[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synaptotagmins are calcium sensors that regulate synaptic vesicle exo/endocytosis. Thought to be exclusive to animals, they have recently been characterized in plants. We show that Arabidopsis synaptotagmin SYTA regulates endosome recycling and movement protein (MP)-mediated trafficking of plant virus genomes through plasmodesmata. SYTA localizes to endosomes in plant cells and directly binds the distinct Cabbage leaf curl virus (CaLCuV) and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) cell-to-cell movement proteins. In a SYTA knockdown line, CaLCuV systemic infection is delayed, and cell-to-cell spread of TMV and CaLCuV movement proteins is inhibited. A dominant-negative SYTA mutant causes depletion of plasma membrane-derived endosomes, produces large intracellular vesicles attached to plasma membrane, and inhibits cell-to-cell trafficking of TMV and CaLCuV movement proteins, when tested in an Agrobacterium-based leaf expression assay. Our studies show that SYTA regulates endocytosis, and suggest that distinct virus movement proteins transport their cargos to plasmodesmata for cell-to-cell spread via an endocytic recycling pathway.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2010; 107(6):2491-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA viruses can suppress or enhance the activity of cellular acetyltransferases to regulate virus gene expression and to affect cell cycle progression in support of virus replication. A role for protein acetylation in regulating the nuclear export of the bipartite geminivirus (Begomovirus) DNA genome was recently suggested by the findings that the viral movement protein NSP, a nuclear shuttle protein, interacts with the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) nuclear acetyltransferase AtNSI (nuclear shuttle protein interactor), and that this interaction and NSI expression are necessary for cabbage leaf curl virus infection and pathogenicity. To further investigate the consequences of NSI-NSP interactions, and the potential role of NSI in Arabidopsis growth and development, we used a reverse yeast two-hybrid selection and deletion analysis to identify NSI mutants that failed to interact with NSP, and promoter fusions to a uidA reporter gene to analyze the pattern of NSI expression during plant development. We found that NSI self assembles into highly active enzyme complexes and that high concentrations of NSP, in the absence of viral DNA, can inhibit NSI activity in vitro. Based on our detailed analysis of three NSI missense mutants, we identified an 88-amino acid putative domain, which spans NSI residues 107 to 194, as being required for both NSI oligomerization and its interaction with NSP. Finally, we found that NSI is predominantly transcribed in vascular cells, and that its expression is developmentally regulated in a manner that resembles the sink-to-source transition. Our data indicate that NSP can inhibit NSI activity by interfering with its assembly into highly active complexes, and suggest a mechanism by which NSP can both recruit NSI to regulate nuclear export of the viral genome and down-regulate NSI activity on cellular targets, perhaps to affect cellular differentiation and favor virus replication.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: DNA viruses can modulate the activity of cellular acetyltransferases to regulate virus gene expression and to affect cell cycle progression in order to support virus replication. A role for protein acetylation in regulating the nuclear export of the bipartite geminivirus DNA genome was recently suggested by the findings that the viral movement protein NSP, which shuttles the viral genome between the nucleus and the cytoplasm, interacts with a novel Arabidopsis acetyltransferase, AtNSI, and the increased expression of AtNSI enhances susceptibility to Cabbage leaf curl virus infection. To further investigate the interaction of NSP and AtNSI and to establish the importance of this interaction in virus infections, we used a reverse yeast two-hybrid selection and deletion analysis to identify NSP mutants that were impaired in their ability to bind AtNSI. These mutants identified a 38-amino-acid region of NSP, to which no function had so far been assigned, as being necessary for NSP-AtNSI interaction. Three NSP missense mutants were analyzed in detail and were found to be comparable to wild-type NSP in their levels of accumulation, nucleocytoplasmic shuttling, DNA binding, and cooperative interaction with the viral cell-to-cell movement protein MP. Despite this, Cabbage leaf curl virus that expressed each mutated NSP was defective in its ability to infect Arabidopsis, exhibiting lower levels of infectivity than the wild-type virus, and delayed systemic spread of the virus and attenuated disease symptoms. Our data demonstrate the importance of the interaction of NSP with AtNSI for virus infection and pathogenicity.
