Rachel E Rempel

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, United States

Are you Rachel E Rempel?

Claim your profile

Publications (11)130.57 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phenotypic heterogeneity that characterizes human cancers reflects the enormous genetic complexity of the oncogenic process. This complexity can also be seen in mouse models where it is frequently observed that in addition to the initiating genetic alteration, the resulting tumor harbors additional, somatically acquired mutations that affect the tumor phenotype. To investigate the role of genetic interactions in the development of tumors, we have made use of the Emu-myc model of pre-B and B cell lymphoma. Since various studies point to a functional interaction between Myc and the Rb/E2F pathway, we have investigated the role of E2F activities in the process of Myc-induced lymphomagenesis. Whereas the absence of E2F1 and E2F3 function has no impact on Myc-mediated tumor development, the absence of E2F2 substantially accelerates the time of tumor onset. Conversely, tumor development is delayed by the absence of E2F4. The enhanced early onset of tumors seen in the absence of E2F2 coincides with an expansion of immature B lineage cells that are likely to be the target for Myc oncogenesis. In contrast, the absence of E2F4 mutes the response of the lineage to Myc and there is no expansion of immature B lineage cells. We also find that distinct types of tumors emerge from the Emu-myc mice, distinguished by different patterns of gene expression, and that the relative proportions of these tumor types are affected by the absence of either E2F2 or E2F4. From these results, we conclude that there are several populations of tumors that arise from the Emu-myc model, reflecting distinct populations of cells that are susceptible to Myc-mediated oncogenesis and that the proportion of these cell populations is affected by the presence or absence of E2F activities.
    PLoS Genetics 09/2009; 5(9):e1000640. · 8.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Emu-myc transgenic mouse has provided a valuable model for the study of B-cell lymphoma. Making use of gene expression analysis and, in particular, expression signatures of cell signaling pathway activation, we now show that several forms of B lymphoma can be identified in the Emu-myc mice associated with time of tumor onset. Furthermore, one form of Emu-myc tumor with pre-B character is shown to resemble human Burkitt lymphoma, whereas others exhibit more differentiated B-cell characteristics and show similarity with human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the pattern of gene expression, as well as oncogenic pathway activation. Importantly, we show that signatures of oncogenic pathway activity provide further dissection of the spectrum of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, identifying a subset of patients who have very poor prognosis and could benefit from more aggressive or novel therapeutic strategies. Taken together, these studies provide insight into the complexity of the oncogenic process and a novel strategy for dissecting the heterogeneity of B lymphoma.
    Cancer Research 11/2008; 68(20):8525-34. · 9.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous work has detailed the histological and biochemical changes associated with mammary development and remodeling. We have now made use of gene expression profiling, and in particular of the previously described signatures of cell signaling pathway activation, to explore the events associated with mammary gland development. We find that there is elevated E2F-specific pathway activity prior to lactation and relatively low levels of other important signaling pathways, such as RAS, MYC and SRC. Upon lactation and continuing into the involution phase, these patterns reverse with a dramatic increase in RAS, SRC and MYC pathway activity and a decline in E2F activity. At the end of involution, these patterns return to that of the adult non-lactating mammary gland. The importance of the changes in E2F pathway activity, particularly during the proliferative phase of mammary development, was confirmed through the analysis of mice deficient for various E2F proteins. Taken together, these results reveal a complex pattern of pathway activity in relation to the various phases of mammary gland development.
    Development 08/2008; 135(14):2403-13. · 6.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Intimal hyperplasia (IH) and restenosis limit the long-term utility of bypass surgery and angioplasty due to pathological proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) into the intima of treated vessels. Consequently, much attention has been focused on developing inhibitory agents that reduce this pathogenic process. The E2F transcription factors are key cell cycle regulators that play important roles in modulating cell proliferation and cell fate. Nonselective E2F inhibitors have thus been extensively evaluated for this purpose. Surprisingly, these E2F inhibitors have failed to reduce IH. These findings prompted us to evaluate the roles of different E2Fs during IH to determine how selective targeting of E2F isoforms impacts VSMC proliferation. Importantly, we show that E2F3 promotes proliferation of VSMCs leading to increased IH, whereas E2F4 inhibits this pathological response. Furthermore, we use RNA probes to show that selective inhibition of E2F3, not global inhibition of E2F activity, significantly reduces VSMC proliferation and limits IH in murine bypass grafts.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 09/2007; 104(32):12988-93. · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Technologies that mediate targeted delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are needed to improve their therapeutic efficacy and safety. Therefore, we have developed aptamer-siRNA chimeric RNAs capable of cell type-specific binding and delivery of functional siRNAs into cells. The aptamer portion of the chimeras mediates binding to PSMA, a cell-surface receptor overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and tumor vascular endothelium, whereas the siRNA portion targets the expression of survival genes. When applied to cells expressing PSMA, these RNAs are internalized and processed by Dicer, resulting in depletion of the siRNA target proteins and cell death. In contrast, the chimeras do not bind to or function in cells that do not express PSMA. These reagents also specifically inhibit tumor growth and mediate tumor regression in a xenograft model of prostate cancer. These studies demonstrate an approach for targeted delivery of siRNAs with numerous potential applications, including cancer therapeutics.
