N. A. Grogin

University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States

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Publications (251)848.81 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present the public release of the stellar mass catalogs for the GOODS-S and UDS fields obtained using some of the deepest near-IR images available, achieved as part of the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) project. We combine the effort from ten different teams, who computed the stellar masses using the same photometry and the same redshifts. Each team adopted their preferred fitting code, assumptions, priors, and parameter grid. The combination of results using the same underlying stellar isochrones reduces the systematics associated with the fitting code and other choices. Thanks to the availability of different estimates, we can test the effect of some specific parameters and assumptions on the stellar mass estimate. The choice of the stellar isochrone library turns out to have the largest effect on the galaxy stellar mass estimates, resulting in the largest distributions around the median value (with a semi interquartile range larger than 0.1 dex). On the other hand, for most galaxies, the stellar mass estimates are relatively insensitive to the different parameterizations of the star formation history. The inclusion of nebular emission in the model spectra does not have a significant impact for the majority of galaxies (less than a factor of 2 for ~80% of the sample). Nevertheless, the stellar mass for the subsample of young galaxies (age < 100 Myr), especially in particular redshift ranges (e.g., 2.2 < z < 2.4, 3.2 < z < 3.6, and 5.5 < z < 6.5), can be seriously overestimated (by up to a factor of 10 for < 20 Myr sources) if nebular contribution is ignored.
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    ABSTRACT: The galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) at high-z provides key information on star-formation history and mass assembly in the young Universe. We aimed to use the unique combination of deep optical/NIR/MIR imaging provided by HST, Spitzer and the VLT in the CANDELS-UDS, GOODS-South, and HUDF fields to determine the GSMF over the redshift range 3.5<z<7.5. We utilised the HST WFC3/IR NIR imaging from CANDELS and HUDF09, reaching H~27-28.5 over a total area of 369 arcmin2, in combination with associated deep HST ACS optical data, deep Spitzer IRAC imaging from the SEDS programme, and deep Y and K-band VLT Hawk-I images from the HUGS programme, to select a galaxy sample with high-quality photometric redshifts. These have been calibrated with more than 150 spectroscopic redshifts in the range 3.5<z<7.5, resulting in an overall precision of sigma_z/(1+z)~0.037. We have determined the low-mass end of the high-z GSMF with unprecedented precision, reaching down to masses as low as M*~10^9 Msun at z=4 and ~6x10^9 Msun at z=7. We find that the GSMF at 3.5<z<7.5 depends only slightly on the recipes adopted to measure the stellar masses, namely the photo-z, the SFHs, the nebular contribution or the presence of AGN on the parent sample. The low-mass end of the GSMF is steeper than has been found at lower redshifts, but appears to be unchanged over the redshift range probed here. Our results are very different from previous GSMF estimates based on converting UV galaxy luminosity functions into mass functions via tight M/L relations. Integrating our evolving GSMF over mass, we find that the growth of stellar mass density is barely consistent with the time-integral of the SFR density over cosmic time at z>4. These results confirm the unique synergy of the CANDELS+HUDF, HUGS, and SEDS surveys for the discovery and study of moderate/low-mass galaxies at high redshifts.
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    ABSTRACT: We combine photometry from the UDS, and CANDELS UDS and CANDELS GOODS-S surveys to construct the galaxy stellar mass function probing both the low and high mass end accurately in the redshift range 0.3<z<3. The advantages of using a homogeneous concatenation of these datasets include meaningful measures of environment in the UDS, due to its large area (0.88 deg^2), and the high resolution deep imaging in CANDELS (H_160 > 26.0), affording us robust measures of structural parameters. We construct stellar mass functions for the entire sample as parameterised by the Schechter function, and find that there is a decline in the values of phi and of alpha with higher redshifts, and a nearly constant M* up to z~3. We divide the galaxy stellar mass function by colour, structure, and environment and explore the links between environmental over-density, morphology, and the quenching of star formation. We find that a double Schechter function describes galaxies with high Sersic index (n>2.5), similar to galaxies which are red or passive. The low-mass end of the n>2.5 stellar mass function is dominated by blue galaxies, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by red galaxies. This hints that possible links between morphological evolution and star formation quenching are only present in high-mass galaxies. This is turn suggests that there are strong mass dependent quenching mechanisms. In addition, we find that the number density of high mass systems is elevated in dense environments, suggesting that an environmental process is building up massive galaxies quicker in over densities than in lower densities.
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    ABSTRACT: We present photometric redshifts and associated probability distributions for all detected sources in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS). The work makes use of the most up-to-date data from the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and the Taiwan ECDFS Near-Infrared Survey (TENIS) in addition to other data. We also revisit multi-wavelength counterparts for published X-ray sources from the 4Ms-CDFS and 250ks-ECDFS surveys, finding reliable counterparts for 1207 out of 1259 sources (∼96%). Data used for photometric redshifts include intermediate-band photometry deblended using the TFIT method, which is used for the first time in this work. Photometric redshifts for X-ray source counterparts are based on a new library of AGN/galaxy hybrid templates appropriate for the faint X-ray population in the CDFS. Photometric redshift accuracy for normal galaxies is 0.010 and for X-ray sources is 0.014, and outlier fractions are 4% and 5.4% respectively. The results within the CANDELS coverage area are even better as demonstrated both by spectroscopic comparison and by galaxy-pair statistics. Intermediate-band photometry, even if shallow, is valuable when combined with deep broad-band photometry. For best accuracy, templates must include emission lines.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2014; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a robust measurement and analysis of the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function at z=4-8. We use deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging over the CANDELS/GOODS fields, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and the Year 1 Hubble Frontier Field deep parallel observations. These surveys provides an effective volume of 0.6-1.2 x 10^6 Mpc^3 over this epoch, allowing us to perform a robust search for bright (M_UV < -21) and faint (M_UV=-18) galaxies. We select galaxies using a well-tested photometric redshift technique with careful screening of contaminants, finding a sample of 7446 galaxies at 3.5<z<8.5, with >1000 galaxies at z~6-8. We measure the luminosity function using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to measure robust uncertainties. At the faint end our results agree with previous studies, yet we find a higher abundance of UV-bright galaxies at z>6, with M* ~ -21 at z>5, different than that inferred based on previous trends at lower redshift. At z=8, a single power-law provides an equally good fit to the UV luminosity function, while at z=6 and 7, an exponential cutoff at the bright-end is moderately preferred. We compare to semi-analytical models, and find that the lack of evolution in M* is consistent with models where the impact of dust attenuation on the bright-end of the luminosity function decreases at higher redshift. We measure the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density, correcting for dust attenuation, and find that it declines as (1+z)^(-4.3 +/- 0.5) at z>4, consistent with observations at z>9. Our observations are consistent with a reionization history that starts at z>10, completes at z>6, and reaches a midpoint (x_HII = 0.5) at 6.7<z<9.4. Finally, our observations predict that the abundance of bright z=9 galaxies is likely higher than previous constraints, though consistent with recent estimates of bright z~10 galaxies. [abridged]
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new, ultra-deep, near-infrared imaging survey executed with the Hawk-I imager at the ESO VLT, of which we make all the data public. This survey, named HUGS (Hawk-I UDS and GOODS Survey), provides deep, high-quality imaging in the K and Y bands over the CANDELS UDS and GOODS-South fields. We describe here the survey strategy, the data reduction process, and the data quality. HUGS delivers the deepest and highest quality K-band images ever collected over areas of cosmological interest, and ideally complements the CANDELS data set in terms of image quality and depth. The seeing is exceptional and homogeneous, confined to the range 0.38"-0.43". In the deepest region of the GOODS-S field, (which includes most of the HUDF) the K-band exposure time exceeds 80 hours of integration, yielding a 1-sigma magnitude limit of ~28.0 mag/sqarcsec. In the UDS field the survey matches the shallower depth of the CANDELS images reaching a 1-sigma limit per sq.arcsec of ~27.3mag in the K band and ~28.3mag in the Y-band, We show that the HUGS observations are well matched to the depth of the CANDELS WFC3/IR data, since the majority of even the faintest galaxies detected in the CANDELS H-band images are also detected in HUGS. We present the K-band galaxy number counts produced by combining the HUGS data from the two fields. We show that the slope of the number counts depends sensitively on the assumed distribution of galaxy sizes, with potential impact on the estimated extra-galactic background light (abridged).
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    ABSTRACT: We study the relationship between the structure and star-formation rate (SFR) of X-ray selected low and moderate luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the two Chandra Deep Fields, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near Infrared Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and deep far-infrared maps from the PEP+GOODS-Herschel survey. We derive detailed distributions of structural parameters and FIR luminosities from carefully constructed control samples of galaxies, which we then compare to those of the AGNs. At z~1, AGNs show slightly diskier light profiles than massive inactive (non-AGN) galaxies, as well as modestly higher levels of gross galaxy disturbance (as measured by visual signatures of interactions and clumpy structure). In contrast, at z~2, AGNs show similar levels of galaxy disturbance as inactive galaxies, but display a red central light enhancement, which may arise due to a more pronounced bulge in AGN hosts or due to extinguished nuclear light. We undertake a number of tests of these alternatives, but our results do not strongly favour one interpretation over the other. The mean SFR and its distribution among AGNs and inactive galaxies are similar at z>1.5. At z<1, however, clear and significant enhancements are seen in the SFRs of AGNs with bulge-dominated light profiles. These trends suggest an evolution in the relation between nuclear activity and host properties with redshift, towards a minor role for mergers and interactions at z>1.5.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a study investigating the sizes and morphologies of redshift 4<z<8 galaxies in the CANDELS GOODS-S, HUDF and HUDF parallel fields. Based on non-parametric measurements and incorporating a careful treatment of measurement biases, we quantify the typical size of galaxies at each redshift as the peak of the log-normal size distribution, rather than the arithmetic mean size. Parameterizing the evolution of galaxy half-light radius as r50\propto(1+z)^n, we find n=-0.34\pm0.29 at bright UV-luminosities (0.3L*(z=3)<L<L*) and n=-0.57\pm0.76 at faint luminosities (0.12L*<L<0.3L*). In a given luminosity range, these measurements are consistent with no evolution in typical galaxy size with redshift. Moreover, simulations based on artificially redshifting our z~4 galaxy sample also confirm that we cannot reject the null hypothesis of no size evolution. This result is caused by the systematic under-estimation of the largest galaxy sizes, such that the build-up in the tail of the log-normal size distribution seen at z~4-5 cannot be distinguished from a scenario where the large, low surface-brightness, galaxies at higher redshifts have their sizes systematically underestimated. To explore the evolution of galaxy morphology we first compare asymmetry measurements to those from a large sample of simulated single Sersic profiles, in order to robustly categorise galaxies as either `smooth' or `disturbed'. Comparing the disturbed fraction amongst bright (MUV<-20) galaxies at each redshift to that obtained by artificially redshifting our z~4 galaxy sample, we find no clear evidence for evolution in galaxy morphology over the redshift interval 4<z<8. Therefore, based on our results, a bright (MUV<-20) galaxy at z~6 is no more likely to be measured as `disturbed' than a comparable galaxy at z~4. (abr.)
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    ABSTRACT: The formation of bars in disk galaxies is a tracer of the dynamical maturity of the population. Previous studies have found that the incidence of bars in disks decreases from the local Universe to z ~ 1, and by z > 1 simulations predict that bar features in dynamically mature disks should be extremely rare. Here we report the discovery of strong barred structures in massive disk galaxies at z ~ 1.5 in deep rest-frame optical images from CANDELS. From within a sample of 876 disk galaxies identified by visual classification in Galaxy Zoo, we identify 123 barred galaxies. Selecting a sub-sample within the same region of the evolving galaxy luminosity function (brighter than L*), we find that the bar fraction across the redshift range 0.5< z < 2 (f_bar = 10.7 +6.3 -3.5% after correcting for incompleteness) does not significantly evolve. We discuss the implications of this discovery in the context of existing simulations and our current understanding of the way disk galaxies have evolved over the last 11 billion years.
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    ABSTRACT: We measure new estimates for the galaxy stellar mass function and star formation rates for samples of galaxies at $z \sim 4,~5,~6~\&~7$ using data in the CANDELS GOODS South field. The deep near-infrared observations allow us to construct the stellar mass function at $z \geq 6$ directly for the first time. We estimate stellar masses for our sample by fitting the observed spectral energy distributions with synthetic stellar populations, including nebular line and continuum emission. The observed UV luminosity functions for the samples are consistent with previous observations, however we find that the observed $M_{UV}$ - M$_{*}$ relation has a shallow slope more consistent with a constant mass to light ratio and a normalisation which evolves with redshift. Our stellar mass functions have steep low-mass slopes ($\alpha \approx -1.9$), steeper than previously observed at these redshifts and closer to that of the UV luminosity function. Integrating our new mass functions, we find the observed stellar mass density evolves from $\log_{10} \rho_{*} = 6.64^{+0.58}_{-0.89}$ at $z \sim 7$ to $7.36\pm0.06$ $\text{M}_{\odot} \text{Mpc}^{-3}$ at $z \sim 4$. Finally, combining the measured UV continuum slopes ($\beta$) with their rest-frame UV luminosities, we calculate dust corrected star-formation rates (SFR) for our sample. We find the specific star-formation rate for a fixed stellar mass increases with redshift whilst the global SFR density falls rapidly over this period. Our new SFR density estimates are higher than previously observed at this redshift.
