[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-4 is a key cytokine in humoral and adaptive immunity. This study aimed to evaluate the association of IL-4 genetic variants (-590C>T and VNTR in intron 3) with the risk and prognosis of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC).
A total of 1215 subjects, which included 623 healthy controls and 592 OPSCC cases (463 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 129 pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (PSCC) cases), were recruited. The genotypes were determined by TaqMan real-time assay and PCR-based assay.
The IL-4 genotypes at locus -590C>T and intron 3 VNTR were not correlated with increased risk of OSCC, PSCC, and OPSCC, with the exception of early-stage OPSCC (at -590C>T: T/T vs. C/C+C/T, adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.98; at intron 3 VNTR: RP1/RP1 vs. RP2/RP2+RP2/RP1, AOR=1.46, 95% CI: 1.05-2.04). Compared with other IL-4 diplotypes, the T,RP1/T,RP1 diplotype was associated with an increased risk of OPSCC (AOR=1.37, 95% CI: 1.03-1.81), particularly early-stage OSCC (AOR=1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.00), PSCC (AOR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.06-5.19), and OPSCC (AOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.10-2.11). Interactions between the IL-4 diplotype and the alcohol drinking status were found to contribute to the risk of early-stage OPSCC (p=0.024). In addition, the T,RP1/T,RP1 diplotype was correlated with better disease-specific survival (T,RP1/T,RP1 vs. other diplotypes, adjusted hazard ratio=0.70, 95% CI: 0.50-0.97).
The T, RP1/T, RP1 diplotype of IL-4 was associated with an increased risk but favourable prognosis of OPSCC.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer pain control is unsatisfactory in Taiwan. Insufficient knowledge about cancer pain on the part of physicians is an important factor responsible for ineffective cancer pain relief. Therefore, this study was to explore the knowledge deficits of physicians on the specific aspects of pharmacological management of cancer pain (PMCP) and their influences on the prescriptions to simulated patients in a southern medical center in Taiwan.
A set of self-designed questions was delivered to 234 licensed physicians with the responsibility to care for cancer patients and 111 (47.4%) questionnaires were completed and returned anonymously.
Most of the physicians showed inadequate knowledge of the pharmacological management of cancer pain (3.34 +/- 0.49; range 1-5), which included the principle subscale (3.38 +/- 0.67) and the practice subscale (3.32 +/- 0.46). Crucial knowledge deficits of principle were identified in the preferential analgesic route and schedule. The severe practice knowledge deficits were on the meperidine, transdermal fentanyl, equianalgesic dose-conversion as well as analgesics for different pain types. Furthermore, physicians' knowledge deficits in the practice subscale, but not the principle subscale, correlated with their correct prescription of opioids to the simulated hepatoma cases. The correlates of physicians' PMCP knowledge deficits were: clinical specialty of medicine or surgery, less than 5 years or more than 10 years from medical school graduation, with limited volume of cancer pain patients being cared, and with personal unusual pain.
The PMCP knowledge deficits were prevalent in physicians and thus influenced their prescription of opioids for the simulated cases. An active continuing education program on both the international guidelines and the essential practice skills should be implemented and intensified specifically upon subgroup physicians, to correct their misconceptions and consolidate their PMCP knowledge.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alternative strategies to optimize preexisting cardioplegia during myocardial preservation are currently under extensive investigation. Adenosine, an endogenous purine nucleoside, has been approved for its cardioprotective potential against ischemic-reperfusion injury. Yet, little information is available with respect to the use of adenosine for cardioplegic induction in humans. The purpose of the present study was, therefore, to assess the clinical relevance of intra-aortic administration of adenosine following aortic cross-clamping with respect to the exertion of additional protection in routine coronary artery bypass surgery.
Thirty patients to receive elective coronary artery bypass grafting under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were prospectively randomized into two study groups. Immediate after aortic cross-clamping and just before the application of modified St. Thomas cardioplegic (20 mL/kg), adenosine solution (250 microg/kg) was injected into the aortic root in the study group (n = 15), while the same amount of normal saline injection was administered in the control group (n = 15). Anesthesia was carried out in all patients in a similar fashion, and all the surgeries were performed by the same team. Homodynamic change, cardiac enzyme assay, and post-bypass inotropic supplementation were recorded throughout the study period to evaluate the extent of myocardial ischemic injury.
