[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As autonomous robots become more complex in their behavior, more sophisticated software architectures are required to support the ever more sophisticated robotics software. These software architectures must support complex behaviors involving adaptation and learning, implemented, in particular, by neural networks. We present in this paper a neural based schema  software architecture for the development and execution of autonomous robots in both simulated and real worlds. This architecture has been developed in the context of adaptive robotic agents, ecological robots , cooperating and competing with each other in adapting to their environment. The architecture is the result of integrating a number of development and execution systems: NSL, a neural simulation language; ASL, an abstract schema language; and MissionLab, a schema-based mission-oriented simulation and robot system. This work contributes to modeling in Brain Theory (BT) and Cognitive Psychology, with applications in Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), Autonomous Agents and Robotics.