David Martínez-Delgado

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (128)385.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40-cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extended between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (stream_SE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (stream_NW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc and display a clear (g-r) colour gradient. The orientation of stream_SE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e=0.6) around NGC 4631 over $\sim$ 3.5 Gyr, with a dynamical mass ratio (m1:m2) of ~40. Both modelling and inferences from the morphology of the streams indicate these are not associated with the complex HI tidal features observed between both spirals, which likely originate from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. The detailed structure of stream_NW suggests it may contain the progenitor of the stream, in agreement with the N-body model. In addition, stream_NW is roughly aligned with two very faint dwarf spheroidal candidates. The system of dwarf galaxies and the tidal stream around NGC 4631 can provide an additional interesting case for exploring the anisotropy distribution of satellite galaxies recently reported in Local Group spiral galaxies by means of future follow-up observations.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: In the hierarchical formation scenario in which the outer halo of the Milky Way is the result of the continuous accretion of low-mass galaxies, a fraction of the Galactic globular cluster system might have originated in and been accreted with already extinct dwarf galaxies. In this context, we expect that the remnants of these progenitor galaxies might be still populating the surroundings of those accreted globulars. In this work, we present wide-field photometry of a sample of 23 globular clusters in the Galactocentric distance range 10 < Rg < 40kpc, which we use to search for remnants of their hypothetical progenitor systems. Our deep photometry reveals the presence of underlying stellar populations along the line-of-sight of about half of the globulars included in our sample. Among the detections lying in the footprint of the Sagittarius tidal stream, which we identify via the comparison with its orbit derived from numerical simulations, only Whiting1 and NGC7492 seem to be inmersed in that remnant at a compatible heliocentric distance. We also confirm the existence of a subjacent Main-Sequence feature in the surroundings of NGC1851. A tentative detection of the vast Hercules-Aquila cloud is unveiled in the background of NGC7006.
    09/2014; 445(3).
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    ABSTRACT: We study the dynamics of faint stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, NGC 4651, which hosts a dramatic system of streams and shells formed through the tidal disruption of a nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy. We elucidate the basic characteristics of the system (colours, luminosities, stellar masses) using multi-band Subaru/Suprime-Cam images. The implied stellar mass-ratio of the ongoing merger event is about 1:50. We identify candidate kinematic tracers (globular clusters, planetary nebulae, H ii regions), and follow up a subset with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to obtain velocities. We find that 15 of the tracers are likely associated with halo substructures, including the probable stream progenitor nucleus. These objects delineate a kinematically cold feature in position-velocity phase space. We model the stream using single test-particle orbits, plus a rescaled pre-existing N-body simulation. We infer a very eccentric orbit with a period of roughly 0.35 Gyr and turning points at approximately 2-4 and 40 kpc, implying a recent passage of the satellite through the disc, which may have provoked the visible disturbances in the host galaxy. This work confirms that the kinematics of low surface brightness substructures can be recovered and modeled using discrete tracers - a breakthrough that opens up a fresh avenue for unraveling the detailed physics of minor merging.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2014; 442(4):3544-3564. · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a panoptic view of the stellar structure in the Galactic disk's outer reaches commonly known as the Monoceros Ring, based on data from Pan-STARRS1. These observations clearly show the large extent of the stellar overdensities on both sides of the Galactic disk, extending between b = -25 and b = +35 degrees and covering over 130 degrees in Galactic longitude. The structure exhibits a complex morphology with both stream-like features and a sharp edge to the structure in both the north and the south. We compare this map to mock observations of two published simulations aimed at explaining such structures in the outer stellar disk, one postulating an origin as a tidal stream and the other demonstrating a scenario where the disk is strongly distorted by the accretion of a satellite. These morphological comparisons of simulations can link formation scenarios to observed structures, such as demonstrating that the distorted-disk model can produce thin density features resembling tidal streams. Although neither model produces perfect agreement with the observations--the tidal stream predicts material at larger distances which is not detected while in the distorted disk model the midplane is warped to an excessive degree--future tuning of the models to accommodate these latest data may yield better agreement.