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    ABSTRACT: We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3<z<2.4. We select galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that, despite being being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z~2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z~2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratios (in the mass-excitation method), but the spatially resolved line ratios indicate this is likely due to extended phenomena rather than nuclear AGNs. Meanwhile the X-ray data show that clumpy, smooth, and intermediate galaxies have nearly indistinguishable AGN fractions derived from both individual detections and stacked non-detections. The data demonstrate that AGN fueling modes at z~1.85 - whether violent disk instabilities or secular processes - are as efficient in smooth galaxies as they are in clumpy galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the rest-frame UV wavelength dependence of the Petrosian-like half-light radius (r 50), and the concentration parameter for a sample of 198 star-forming galaxies at 0.5 < z < 1.5. We find a ~5% decrease in r 50 from 1500 Å to 3000 Å, with half-light radii at 3000 Å ranging from 0.6 kpc to 6 kpc. We also find a decrease in concentration of ~0.07 (1.9 < C 3000 < 3.9). The lack of a strong relationship between r 50 and wavelength is consistent with a model in which clumpy star formation is distributed over length scales comparable to the galaxy's rest-frame optical light. While the wavelength dependence of r 50 is independent of size at all redshifts, concentration decreases more sharply in the far-UV (~1500 Å) for large galaxies at z ~ 1. This decrease in concentration is caused by a flattening of the inner ~20% of the light profile in disk-like galaxies, indicating that the central regions have different UV colors than the rest of the galaxy. We interpret this as a bulge component with older stellar populations and/or more dust. The size-dependent decrease in concentration is less dramatic at z ~ 2, suggesting that bulges are less dusty, younger, and/or less massive than the rest of the galaxy at higher redshifts.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 791(1):18. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We estimate the UV continuum slope, $\beta$, for 923 galaxies in the range $1 < z < 8$ in the Hubble Ultradeep Field (HUDF). These data include 460 galaxies at $1<z<2$ down to an absolute magnitude $M_{UV} = -14~(\sim 0.006~L^*_{z=1}; 0.02~L^*_{z=0}$), comparable to dwarf galaxies in the local universe. We combine deep HST/UVIS photometry in F225W, F275W, F336W wavebands (UVUDF) with recent data from HST/WFC3/IR (HUDF12). Galaxies in the range $1<z<2$ are significantly bluer than local dwarf galaxies. We find their mean (median) values $\left<\beta \right> = -1.382~(-1.830)\pm0.002$ (random) $\pm0.1$ (systematic). We find comparable scatter in $\beta$ (standard deviation = 0.43) to local dwarf galaxies and 30% larger scatter than $z>2$ galaxies. We study the trends of $\beta$ with redshift and absolute magnitude for binned sub-samples and find a modest color-magnitude relation, $d\beta/dM = -0.11 \pm 0.01$ and no evolution in $d\beta/dM$ with redshift. A modest increase in dust reddening with redshift and luminosity, $\Delta E(B-V) \sim 0.1$, and a comparable increase in the dispersion of dust reddening at $z<2$, appears likely to explain the observed trends. At $z>2$, we find trends that are consistent with previous works; combining our data with the literature in the range $1<z<8$, we find a color evolution with redshift, $d\beta/dz = -0.09\pm0.01$ for low luminosity (0.05 $L^*_{z=3}$), and $d\beta/dz = -0.06\pm0.01$ for medium luminosity (0.25 $L^*_{z=3}$) galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2014; 793(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first quenched galaxies (z>2) are both the most massive, and most compact, suggesting a physical connection between high stellar density and efficient, rapid cessation of star-formation. We present rest-frame UV spectra of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z~3 selected to be candidate progenitors of the quenched galaxies at z~2, compared to other LBGs of similar mass and star-formation rate (non-candidates). We find that candidate progenitors have faster outflow velocities and higher equivalent widths of interstellar absorption lines, implying larger velocity spread among absorbing clouds. Candidates deviate from the relationship between equivalent widths of Lyman-alpha and interstellar absorption lines in that their Lyman-alpha emission remains strong despite high interstellar absorption, possibly indicating that the neutral HI fraction is patchy, such that Lyman-alpha photons can escape. We detect stronger CIV P-Cygni features (emission and absorption) and HeII emission in candidates, indicative of larger populations of metal-rich Wolf-Rayet stars compared to non-candidates. The faster outflows, broader spread of gas velocity, and Lyman-alpha properties of candidates are consistent with their ISM being subject to more energetic feedback than non-candidates. Together with their larger metallicity (implying more evolved star-formation activity) this leads us to propose, if speculatively, that they are likely to quench sooner than non-candidates, supporting the validity of selection criteria used to identify them as progenitors of z~2 passive galaxies. We propose that massive, compact galaxies undergo more rapid growth of their stellar mass content, perhaps because the gas accretion mechanisms are different, and quench sooner than normally-sized LBGs at these (early) epochs.
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    ABSTRACT: We have constructed a mass-selected sample of Mstar>10^11Msolar galaxies at 1<z<3 in the CANDELS UDS and COSMOS fields and have decomposed these systems into their separate bulge and disk components according to their H(160)-band morphologies. By extending this analysis to multiple bands we have been able to conduct individual bulge and disk component SED fitting which has provided us with stellar-mass and star-formation rate estimates for the separate bulge and disk components. These have been combined with size measurements to explore the evolution of these massive high-redshift galaxies. By utilising the new decomposed stellar-mass estimates, we confirm that the bulge components display a stronger size evolution than the disks. This can be seen from both the fraction of bulge components which lie below the local relation and the median sizes of the bulge components, where the bulges are a median factor of 2.93+/-0.32 times smaller than similarly massive local galaxies at 1<z<2 and 3.41+/-0.58 smaller at 2<z<3; for the disks the corresponding factors are 1.65+/-0.14 and 1.99+/-0.25. Moreover, by splitting our sample into the passive and star-forming bulge and disk sub-populations and examining their sizes as a fraction of their present-day counter-parts, we find that the star-forming and passive bulges are equally compact, star-forming disks are larger, while the passive disks have intermediate sizes. This trend is not evident when classifying galaxy morphology on the basis of single-Sersic fits and adopting the overall star-formation rates. Finally, by evolving the star-formation histories of the passive disks back to the redshifts when the passive disks were last active, we show that the passive and star-forming disks have consistent sizes at the relevant epoch. These trends need to be reproduced by any mechanisms which attempt to explain the morphological evolution of galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new and improved study of the morphological and spectral evolution of massive galaxies over the redshift range 1<z<3. Our analysis is based on a bulge-disk decomposition of 396 galaxies with Mstar>10^11 Msolar from the CANDELS WFC3/IR imaging within the COSMOS and UKIDSS UDS survey fields. We find that, by modelling the H(160) image of each galaxy with a combination of a de Vaucouleurs bulge (Sersic index n=4) and an exponential disk (n=1), we can then lock all derived morphological parameters for the bulge and disk components, and successfully reproduce the shorter-wavelength J(125), i(814), v(606) HST images simply by floating the magnitudes of the two components. This then yields sub-divided 4-band HST photometry for the bulge and disk components which, with no additional priors, is well described by spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution. Armed with this information we are able to properly determine the masses and star-formation rates for the bulge and disk components, and find that: i) from z=3 to z=1 the galaxies move from disk-dominated to increasingly bulge-dominated, but very few galaxies are pure bulges/ellipticals by z=1; ii) while most passive galaxies are bulge-dominated, and most star-forming galaxies disk-dominated, 18+/-5% of passive galaxies are disk-dominated, and 11+/-3% of star-forming galaxies are bulge-dominated, a result which needs to be explained by any model purporting to connect star-formation quenching with morphological transformations; iii) there exists a small but significant population of pure passive disks, which are generally flatter than their star-forming counterparts (whose axial ratio distribution peaks at b/a~0.7); iv) flatter/larger disks re-emerge at the highest star-formation rates, consistent with recent studies of sub-mm galaxies, and with the concept of a maximum surface-density for star-formation activity.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2014; 444(2). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of a new and improved study of the morphological and spectral evolution of massive galaxies over the redshift range 1
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    ABSTRACT: Spectroscopic + photometric redshifts, stellar mass estimates, and rest-frame colors from the 3D-HST survey are combined with structural parameter measurements from CANDELS imaging to determine the galaxy size-mass distribution over the redshift range $0<z<3$. Separating early- and late-type galaxies on the basis of star-formation activity, we confirm that early-type galaxies are on average smaller than late-type galaxies at all redshifts, and find a significantly different rate of average size evolution at fixed galaxy mass, with fast evolution for the early-type population, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto (1+z)^{-1.48}$, and moderate evolution for the late-type population, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto (1+z)^{-0.75}$. The large sample size and dynamic range in both galaxy mass and redshift, in combination with the high fidelity of our measurements due to the extensive use of spectroscopic data, not only fortify previous results, but also enable us to probe beyond simple average galaxy size measurements. At all redshifts the slope of the size-mass relation is shallow, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto M_*^{0.22}$, for late-type galaxies with stellar mass $>3\times 10^{9}~M_{\odot}$, and steep, $R_{\rm{eff}}\propto M_*^{0.75}$, for early-type galaxies with stellar mass $>2\times 10^{10}~M_{\odot}$. The intrinsic scatter is $\lesssim$0.2 dex for all galaxy types and redshifts. For late-type galaxies, the logarithmic size distribution is not symmetric, but skewed toward small sizes: at all redshifts and masses a tail of small late-type galaxies exists that overlaps in size with the early-type galaxy population. The number density of massive ($\sim 10^{11}~M_{\odot}$), compact ($R_{\rm{eff}} < 2$kpc) early-type galaxies increases from $z=3$ to $z=1.5-2$ and then strongly decreases at later cosmic times.
    04/2014; 788(1).
  • S. Ogaz, M. Chiaberge, N. A. Grogin
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    ABSTRACT: As a possible method to decrease CTE losses, the ACS/WFC post- ash capabilities have been tested and a reference le has been created. The ash level is highly varied across both WFC CCDs, with a factor of two di erence in signal level between the brightest and the darkest parts of the ash. The direction of the variation is such that the post- ash is brightest far from the readout ampliers, where the CTE trailing is stronger. The added noise and uneven correction of the post- ash, along with the success of the pixel-based and photometric CTE corrections already in place, result in a limited set of cases where post- ash may be helpful.
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the relationship between active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity and host galaxy properties using a sample of massive galaxies at z ̃ 2 in the Chandra Deep Field-South (CDFS). A sample of 268 galaxies with M* > 1010.5 M☉ at 1.4 < z < 3 are selected from Hubble Space Telescope wide field camera 3 (WFC3) H-band observations in CDFS taken as part of the cosmic assembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey (CANDELS) survey. We find that a large fraction (22.0 ± 2.5 per cent) are detected in the 4 Ms Chandra/Advanced CCD Image Spectrometer observations in the field, implying a high AGN content in these massive galaxies. To investigate further the relationship between these AGN and their hosts, we create four subsamples, based on their star formation rates (star-forming versus quiescent) and galaxy size (compact versus extended), following Barro et al. and perform X-ray spectral fitting. We find a clear effect whereby the AGN in compact galaxies - be they star forming or quiescent - show significantly higher luminosities and levels of obscuration than the AGN in extended galaxies. These results provide clear evidence for two modes of black hole growth in massive galaxies at high redshift. The dominant growth mode is a luminous, obscured phase which occurs overwhelmingly in compact galaxies while another lower luminosity, unobscured phase is predominantly seen in extended galaxies. Both modes could produce AGN feedback, with violent transformative feedback in the former and a gentler `maintenance mode' produced by the latter.
    03/2014; 440(4).

Publication Stats

2k Citations
848.81 Total Impact Points


  • 2013–2014
    • University of Texas at Austin
      • Department of Astronomy
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • Tianjin Normal University
      T’ien-ching-shih, Tianjin Shi, China
    • University of Copenhagen
      • Dark Cosmology Centre (DARK)
      København, Capital Region, Denmark
    • Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
      • Department Physics and Astronomy
      New Brunswick, New Jersey, United States
  • 2001–2014
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011–2012
    • University of Massachusetts Amherst
      • Department of Astronomy
      Amherst Center, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Victoria
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2008–2009
    • Arizona State University
      • School of Earth and Space Exploration
      Tempe, AZ, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, MD, United States
  • 2006
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Physics
      Tukholma, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004
    • California Institute of Technology
      Pasadena, California, United States
    • Oak Ridge Associated Universities
      Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States