[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The development, progression, and recurrence of autoimmune diseases are frequently driven by a group of participatory autoantigens. We identified and characterized novel autoantigens by analyzing the autoantibody binding pattern from horses affected by spontaneous equine recurrent uveitis to the retinal proteome. Cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (cRALBP) had not been described previously as autoantigen, but subsequent characterization in equine recurrent uveitis horses revealed B and T cell autoreactivity to this protein and established a link to epitope spreading. We further immunized healthy rats and horses with cRALBP and observed uveitis in both species with typical tissue lesions at cRALBP expression sites. The autoantibody profiling outlined here could be used in various autoimmune diseases to detect autoantigens involved in the dynamic spreading cascade or serve as predictive markers.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Retinitis pigmentosa comprises a heterogeneous group of incurable progressive blinding diseases with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. The retinal degeneration 1 (rd1) mouse is a retinitis pigmentosa model that carries a mutation in a rod photoreceptor-specific phosphodiesterase gene, leading to rapid degeneration of these cells. Elucidation of the molecular differences between rd1 and healthy retinae is crucial for explaining this degeneration and could assist in suggesting novel therapies. Here we used high resolution proteomics to compare the proteomes of the rd1 mouse retina and its congenic, wild-type counterpart at postnatal day 11 when photoreceptor death is profound. Over 3000 protein spots were consistently resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subjected to a rigorous filtering procedure involving computer-based spot analyses. Five proteins were accepted as being differentially expressed in the rd1 model and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. The difference in one such protein, phosducin, related to an altered modification pattern in the rd1 retina rather than to changed expression levels. Additional experiments showed phosducin in healthy retinae to be highly phosphorylated in the dark- but not in the light-adapted phase. In contrast, rd1 phosducin was highly phosphorylated irrespective of light status, indicating a dysfunctional rd1 light/dark response. The increased rd1 phosducin phosphorylation coincided with increased activation of calcium/calmodulin-activated protein kinase II, which is known to utilize phosducin as a substrate. Given the increased rod calcium levels present in the rd1 mutation, calcium-evoked overactivation of this kinase may be an early and long sought for step in events leading to photoreceptor degeneration in the rd1 mouse.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cultured primary retinal Müller glia cells (RMG), a glia cell spanning the entire neuroretina, have recently gained increased attention, especially with respect to their presumed in vivo role in supporting photoreceptor function and survival. Cultured RMG cells, however, are at risk to lose much of their in vivo features. To determine the conditions of isolated primary RMG cells best corresponding with their physiological role in the intact retina, we profiled the respective proteomes of RMG freshly isolated from intact pig eye, as well as from cultured material at different timepoints. Protein samples were separated by high-resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), and isolated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of- flight (MALDI-TOF) peptide mass fingerprint. Compared with freshly isolated RMG, the in vitro protein expression patterns remain relatively stable for the first 3 days in culture but change dramatically thereafter. Proteins involved in specific RMG physiological functions, such as glycolysis, transmitter recycling, CO2 siphoning, visual pigment cycle, and detoxification, are either downregulated or absent. In contrast, cytoskeletal proteins, as well as proteins involved in motility and in proliferation, are upregulated during culture. In the present report, we show for the first time, on a systematic level, that profound changes in the RMG proteome reflect transdifferentiation from a multifunctional, highly differentiated glial cell to a dedifferentiated fibroblast-like phenotype in culture.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dedifferentiation of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). This study was designed to improve the understanding of RPE cell dedifferentiation in vitro. The protein expression pattern of native differentiated RPE cells was compared with that of cultured, thereby dedifferentiated, RPE cells.
Differentiated native human RPE cells and monolayers of dedifferentiated cultured primary human RPE cells were processed for two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis. Total cellular proteins were separated by isoelectric focusing using immobilized pH gradients (IPG 3-10) and electrophoresis on 9% to 15% gradient polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were visualized by silver staining. Silver-stained gel spots were excised, digested in situ, and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectroscopy (MS). The resultant peptide mass fingerprints were searched against the public domain NCBInr, MSDB, and EnsemblC databases to identify the respective proteins.
One hundred seventy nine protein spots were analyzed and classified into functional categories. Proteins associated with highly specialized functions of the RPE, which are required for interaction with photoreceptor cells, including RPE65, cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP), and cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP), were absent in dedifferentiated cultured RPE cells, whereas proteins involved in phagocytosis and exocytosis, including cathepsin D and clathrin were still present. Dedifferentiated RPE cells displayed a strong shift toward increased expression of proteins associated with cell shape, cell adhesion, and stress fiber formation, including cytokeratin 19, gelsolin, and tropomyosins, and also acquired increased expression of factors involved in translation and tumorigenic signal transduction such as annexin I and translation initiation factor (eIF)-5A.
Dedifferentiation of human RPE cells in vitro results in downregulation of proteins associated with highly specialized functions of the RPE and induces the differential expression of proteins related to cytoskeleton organization, cell shape, cell migration, and mediation of proliferative signal transduction. These in vitro data suggest that the dedifferentiated status of RPE cells per se may initiate PVR. Further investigation of candidate proteins may identify additional targets for treatment or prevention of diseases associated with RPE dedifferentiation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) protects dopaminergic neurones against toxic and physical damage. In addition, GDNF promotes differentiation and structural integrity of dopaminergic neurones. Here we show that GDNF can support the function of primary dopaminergic neurones by triggering activation of GTP-cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH I), a key enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis. GDNF stimulation of primary dopaminergic neurones expressing both tyrosine 3-monooxygenase and GTPCH I resulted in a dose-dependent doubling of GTPCH I activity, and a concomitant increase in tetrahydrobiopterin levels whereas tyrosine 3-monooxygenase activity was not altered. Actinomycin D, asan inhibitor of de novo biosynthesis, abolished any GDNF-mediated up-regulation of GTPCH I activity. However, GTPCH I mRNA levels in primary dopaminergic neurones were not altered by GDNF treatment, suggesting that the mode of action for that up-regulation is not directly connected to the regulation of GTPCH I transcription. We conclude that GDNF, in addition to its action in structural differentiation, also promotes differentiation regarding expression and enzymatic activity of a crucial component in the dopaminergic biosynthetic pathway.
Journal of Neurochemistry 10/2002; 82(5):1300-10. · 3.97 Impact Factor