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) and Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) are being used for group membership management. However the new communication paradigm anycast, is lack of such mechanism for its Group Membership Management (GMM). This paper proposes a new protocol known as Anycast Group Membership Management Protocol (AGMP) to support global anycast GMM. Existing multicast GMM has been explored and distinguished with our proposed AGW. AGW solution is not expensive in terms of memory and computation. It is scalable to support large numbers of groups and members per group. Design and simulated implementation results of the group membership behavior is presented in this paper.
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003
  • B.A. Al-Khaffaf, E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdulah
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    ABSTRACT: Due to the rapid growth of the Internet and increasing address needs, IPv4 addresses are fast depleting. A new Internet addressing protocol, IPv6 with wide range of addresses has been proposed to replace the existing IPv4. Hence, the backbone routers need to maintain larger IPv6-based lookup tables with relevant forwarding information to the next hops. Since the destination address fields of the IPv6 packet is 128 bits each, this means that the lookup table need to maintain up to 2128 entries. Normal linear lookup method is not suitable, in terms of time and memory consumption, for the lookup operation. In this paper we proposed an efficient partition based scheme compared to existing method of Chang and Lim with software implementation [R.C. Chang et al., 2001].
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003
  • R. Balapumi, E.K. Karuppiah, R. Abdullah
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    ABSTRACT: As the Internet traffic increases, the size of route lookup tables in routers grew rapidly since the router has to route millions of IP packets per second. The current packet forwarding algorithms are designed specifically to route IPv4 packets. The lack of IPv4 addresses to support the vast growing Internet users and the increase in routing table size, have contributed to the birth of IPv6. IP version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of the Internet protocol designed as the successor to IP version 4 (IPv4). Various algorithms for high-performance IP address lookup have been proposed. In this paper, we propose possible designs for IPv6 anycast address lookup using trier tables and compare these designs in terms of lookup speed and storage requirements.
    Communications, 2003. APCC 2003. The 9th Asia-Pacific Conference on; 10/2003

Publication Stats

3 Citations

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Institutions

  • 2003
    • University of Science Malaysia
      • School of Computer Science
      Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
    • University Malaysia of Computer Science and Engineering
      Penang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia