Mengzhou Xue

University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

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Publications (15)61.7 Total impact

  • [show abstract] [hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Periventricular hemorrhage (PVH) in the brain of premature infants is often associated with developmental delay and persistent motor deficits. Our goal is to develop a rodent model that mimics the behavioral phenotype. We hypothesized that autologous blood infusion into the periventricular germinal matrix region of neonatal rats would lead to immediate and long-term behavioral changes. Tail blood or saline was infused into the periventricular region of 1-day-old rats. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was used to demonstrate the hematoma. Rats with blood infusion, as well as saline and intact controls, underwent behavior tests until 10 weeks age. Blood-infused rats displayed significant delay in motor development (ambulation, righting response, and negative geotaxis) to 22 days of age. As young adults, they exhibited impaired ability to stay on a rotating rod and to reach for food pellets. MR imaging at 10 weeks demonstrated subsets of rats with normal appearing brains, focal cortical infarcts, or mild hydrocephalus. There was a good correlation between MR imaging and histological findings. Some rats exhibited periventricular heterotopia and/or subtle striatal abnormalities not apparent on MR images. We conclude that autologous blood infusion into the brain of neonatal rats successfully models some aspects of periventricular hemorrhage that occurs after premature birth in humans.
    Experimental Neurology 02/2006; 197(1):122-32. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Mengzhou Xue, Marc R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanism of brain cell injury associated with intracerebral hemorrhage may be in part related to proteolytic enzymes in blood, some of which are also functional in the developing brain. We hypothesized that there would be an age-dependent brain response following intracerebral injection of blood, thrombin, and plasminogen. Mice at 3 ages (neonatal, 10-day-old, and young adult) received autologous blood (15, 25, and 50 microl respectively), thrombin (3, 5, and 10 units respectively), plasminogen (0.03, 0.05, and 0.1 units respectively) (the doses expected in same volume blood), or saline injection into lateral striatum. Forty-eight hours later they were perfusion fixed. Hematoxylin and eosin, lectin histochemistry, Fluoro-Jade, and TUNEL staining were used to quantify changes related to the hemorrhagic lesion. Damage volume, dying neurons, neutrophils, and microglial reaction were significantly greater following injections of blood, plasminogen, and thrombin compared to saline in all three ages of mice. Plasminogen and thrombin associated brain damage was greatest in neonatal mice and, in that group unlike the other 2, greater than the damage caused by whole blood. These results suggest that the neonatal brain is relatively more sensitive to proteolytic plasma enzymes than the mature brain.
    Brain Pathology 11/2005; 15(4):273-80. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Mengzhou Xue, Marc R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: Premature infants with placental infection and adult stroke patients with fever have worse outcomes following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We hypothesized that immune pre-activation would aggravate brain injury in mouse brain following ICH. The immune system of 2-day, 10-day and 7-week young adult CD1 mice was stimulated by intraperitoneal injection of concanavalin A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or polyinosinic-polycytidilic acid (PolyI:C) 12 h prior to intracerebral injection of blood. Two days later, brain damage and inflammation were worse in 2-day mice that had received LPS. The other agents had less consistent effects in 2-day mice. Brain damage in young adults was aggravated less after immune stimulation. These data suggest that immune pre-activation modifies hemorrhagic brain injury in immature mouse brain.
    Journal of Neuroimmunology 09/2005; 165(1-2):75-82. · 3.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal periventricular hemorrhage (PVH) is a devastating complication of prematurity in the human infant. Based upon observations made primarily in adult rodents and the fact that the immature brain uses proteolytic systems for cell migration and growth, we hypothesized that thrombin and plasmin enzyme activities contribute to the brain damage after PVH. The viability of mixed brain cells derived from newborn rat periventricular region was suppressed by whole blood and thrombin, but not plasmin. Following injection of autologous blood into the periventricular region of newborn rat brain, proteolytic activity was detected in a halo around the hematoma using membrane overlays impregnated with thrombin and plasmin fluorogenic substrates. Two-day old rats received periventricular injection of blood, thrombin, and plasminogen. After 2 days, thrombin and blood were associated with significantly greater damage than saline or plasminogen. Two-day old mice received intracerebral injections of blood in combination with saline or the proteolytic inhibitors hirudin, alpha2macroglobulin, or plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. After 2 days, hirudin significantly reduced brain cell death and inflammation. Two-day-old mice then received low and high doses of hirudin mixed with blood after which behavioral testing was conducted repeatedly. At 10 weeks there was no statistically significant evidence for behavioral or structural brain protection. These results indicate that thrombin likely plays a role in neonatal periventricular brain damage following PVH. However, additional factors are likely important in the recovery from this result.