Journal of Virology 11/2004; 78(20):11161-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the complete genome sequence of the model bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000 (DC3000), which is pathogenic on tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana. The DC3000 genome (6.5 megabases) contains a circular chromosome and two plasmids, which collectively encode 5,763 ORFs. We identified 298 established and putative virulence genes, including several clusters of genes encoding 31 confirmed and 19 predicted type III secretion system effector proteins. Many of the virulence genes were members of paralogous families and also were proximal to mobile elements, which collectively comprise 7% of the DC3000 genome. The bacterium possesses a large repertoire of transporters for the acquisition of nutrients, particularly sugars, as well as genes implicated in attachment to plant surfaces. Over 12% of the genes are dedicated to regulation, which may reflect the need for rapid adaptation to the diverse environments encountered during epiphytic growth and pathogenesis. Comparative analyses confirmed a high degree of similarity with two sequenced pseudomonads, Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, yet revealed 1,159 genes unique to DC3000, of which 811 lack a known function.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 10/2003; 100(18):10181-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein acetylation is important in regulating DNA-templated processes specifically and protein-protein interactions more generally in eukaryotes. The geminivirus movement protein NSP is essential for virus movement, shuttling the viral DNA genome between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. We have identified a novel Arabidopsis protein, AtNSI, that interacts with NSP. AtNSI is highly conserved among widely divergent plants. Biochemical studies show that its interaction with NSP is direct and that AtNSI acetylates histones, but not NSP, in vitro. Rather, AtNSI specifically acetylates the viral coat protein. AtNSI is a nuclear protein but does not act as a transcriptional coactivator in vitro, which distinguishes it from known eukaryotic histone acetyltransferases. Its overexpression enhances the efficiency of infection by Cabbage leaf curl virus. These findings suggest a role for protein acetylation in coordinating replication of the viral DNA genome with its export from the nucleus.
The Plant Cell 08/2003; 15(7):1605-18. · 9.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 to parasitize tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana depends on genes activated by the HrpL alternative sigma factor. To support various functional genomic analyses of DC3000, and specifically, to identify genes involved in pathogenesis, we developed a draft sequence of DC3000 and used an iterative process involving computational and gene expression techniques to identify virulence-implicated genes downstream of HrpL-responsive promoters. Hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) promoters are known to control genes encoding the Hrp (type III protein secretion) machinery and a few type III effector proteins in DC3000. This process involved (i) identification of 9 new virulence-implicated genes in the Hrp regulon by miniTn5gus mutagenesis, (ii) development of a hidden Markov model (HMM) trained with known and transposon-identified Hrp promoter sequences, (iii) HMM identification of promoters upstream of 12 additional virulence-implicated genes, and (iv) microarray and RNA blot analyses of the HrpL-dependent expression of a representative subset of these DC3000 genes. We found that the Hrp regulon encodes candidates for 4 additional type III secretion machinery accessory factors, homologs of the effector proteins HopPsyA, AvrPpiB1 (2 copies), AvrPpiC2, AvrPphD (2 copies), AvrPphE, AvrPphF, and AvrXv3, and genes associated with the production or metabolism of virulence factors unrelated to the Hrp type III secretion system, including syringomycin synthetase (SyrE), N(epsilon)-(indole-3-acetyl)-l-lysine synthetase (IaaL), and a subsidiary regulon controlling coronatine production. Additional candidate effector genes, hopPtoA2, hopPtoB2, and an avrRps4 homolog, were preceded by Hrp promoter-like sequences, but these had HMM expectation values of relatively low significance and were not detectably activated by HrpL.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2002; 99(4):2275-80. · 9.74 Impact Factor