    Nature Biotechnology 09/2006; 24(8):1005-15. · 32.44 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Various studies point to the potential role of combinatorial action of transcription factors as a mechanism to achieve the complexity of eukaryotic gene control with a finite number of regulatory proteins. Our previous work has focused on interactions involving the E2F family of transcription factors as an example of combinatorial gene control, leading to the identification of TFE3 and YY1 as transcription partners for several E2F proteins. We now show that additional E2F target genes share a common promoter architecture and are also regulated by the combined action of TFE3 and E2F3. In contrast, the thymidine kinase (TK-1) promoter is also regulated by E2F3 but independent of TFE3. Other promoters exhibit distinct specificity in the interaction with E2F proteins that includes a role for E2F1 but not E2F3, examples where both E2F1 and E2F3 are seen to interact, and promoters that are regulated by TFE3 but independent of an E2F. We propose that these examples of combinatorial interactions involving E2F proteins provide a basis for the specificity of transcription control in the Rb/E2F pathway.
    The EMBO Journal 04/2004; 23(6):1336-47. · 9.82 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of tumor suppressor gene function has been aided by the creation of discrete gene alterations in the mouse. One such example can be seen in the study of tumor suppressor gene function in general and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor in particular. Because the phenotype of a cell is a direct reflection of the gene activity within that cell, a comprehensive analysis of changes in gene activity resulting from the loss of Rb function has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of Rb biology. We have used DNA microarray analysis to identify gene expression profiles in wild-type and Rb-null mouse embryo fibroblasts, as well as cells lacking other Rb family members, as an approach to developing a more complete understanding of Rb function. In so doing, we have identified gene expression phenotypes that characterize the loss of Rb function, that distinguish a Rb-null cell from a wild-type cell as well as a p107/p130-null cell, and that identify gene regulatory pathways unique to these events. Importantly, the Rb gene expression patterns can identify murine tumors that result from Rb loss of function. We suggest that this is an approach to the eventual understanding of gene regulatory pathways that define a phenotypic state, including those events that lead to tumor development.
    02/2004;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The study of tumor suppressor gene function has been aided by the creation of discrete gene alterations in the mouse. One such example can be seen in the study of tumor suppressor gene function in general and the retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor in particular. Because the phenotype of a cell is a direct reflection of the gene activity within that cell, a comprehensive analysis of changes in gene activity resulting from the loss of Rb function has the potential to greatly enhance our understanding of Rb biology. We have used DNA microarray analysis to identify gene expression profiles in wild-type and Rb-null mouse embryo fibroblasts, as well as cells lacking other Rb family members, as an approach to developing a more complete understanding of Rb function. In so doing, we have identified gene expression phenotypes that characterize the loss of Rb function, that distinguish a Rb-null cell from a wild-type cell as well as a p107/p130-null cell, and that identify gene regulatory pathways unique to these events. Importantly, the Rb gene expression patterns can identify murine tumors that result from Rb loss of function. We suggest that this is an approach to the eventual understanding of gene regulatory pathways that define a phenotypic state, including those events that lead to tumor development.
    Cancer Research 08/2003; 63(13):3716-23. · 8.65 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Previous work has shown that the Myc transcription factor induces transcription of the E2F1, E2F2, and E2F3 genes. Using primary mouse embryo fibroblasts deleted for individual E2F genes, we now show that Myc-induced S phase and apoptosis requires distinct E2F activities. The ability of Myc to induce S phase is impaired in the absence of either E2F2 or E2F3 but not E2F1 or E2F4. In contrast, the ability of Myc to induce apoptosis is markedly reduced in cells deleted for E2F1 but not E2F2 or E2F3. From this data, we propose that the induction of specific E2F activities is an essential component in the Myc pathways that control cell proliferation and cell fate decisions.
    Molecular Cell 08/2001; 8(1):105-13. · 15.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: E2F transcription factors are major regulators of cell proliferation. The diversity of the E2F family suggests that individual members perform distinct functions in cell cycle control. E2F4 and E2F5 constitute a defined subset of the family. Until now, there has been little understanding of their individual biochemical and biological functions. Here, we report that simultaneous inactivation of E2F4 and E2F5 in mice results in neonatal lethality, suggesting that they perform overlapping functions during mouse development. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from these mice proliferated normally and reentered from Go with normal kinetics compared to wild-type cells. However, they failed to arrest in G1 in response to p16INK4a. Thus, E2F4 and E2F5 are dispensable for cell cycle progression but necessary for pocket protein-mediated G1 arrest of cycling cells.
    Molecular Cell 10/2000; 6(3):729-35. · 15.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have generated mice deficient in E2F4 activity, the major form of E2F in many cell types. Analysis of newborn pups deficient in E2F4 revealed abnormalities in hematopoietic lineage development as well as defects in the development of the gut epithelium. Specifically, we observed a deficiency of various mature hematopoietic cell types together with an increased number of immature cells in several lineages. This was associated with an increased frequency of apoptotic cells. We also found a substantial reduction in the thickness of the gut epithelium that normally gives rise to crypts as well as a reduction in the density of villi. These observations suggest a critical role for E2F4 activity in controlling the maturation of cells in a number of tissues.
    Molecular Cell 09/2000; 6(2):293-306. · 15.28 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

902 Citations
130.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2009
    • Duke University Medical Center
      • • Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology
      • • Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy
      Durham, NC, United States
  • 2000–2004
    • Howard Hughes Medical Institute
      Maryland, United States
    • Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States