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2014; 791(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The chemo-dynamics of galaxy halos beyond the Local Group may now be mapped out through the use of globular clusters and planetary nebulae as bright tracer objects, along with deep multi-slit spectroscopy of the integrated stellar light. We present results from surveying nearby early-type galaxies, including evidence for kinematically distinct halos that may reflect two-phase galaxy assembly. We also demonstrate the utility of the tracer approach in measuring the kinematics of stellar substructures around the Umbrella Galaxy, which allow us to reconstruct the progenitor properties and stream orbit.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS's five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PN candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC 205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8 < R < 20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk"—a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21 ± 0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~1010 M ☉, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now. With the new PN data at hand we see the obvious kinematic connection between the continuation of the Giant Stream and the Northern Spur. We suggest that 20%-30% of the stars in the Northern Spur area may belong to the Giant Stream. In our data we also see a possible kinematic connection between the Giant Stream and PNe in Andromeda NE, suggesting that Andromeda NE could be the core or remnant of the Giant Stream. Using PN data we estimate the total mass of the Giant Stream progenitor to be ≈109 M ☉. About 90% of its stars appear to have been lost during the interaction with M31. Based in part on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(1):16-. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have identified a low surface brightness stellar stream from visual inspection of SDSS imaging for the edge-on, spiral galaxy NGC5387. A blue overdensity was also identified in SDSS coincident with the stream intersection with the NGC5387 disk. The overdensity was also detected in the GALEX Deep Imaging Survey and found to contribute 38% of the total FUV integrated flux from NGC5387, which suggests that the region is actively forming stars. Deeper imaging was acquired with the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope (VATT) in the B, V, and R filters that confirmed the presence of both the stellar stream and the blue overdensity. Analysis of the VATT photometry indicates the stellar stream is red in color, B-V = 0.7, and has a stellar mass of 6x10^8 M$_{\odot}$, which implies a merger ratio of 1:50. Assessment of the stream morphology suggests that the merger event has a circular radius, R~16 kpc, the stream formed in ~400 Myr, and the progenitor had a total mass of ~2x10 M$_{\odot}$. Spectroscopy from LBT+MODS1 was used to determine that the blue overdensity is at the same redshift as NGC5387, consists of young stellar populations (~10 Myr), is metal-poor (12 + log(O/H) = 8.03), and forming stars at an enhanced rate (~1-3 M$_{\odot}$/year) given its total stellar mass (2x10^7 M$_{\odot}$). Several interpretations are posited to explain these observational data, of which the most likely are (i) that the blue overdensity is a region of enhanced star formation in the outer disk of NGC5387 induced by the minor accretion event, and (ii) that the blue overdensity is the progenitor of the stellar stream undergoing a period of enhanced star formation as a result of its interaction with NGC5387. Confirmation and theoretical exploration of these scenarios are presented in a companion paper.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2013; 790(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have developed a method to identify planetary nebula (PN) candidates in imaging data of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). This method exploits the SDSS' five-band sampling of emission lines in PN spectra, which results in a color signature distinct from that of other sources. Selection criteria based on this signature can be applied to nearby galaxies in which PNe appear as point sources. We applied these criteria to the whole area of M31 as scanned by the SDSS, selecting 167 PN candidates that are located in the outer regions of M31. The spectra of 80 selected candidates were then observed with the 2.2m telescope at Calar Alto Observatory. These observations and cross-checks with literature data show that our method has a selection rate efficiency of about 90%, but the efficiency is different for the different groups of PNe candidates. In the outer regions of M31, PNe trace different well-known morphological features like the Northern Spur, the NGC205 Loop, the G1 Clump, etc. In general, the distribution of PNe in the outer region 8<R<20 kpc along the minor axis shows the "extended disk" - a rotationally supported low surface brightness structure with an exponential scale length of 3.21+/-0.14 kpc and a total mass of ~10^10 M_{\sun}, which is equivalent to the mass of M33. We report the discovery of three PN candidates with projected locations in the center of Andromeda NE, a very low surface brightness giant stellar structure in the outer halo of M31. Two of the PNe were spectroscopically confirmed as genuine PNe. These two PNe are located at projected distances along the major axis of ~48 Kpc and ~41 Kpc from the center of M31 and are the most distant PNe in M31 found up to now.