[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CXCR4 chemokine receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that signals in T lymphocytes by forming a heterodimer with the TCR. CXCR4 and TCR functions are consequently highly cross regulated, affecting T cell immune activation, cytokine secretion, and T cell migration. The CXCR4-TCR heterodimer stimulates T cell migration and activation of the ERK MAPK and downstream AP-1-dependent cytokine transcription in response to stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), the sole chemokine ligand of CXCR4. These responses require Gi-type G proteins as well as TCR ITAM domains and the ZAP70 tyrosine kinase, thus indicating that the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer signals to integrate G protein-coupled receptor-associated and TCR-associated signaling molecules in response to SDF-1. Yet, the phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes responsible for coupling the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer to distinct downstream cellular responses are incompletely characterized. In this study, we demonstrate that PLC activity is required for SDF-1 to induce ERK activation, migration, and CXCR4 endocytosis in human T cells. SDF-1 signaling via the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer uses PLC-β3 to activate the Ras-ERK pathway and increase intracellular calcium ion concentrations, whereas PLC-γ1 is dispensable for these outcomes. In contrast, PLC-γ1, but not PLC-β3, is required for SDF-1-mediated migration via a mechanism independent of LAT. These results increase understanding of the signaling mechanisms employed by the CXCR4-TCR heterodimer, characterize new roles for PLC-β3 and PLC-γ1 in T cells, and suggest that multiple PLCs may also be activated downstream of other chemokine receptors to distinctly regulate migration versus other signaling functions.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2011; 187(3):1440-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Replication Protein A (RPA) is a single-stranded DNA-binding protein essential for DNA replication, repair, recombination and cell-cycle regulation. A human homolog of the RPA2 subunit, called RPA4, was previously identified and shown to be expressed in colon mucosal and placental cells; however, the function of RPA4 was not determined. To examine the function of RPA4 in human cells, we carried out knockdown and replacement studies to determine whether RPA4 can substitute for RPA2 in the cell. Unlike RPA2, exogenous RPA4 expression did not support chromosomal DNA replication and lead to cell-cycle arrest in G2/M. In addition, RPA4 localized to sites of DNA repair and reduced gamma-H2AX caused by RPA2 depletion. These studies suggest that RPA4 cannot support cell proliferation but can support processes that maintain the genomic integrity of the cell.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2009; 38(3):846-58. · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disruption of the perforin gene results in primary immunodeficiency and an increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens. Perforin-deficient (PKO) mice fail to clear primary lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Armstrong, resulting in persistent infection and functional exhaustion of virus-specific CD8+ T cells. CD8+ T cell responses to Listeria monocytogenes (LM) challenge within the first week after LCMV infection were diminished in both WT and PKO mice, and correlated with enhanced bacterial clearance. However, bacterial challenge at later time points generated similar CD8 T cell responses in both groups of mice. The phenotype and function of pre-existing LM-specific memory CD8+ T cells were maintained in persistently infected PKO mice. Thus persistent LCMV infection, as a result of perforin deficiency, results in dysfunction of the virus-specific CD8+ T cell response but does not compromise the host's ability to maintain pre-existing memory CD8+ T cells or to generate new memory CD8+ T cell responses against other pathogens.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SDF-1alpha (CXCL12) signaling via its receptor, CXCR4, stimulates T cell chemotaxis and gene expression. The ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase critically mediates SDF-1alpha-dependent migration and prolonged ERK mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in T cells. However, the molecular mechanism by which CXCR4 or other G protein-coupled receptors activate ZAP-70 has not been characterized. Here we show that SDF-1alpha stimulates the physical association of CXCR4 and the T cell receptor (TCR) and utilizes the ZAP-70 binding ITAM domains of the TCR for signal transduction. This pathway is responsible for several of the effects of SDF-1alpha on T cells, including prolonged ERK MAP kinase activity, increased intracellular calcium ion concentrations, robust AP-1 transcriptional activity, and SDF-1alpha costimulation of cytokine secretion. These results suggest new paradigms for understanding the effects of SDF-1alpha and other chemokines on immunity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stimulation of T lymphocytes with the ligand for the CXCR4 chemokine receptor stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha/CXCL12), results in prolonged activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) ERK1 and ERK2. Because SDF-1alpha is unique among several chemokines in its ability to stimulate prolonged ERK activation, this pathway is thought to mediate special functions of SDF-1alpha that are not shared with other chemokines. However, the molecular mechanisms of this response are poorly understood. In this study we show that SDF-1alpha stimulation of prolonged ERK activation in Jurkat T cells requires both the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa (SLP-76) scaffold protein. This pathway involves ZAP-70-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of SLP-76 at one or more of its tyrosines, 113, 128, and 145. Because TCR activates ERK via SLP-76-mediated activation of the linker of activated T cells (LAT) scaffold protein, we examined the role of LAT in SDF-1alpha-mediated ERK activation. However, neither the SLP-76 proline-rich domain that links to GADS and LAT, nor LAT, itself are required for SDF-1alpha to stimulate SLP-76 tyrosine phosphorylation or to activate ERK. Together, our results describe the distinct mechanism by which SDF-1alpha stimulates prolonged ERK activation in T cells and indicate that this pathway is specific for cells expressing both ZAP-70 and SLP-76.
The Journal of Immunology 08/2003; 171(1):360-7. · 5.52 Impact Factor