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Publications (2)13.94 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This research examined the validity of criteria for diagnosing social phobia (SOC) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), where the DSM-IV criteria were modified to better identify toddlers who could have these disorders. Diagnoses were made with a semistructured clinical interview that included child observations. Parents and caregivers completed child behavior, temperament, and socioemotional functioning questionnaires to test convergent and discriminant validity. Of 72 children, 18 months to 5 years old, 19 met modified SOC criteria (8 met DSM-IV criteria SOC also), 29 met modified GAD criteria (5 met DSM-IV criteria GAD also), and 35 met no anxiety disorder criteria. Children with modified SOC were more likely than nonanxious children to display higher levels of anxiety symptoms and shyness/inhibition and to have anxious parents. Modified SOC did not relate to the nonanxiety constructs (cuddling, imaginary play, fine motor). Children with modified GAD did not consistently demonstrate higher levels of anxiety symptoms, did not have more anxious parents than nonanxious children, and did not have higher mean scores on the nonanxiety constructs. This research provides initial evidence supporting convergent and discriminant validity for the modified SOC criteria but not the modified GAD criteria.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2006; 45(7):859-66. · 6.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether 4- and 14-month-old infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be more likely to show differences in temperament, neurophysiology (salivary cortisol and sleep), and relationships with their mothers than controls. Two cohorts were recruited: 4-month-old infants with PD mothers (n = 25) and 4-month-old controls (n = 24), and 14-month-old infants with PD mothers (n = 27) and 14-month-old controls (n = 18). Mothers completed diagnostic interviews and questionnaires concerning infant temperament, sleep, and parenting. Infant salivary cortisol samples and standard observational procedures to measure infant temperament, sleep, attachment, and parenting were also used. Infants with PD mothers did not show more high reactivity, behavioral inhibition, or ambivalent/resistant attachment but did demonstrate different neurophysiology (higher salivary cortisol and more disturbed sleep) than controls. PD mothers also displayed less sensitivity toward their infants and reported parenting behaviors concerning infant sleep and discipline that have been associated with child problems. While infants with PD mothers did not show early behavioral differences from controls, they did display neurophysiological divergences consistent with higher arousal/arousability. Such neurophysiological divergences (elevated salivary cortisol and disturbed sleep) might be important early indicators of risk. Helping PD mothers parent their more highly aroused/arousable infants could reduce the development of psychopathology.
    Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 08/2003; 42(7):814-25. · 6.97 Impact Factor