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the result of a spectroscopic survey performed in the outskirts of the globular cluster NGC1851 with Visible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS)/Very Large Telescope (VLT) with the medium-resolution grism coupled with the GG475 filter. The spectral coverage is from 5000 to 8000Å with a resolution R~580. Target stars have been selected from the photometry of Carballo-Bello et al. (2012MNRAS.419...14C), sampling a wide range in magnitude and colour (16<B<22, 0.6<B-R<2.1). We report the radial velocities of 107 stars in a region between 12 and 33 arcmin around the cluster centre. Observations have been performed during three nights in 2008 October at the Very Large Telescope's (VLT) Unit Telescope 3 (Melipal) at the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Cerro Paranal, Chile, equipped with the VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph (VIMOS). Velocities have been obtained by cross-correlating the spectra of the individual exposures with a GIRAFFE solar spectrum smoothed to the resolution of our targets using the region of the H-alpha line. Typical errors are of about 15km/s. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: The idea of "chemically fingerprinting" stars to their birth systems has been discussed over the last decade. Here we present an investigation of the chemical abundance patterns of halo substructures using high-resolution spectra. In particular, we study the abundances of the α-like element titanium (Ti) and the s-process elements yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) for M giant candidates of the Galactic Anticenter Stellar Structure (GASS, also known as the Monoceros Ring) and the Triangulum-Andromeda (TriAnd) Star Cloud. We apply "chemical fingerprinting" to the GASS/Monoceros Ring and TriAnd Star Cloud, to explore the origins of the two systems and the hypothesized connections between them. GASS has been debated either to originate from a part (e.g., warp) of the Galactic disk or tidal debris of a disrupted Milky Way (MW) satellite galaxy. Our exploration shows that GASS is indeed made of stars from a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy, although we still can not rule out the possibility that GASS was dynamically created out of a previously formed outer MW disk. And whereas the TriAnd Star Cloud has been assumed to come from the tidal disruption of the same accreted MW satellite as the GASS/Monoceros Ring, our comparison of the abundance patterns in GASS and TriAnd M giants suggests that the TriAnd Star Cloud is likely an independent halo substructure unrelated to GASS/Monoceros Ring. Furthermore, our findings also suggest that the MW may have accreted other satellites in addition to the on-going, well-known Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a spectroscopic survey performed in the outskirts of the globular cluster NGC1851 with VIMOS@VLT. The radial velocities of 107 stars in a region between 12' and 33' around the cluster have been derived. We clearly identify the cluster stellar population over the entire field of view, indicating the presence of a significant fraction of stars outside the tidal radius predicted by King models. We also find tentative evidence of a cold (sigma_v< 20 km/s) peak in the distribution of velocities at v_r~180 km/s constituted mainly by Main Sequence stars whose location in the color-magnitude diagram is compatible with a stream at a similar distance of this cluster. If confirmed, this evidence would strongly support the extra-Galactic origin of this feature.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 07/2012; 426(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present surface photometry of a giant, low surface brightness stellar arc in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy M63 (NGC 5055) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. Using the stream's "great-circle" morphology and its photometric properties, we estimate that the stream originates from the accretion of a 10^8 M_sun satellite in the last few Gyr. The B-R color of the stream's stars is consistent with Local Group dwarfs and is also similar to the outer regions of M63's disk and stellar halo within our measurement uncertainties. Additionally, we identify several other low surface brightness features that may be related to the galaxy's complex spiral structure or may be tidal debris associated with the disruption of the galaxy's outer stellar disk as a result of the accretion event. Using our deep, panoramic optical view of M63 with additional existing multiwavelength data, we describe the possible effects of such an accretion event in the larger picture of the parent galaxy.
    07/2012;
  • J. A. Carballo-Bello, D. Martínez-Delgado
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    ABSTRACT: The picture of building the Milky Way halo from merging protogalactic fragments is considered the local manifestation of the hierarchical galaxy formation process. In this scenario, some observational evidences have suggested that the outer young Galactic halo globular cluster population might be associated (or even the nuclei) to tidal disrupted dwarf spheroidals, now extinct galaxies. If this hypothesis is true, these systems might be surrounded by a distinct and still detectable stellar population. We have carried out a systematic observation of Galactic globulars covering the galactocentric distance range 10 < RGC< 40 kpc in both hemispheres. We have used wide field instruments both in La Palma and in La Silla observatories to obtain deep photometry of wide areas around these globulars to unveil the possible remnants of their progenitor dwarf galaxies.