The mean time to asystole after aortic cross-clamping was significantly shorter for the adenosine group compared with the control group (8.1 +/- 5.9 vs. 79.0 +/- 35.3 sec, respectively; P< 0.01). To compare with the baseline value, the mean cardiac index immediately post CPB and 24 hours postoperatively was increased significantly for the adenosine group (from 2.1 +/- 0.6 to 2.6 +/- 0.6 and 3.2 +/- 0.6 L/min/m2, respectively; P < 0.05), as contrasted with the control group (from 2.3 +/- 0.5 to 2.0 +/- 0.4 and 2.5 +/- 0.4 L/min/m2). Further, the requirement for inotropic support after CPB and postoperative troponin I release were significantly less in the adenosine group. There appeared no adverse effects associated with adenosine administration.
Immediate administration of 250 microg/kg adenosine via the aortic root following aortic cross-clamping could optimize the myocardial protective effect of conventional cardioplegia, quicken cardiac standstill, and offer better postoperative myocardial performance after CPB.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A hospital-based quasi-experimental (pretest and post-test) study was conducted in Kaohsiung Veteran General Hospital, Taiwan. This study was to evaluate a continuing education program (CEP) on nurses' practices of cancer pain assessment and their acceptance of patients' pain reports with respect to four types of misconceptions. A questionnaire was sent to on-duty nurses or head nurses with patient care responsibilities before the implementation of CEP (n=645) and six months after the program (n=630). The response rates were 92.6% and 91.3% for pretest and post-test surveys, respectively. The CEP was implemented in 8 weeks with four-repeated sessions of 4-hour lectures. A one-day workshop focused on cancer pain assessment and treatment was held 3 months after the four-repeated sessions. Several educational strategies and teaching materials were used in the CEP. The results showed that CEP made statistically significant yet moderate improvement in nurses' practices of pain assessment using pain rating scales (pretest 3.29+/-0.76 vs. post-test 3.48+/-0.75, P<0.001) and acceptance of patient's pain reports without misconceptions on addiction (3.12+/-0.80 vs. 3.39+/-0.90, P<0.001), phantom pain (3.91+/-0.96 vs. 4.07+/-0.92, P=0.005), and placebo testing (3.63+/-0.72 vs. 3.81+/-0.73, P<0.001), except on patient gender-age-related doubts (3.60+/-0.72 vs. 3.67+/-0.77, P=0.109). In order to achieve further improvement, additional follow-up CEP combined with a hospital-wide institutionalization of pain assessment should be promoted and implemented in the future.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 02/2004; 27(1):61-71. DOI:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2003.05.006 · 2.80 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insufficient education and limited clinical practice on the part of physicians may contribute to the undertreatment of cancer pain in Taiwan. To address these concerns, a survey among physicians and fifth-year medical students relevant to cancer pain management (CPM) was carried out in a medical school and its principal teaching hospital.
A questionnaire on CPM was sent to 97 physicians and 78 fifth-year medical students (equivalent to the third-year medical students in the United States). The same questionnaire was delivered again to these 78 fifth-year medical students after they had completed a modified curriculum of anesthesiology with a 4-hour course on introduction to clinical pharmacology of CPM.
The physicians knowledgeable on pain (physicians of anesthesiology, hematology-oncology, or radiation oncology), physicians unfamiliar with pain (outside of anesthesiology, hematology-oncology, or radiation oncology), and the 5th-yr medical students took similar negative attitudes (24-92%, 33-89%, and 23-94%) toward the optimal use of analgesics for CPM. As compared, the mean score on knowledge of prescribing opioids of pain-knowledgeable physicians was 3.60, the highest of all as against 2.61 of other physicians and 2.54 of 5th-yr medical students. On attitudes toward prescribing opioids, both pain-knowledgeable physicians and other physicians scored a higher means, respectively of 3.52 and 2.91 as opposed to 2.68 of 5th-yr medical students, the lowest of all. However, seniority or length of clinical practice did not improve knowledge or affect attitudes toward CPM. In addition, this 4-hour course did enable the 5th-yr medical students to take a more positive attitude toward and become more knowledgeable on CPM than pain-knowledgeable physicians, as a comparison was made.
The effect of accumulation of clinical experience and seniority of clinical practice on CPM was limited among general physicians, except for clinical specialty on anesthesiology, hematology-oncology, or radiation oncology. In Taiwan, the knowledge of and positive attitude toward CPM could only be conveyed to physicians through undergraduate, post graduate or on-job education.