    Brain Pathology 08/2005; 15(3):241-9. · 4.74 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism 07/2005; · 5.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periventricular/intraventricular hemorrhage (PVH/IVH) into brain can occur in premature infants and is associated with poor developmental outcome. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize a model of PVH/IVH in newborn mouse. We hypothesized that periventricular germinal matrix would exhibit reduced cell proliferation. PVH/IVH was induced in 1-day-old mice by injection of autologous blood into the periventricular tissue. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained from 15 minutes to 14 days later. Mice were killed 4 hours to 28 days later. Cell proliferation, dying cells, astrocyte and microglial reactions, neutrophils, and lymphocytes were quantified. Histological studies showed that MRI accurately localizes the hematoma but overestimates its size. The hematoma, located in the striatum and germinal tissue, always extended into the lateral ventricles. Cell proliferation, measured by Ki67 immunoreactivity, was suppressed bilaterally in germinal matrix and beyond from 8 hours to 7 days. Increased cell death was observed in the ipsilateral striatum and germinal matrix 1 and 2 days after PVH/IVH. Astrocyte and microglia reaction peaked at 2 days and persisted up to 28 days. Inflammatory response was minimal. Extravasated blood might play an important role in brain damage following PVH/IVH through suppression of cell proliferation.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 12/2003; 62(11):1154-65. · 4.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restenosis is responsible to approximately 30% of long-term failure following therapeutic vascular procedures. Thrombosis plays a key role in the development of restenosis. Thrombin-specific inhibitors have been considered as one type of candidates for the prevention of restenosis. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that a novel thrombin-specific inhibitor, hirulog-like peptide (HLP), reduced balloon catheter-induced neointima formation in rat carotid arteries. The present study examined the effect of HLP on angioplasty-induced restenosis in carotid arteries of atherosclerotic rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were subject to air desiccation of the lumen of the right carotid arteries, then received high cholesterol/fat diet for 3 weeks. The rabbits were intravenously infused with HLP (1.6 mg/(kg/h)) or saline (n=7 per group) for 4 h started before angioplasty which dilated atherosclerotic lesions in right common carotid artery. Four weeks after the angioplasty, neointimal area, stenosis and neointima/media ratio in injured carotid arteries were reduced in atherosclerotic rabbits treated with HLP compared to saline controls by 62, 39 and 59% (P<0.05). The expression of tissue factor (TF) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in the neointima of carotid arteries of rabbits treated with HLP was significantly weaker than saline controls (P<0.05 or <0.01). Activated partial thromboplastin time and bleeding time in HLP-treated rabbits were not significantly prolonged compared to controls. The results of the present study suggest that HLP may substantially reduce angioplasty-induced restenosis in atherosclerotic rabbits without increasing bleeding tendency. The inhibition on the expression of TF and TGF-beta in the neointima of the arterial wall may contribute to the preventive effect of HLP on restenosis in atherosclerotic rabbits.
    Atherosclerosis 08/2003; 169(1):31-40. · 3.71 Impact Factor
  • Mengzhou Xue, Marc R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with stroke and head trauma. Different experimental models are used, but it is unclear to what extent the tissue responses are comparable. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal responses to brain hemorrhages created by injection of autologous whole blood, collagenase digestion of blood vessels, and avulsion of cerebral blood vessels. Adult rats were subjected to ICH. Rats were perfusion fixed with paraformaldehyde 1 hour to 28 days later. Hematoxylin and eosin, Fluoro-Jade, immunohistochemical, and TUNEL staining were used to allow quantification of damaged and dying neurons, neutrophils, CD8alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes, and RCA-1 positive microglia/macrophages, adjacent to the hemorrhagic lesion. In all models, eosinophilic neurons peaked between 2 and 3 days. TUNEL positive cells were observed maximal at 2 days in blood injection model, 3 days in vessel avulsion model, between 1 and 7 days in the collagenase injection model, and were evident in small quantities in 21 to 28 days in 3 models. Neutrophils appeared briefly from 1 to 3 days in all models, but they were substantially lower in the cortical vessel avulsion model, perhaps owing to the devitalized nature of the tissue. Influx of CD8alpha immunoreactive lymphocytes were maximal at 2 to 3 days in the autologous injection model, 3 to 7 days in other 2 models, and persisted for 21 to 28 days in all models. The microglial/macrophage reaction peaked between 2 and 3 days in the blood injection model and at 3 to 7 days in other 2 models, and persisted for weeks in all groups. These results suggest that different models of ICH are associated with similar temporal patterns of cell death and inflammation. However, the relative magnitude of these changes differs.
    Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases: the official journal of National Stroke Association 01/2003; 12(3):152-9.
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    ABSTRACT: Restenosis is responsible to approximately 30% of long-term failure following therapeutic vascular procedures. Thrombosis plays a key role in the development of restenosis. Thrombin-specific inhibitors have been considered as one type of candidates for the prevention of restenosis. Previous studies by our group demonstrated that a novel thrombin-specific inhibitor, hirulog-like peptide (HLP), reduced balloon catheter-induced neointima formation in rat carotid arteries. The present study examined the effect of HLP on angioplasty-induced restenosis in carotid arteries of atherosclerotic rabbits. New Zealand white rabbits were subject to air desiccation of the lumen of the right carotid arteries, then received high cholesterol/fat diet for 3 weeks. The rabbits were intravenously infused with HLP (1.6 mg/(kg/h)) or saline (n=7 per group) for 4 h started before angioplasty which dilated atherosclerotic lesions in right common carotid artery. Four weeks after the angioplasty, neointimal area, stenosis and neointima/media ratio in injured carotid arteries were reduced in atherosclerotic rabbits treated with HLP compared to saline controls by 62, 39 and 59% (P
    Atherosclerosis 01/2003; 169(1):31-40. · 3.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuronal and glial cell death in the striatum of a rat model of collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage begins at 1 day and continues for at least 3 weeks. We hypothesized that administration of a neurotrophic agent would reduce neuronal loss in this experimental model. Because it has been shown to protect striatal neurons against excitotoxic injury, a second-generation ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) (AXOKINE) was administered by continuous intracerebral infusion (2 microg/day) beginning 28 h after hemorrhage and continuing for 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that the hematoma size was comparable in control and treated rats prior to treatment. Counts of medium-sized striatal neurons within 320 microm of the hematoma 8 weeks after the hemorrhage revealed a slight but statistically significant benefit with a 42.5% loss in treated rats compared to 51.7% loss in controls. The results suggest that AXOKINE might be protective of striatal neurons in the vicinity of a hemorrhagic lesion.
    Journal of the Neurological Sciences 12/2001; 192(1-2):53-9. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    M Xue, M R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: Extravasation of blood is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage and head trauma. The mechanism of brain cell injury associated with hemorrhage differs from that due to pure ischemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute changes after intracerebral injections of proteins that are involved in blood clotting and clot lysis. Sixty-eight adult rats were subjected to stereotaxic intrastriatal injections of normal saline (5 microL), low- (2.5 U/5 microL) and high-dose (25 U/5 microL) thrombin, low- (0.1 microgram/5 microL) and high-dose (1 microgram/5 microL) tissue plasminogen activator, low- (0.05 U/5 microL) and high-dose (0.5 U/5 microL) plasminogen, and low- (0.335 U/5 microL) and high-dose (3.35 U/5 microL) plasmin. Forty-eight hours later rats were perfusion fixed. Brain damage area, eosinophilic neurons, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, infiltrating neutrophils, CD8a immunoreactive leukocytes, and reactive microglia were quantified. Damage area in striatum, dying cells, inflammatory cells, and microglial reaction were significantly greater after the high-dose plasminogen, plasmin, and thrombin injections. Tissue plasminogen activator injections were associated with mild inflammation. These results suggested that thrombin and plasmin are harmful to brain cells in vivo. Although the doses required to cause damage are relatively great in consideration of the plasma content of these proteins, their pathological effect might be enhanced through synergism with other mechanisms.
    Stroke 10/2001; 32(9):2164-9. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Beginning 15 min after induction of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by intrastriatal administration of collagenase, rats were treated intramuscularly with FK-506 (3 mg/kg) or with vehicle. Treatment was repeated daily for 7 days. MR imaging 1, 7, and 28 days post-ICH showed that treatment did not affect hematoma size or its subsequent resolution. Two days post-ICH, neutrophil infiltration around the hematoma was decreased in the FK-506-treated rats, as was the number of TUNEL-positive cells at the edge of the hematoma and in the peripheral region. The decreased inflammatory response was accompanied by functional improvement in the treated rats. The neurological deficit induced by the ICH (beam walking ability, postural reflex, spontaneous circling) was significantly decreased from 3 to 21 days post-ICH by treatment with FK-506. Skilled use of the forelimb ipsilateral to the ICH was improved and sensory neglect of the same limb was decreased 8–9 weeks post-ICH in rats treated with FK-506. However, neuronal loss assessed 9 weeks post-ICH was not different in the treated and untreated rats.