    02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the Black Bird 0.5-meter telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8-meter Subaru telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The ratio between luminosity or stellar-mass between the two galaxies is ~1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass-ratio, when including dark matter, may be ~1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a "stealth" merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 12/2011; 748(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new deep observations of "shell" structures in the halo of the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 7600, alongside a movie of galaxy formation in a cold dark matter (CDM) universe. The movie, based on an ab initio cosmological simulation, shows how continuous accretion of clumps of dark matter and stars creates a swath of diffuse circumgalactic structures. The disruption of a massive clump on a near-radial orbit creates a complex system of transient concentric shells which bare a striking resemblance to those of NGC 7600. With the aid of the simulation we interpret NGC 7600 in the context of the CDM model.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2011; 743(1):L21. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep surface photometry of a very faint, giant arc-loop feature in the halo of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055 (M63) that is consistent with being a part of a stellar stream resulting from the disruption of a dwarf satellite galaxy. This faint feature was first detected in early photographic studies by van der Kruit; more recently, in the study of Martínez-Delgado and as presented in this work, from the loop has been realized to be the result of a recent minor merger through evidence obtained by wide-field, deep images taken with a telescope of only 0.16 m aperture. The stellar stream is clearly confirmed in additional deep images taken with the 0.5 m telescope of the BlackBird Remote Observatory and the 0.8 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory. This low surface brightness (μ R 26 mag arcsec–2) arc-like structure around the disk of the galaxy extends 140 (~29 kpc projected) from its center, with a projected width of 16 (~3.3 kpc). The stream's morphology is consistent with that of the visible part of a giant, "great-circle" type stellar stream originating from the recent accretion of a ~108 M ☉ dwarf satellite in the last few Gyr. The progenitor satellite's current position and final fate are not conclusive from our data. The color of the stream's stars is consistent with dwarfs in the Local Group and is similar to the outer faint regions of M63's disk and stellar halo. From our photometric study, we detect other low surface brightness "plumes;" some of these may be extended spiral features related to the galaxy's complex spiral structure, and others may be tidal debris associated with the disruption of the galaxy's outer stellar disk as a result of the accretion event. We are able to differentiate between features related to the tidal stream and faint, blue extended features in the outskirts of the galaxy's disk previously detected by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer satellite. With its highly warped H I gaseous disk (~20°), M63 represents one of the several examples of an isolated spiral galaxy with a warped disk showing recently discovered strong evidence of an ongoing minor merger.
    The Astronomical Journal 10/2011; 142(5):166. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using deep photometric data from WFC@INT and WFI@ESO2.2m we measure the outer number density profiles of 19 stellar clusters located in the inner region of the Milky Way halo (within a Galactocentric distance range of 10-30 kpc) in order to assess the impact of internal and external dynamical processes on the spatial distribution of stars. Adopting power-law fitting templates, with index $-\gamma$ in the outer region, we find that the clusters in our sample can be divided in two groups: a group of massive clusters ($ \ge 10^5 $ M_sun) that has relatively flat profiles with $2.5 < \gamma < 4$ and a group of low-mass clusters ($ \le 10^5 $ M_sun), with steep profiles ($\gamma > 4$) and clear signatures of interaction with the Galactic tidal field. We refer to these two groups as 'tidally unaffected' and 'tidally affected', respectively. Our results also show a clear trend between the slope of the outer parts and the half-mass density of these systems, which suggests that the outer density profiles may retain key information on the dominant processes driving the dynamical evolution of Globular Clusters.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2011; 419. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have obtained ultra-deep visible light and Spitzer/IRAC images of the stellar stream around the nearby edge-on disk galaxy NGC 5907. We report on the color index distribution of the resolved emission from the stream, and our search for point sources and recent star formation associated with the stream. We speculate on the nature of the disrupted satellite galaxy, based on our observations. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech.
    American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts #218; 05/2011
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    R. Jay Gabany, David Martinez-Delgado
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    ABSTRACT: An ongoing collaboration between the authors and an international team of professional astronomers has demonstrated the scientific potential of using modest aperture, commercially produced, semi-robotic telescopes situated under steady dark skies and affordable off-the-shelf astronomical cameras to reveal extremely dim, diffuse structures on the outskirts of distant galaxies that sheds light on galactic evolution. In this paper, we share our techniques, experiences and highlights of our investigations thus far.
    Society for Astronomical Sciences Annual Symposium. 05/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of deep imaging obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope with MegaCam in the anticenter direction at two different heights above the Galactic disk. We detect the presence of the Monoceros ring in both fields as a conspicuous and narrow main-sequence feature which dominates star counts over a large portion of the color-magnitude diagram down to g' ~ 24. The comparison of the morphology and density of this feature with a large variety of Galactic models excludes the possibility that it can be due to a flare of the Galactic disk, supporting an extra-Galactic origin for this ring-like structure.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2011; 730(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
385.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
    • Universität Heidelberg
      • Centre for Astronomy (ZAH)
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2003–2013
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • European University of Madrid
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2011
    • The Astronomical Observatory of Brera
      Merate, Lombardy, Italy
  • 2000–2010
    • Universidad de La Laguna
      • Department of Astrophysics
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
  • 2009
    • University of Washington Seattle
      • Department of Astronomy
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1994–2009
    • Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias
      San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Canary Islands, Spain
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2008
    • Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab)
      Batavia, Illinois, United States
  • 2007
    • University of Chicago
      • Enrico Fermi Institute
      Chicago, Illinois, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Oxford
      • Department of Physics
      Oxford, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      Pasadena, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States