    Experimental Neurology 03/2001; · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression is increased in brain after cerebral ischemia, although little is known about its abundance and role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). A TNF-alpha-specific antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ORF4-PE) was used to study the extent to which TNF-alpha expression influenced neurobehavioral outcomes and brain damage in a collagenase-induced ICH model in rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, and ICH was induced by intrastriatal administration of heparin and collagenase. Immediately before or 3 hours after ICH induction, ORF4-PE was administered directly into the site of ICH. TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels were measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analyses. Cell death was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine 5'triphosphate-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL). Neurobehavioral deficits were measured for 4 weeks after ICH. ICH induction (n=6) elevated TNF-alpha mRNA and protein levels (P:<0.01) at 24 hours after the onset of injury compared with sham controls (n=6). Immunohistochemical labeling indicated that ICH was accompanied by elevated expression of TNF-alpha in neutrophils, macrophages, and microglia. Administration of ORF4-PE (2.0 nmol) directly into striatal parenchyma, 15 minutes before (n=4) or 3 hours after (n=6) ICH, decreased levels of TNF-alpha mRNA (P:<0.001) and protein (P:<0. 01) in the brain tissue surrounding the hematoma compared with animals treated with saline alone (n=6). Mean+/-SEM striatal cell death (cells per high-powered field) was also reduced in animals receiving ORF4-PE (34.1+/-5.0) compared with the saline-treated ICH group (80.3+/-7.50) (P:<0.001). ORF4-PE treatment improved neurobehavioral deficits observed at 24 hours (P:<0.001) after induction of ICH (n=6) compared with the untreated ICH group (n=6). This improvement was maintained at 28 days after hemorrhage induction (P:<0.001). These results indicate a pathogenic role for TNF-alpha during ICH and demonstrate that reducing TNF-alpha expression using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides is neuroprotective.
    Stroke 02/2001; 32(1):240-8. · 6.16 Impact Factor
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    M Xue, M R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with stroke and head trauma. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of intracortical injections of autologous whole blood and blood components on inflammatory cell infiltration and brain cell death and to determine if nonhemorrhagic lesions differ in these respects. Eighty-seven adult rats were subjected to intracortical injections of autologous whole blood or allogeneic plasma, erythrocytes, leukocytes, "activated" leukocytes, and serum. Injections of saline or mineral oil were controls. Blood injections were compared with cortical freeze injury and pial devascularization. Rats were perfusion-fixed 48 hours after injection or lesioning. Eosinophilic neurons, TUNEL-positive cells, brain damage area, infiltrating neutrophils, and CD8a-immunoreactive lymphocytes were quantified. Damage area, dying cells, and inflammatory infiltrate were significantly greater after autologous whole blood, leukocyte, and "activated" leukocyte injections than injection of other fractions. These results suggest that extravasated whole blood causes a greater degree of cortical cell death and inflammation than ischemic lesions of similar size. Leukocytes "activated" by systemic illness might exacerbate the injury. Secondary hemorrhagic phenomena suggest that the harmful effect is directed toward both brain cells and the vasculature. Further studies are required to delineate the mechanism(s).
    Stroke 08/2000; 31(7):1721-7. · 6.16 Impact Factor
  • M Xue, M R Del Bigio
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    ABSTRACT: Intracerebral hemorrhage is associated with stroke and head trauma. The purpose of this study was to study brain inflammation and cell death in adult rats 1 h to 4 weeks after injection of blood into the striatum. Terminal dUTP nick-end-labeling positive dying cells were evident 4 h to 4 weeks post-hemorrhage. Neutrophil infiltration was brief and peaked at 48 h. CD8a immunoreactive lymphocytes, possibly natural killer cells, became apparent at 48 h and persisted for 1 week. Microglial reaction was evident at 4 h and persisted for 4 weeks. We conclude that extravascular blood causes a mixed inflammatory cell reaction in brains that is maximal from 48-72 h following hemorrhage. This is associated with death of brain cells over a prolonged period of at least 4 weeks.
    Neuroscience Letters 05/2000; 283(3):230-2. · 2.03 Impact Factor