Roger A. Chevalier

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States

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Publications (252)1472.74 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive spectral and morphological analysis of the remnant of Supernova (SN) 1987A with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The non-thermal and thermal components of the radio emission are investigated in images from 94 to 672 GHz ($\lambda$ 3.2 mm to 450 $\mu$m), with the assistance of a high-resolution 44 GHz synchrotron template from the ATCA, and a dust template from ALMA observations at 672 GHz. An analysis of the emission distribution over the equatorial ring in images from 44 to 345 GHz highlights a gradual decrease of the east-to-west asymmetry ratio with frequency. We attribute this to the shorter synchrotron lifetime at high frequencies. Across the transition from radio to far infrared, both the synchrotron/dust-subtracted images and the spectral energy distribution (SED) suggest additional emission beside the main synchrotron component ($S_{\nu}\propto\nu^{-0.73}$) and the thermal component originating from dust grains at $T\sim22$ K. This excess could be due to free-free flux or emission from grains of colder dust. However, a second flat-spectrum synchrotron component appears to better fit the SED, implying that the emission could be attributed to a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The residual emission is mainly localised west of the SN site, as the spectral analysis yields $-0.4\lesssim\alpha\lesssim-0.1$ across the western regions, with $\alpha\sim0$ around the central region. If there is a PWN in the remnant interior, these data suggest that the pulsar may be offset westward from the SN position.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae provide a backdrop from which we can probe the end state of stellar evolution in the final years before the progenitor star explodes. As the shock from the supernova expands, the timespan of mass loss history we are able to probe also extends, providing insight to rapid time-scale processes that govern the end state of massive stars. While supernovae transition into remnants on timescales of decades to centuries, observations of this phase are currently limited. Here we present observations of SN 1970G, serendipitously observed during the monitoring campaign of SN 2011fe that shares the same host galaxy. Utilizing the new Jansky Very Large Array upgrade and a deep X-ray exposure taken by the Chandra Space Telescope, we are able to recover this middle-aged supernova and distinctly resolve it from the HII cloud with which it is associated. We find that the flux density of SN 1970G has changed significantly since it was last observed - the X-ray luminosity has increased by a factor of ~3, while we observe a significantly lower radio flux of only 27.5 micro-Jy at 6.75 GHz, a level only detectable through the upgrades now in operation at the Jansky Very Large Array. These changes suggest that SN 1970G has entered a new stage of evolution towards a supernova remnant, and we may be detecting the turn-on of the pulsar wind nebula. Deep radio observations of additional middle-aged supernovae with the improved radio facilities will provide a statistical census of the delicate transition period between supernova and remnant.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 788(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Xiaping Tang, Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: Observations of the middle-aged supernova remnants IC 443, W28 and W51C indicate that the brightnesses at GeV and TeV energies are correlated with each other and with regions of molecular clump interaction, but not with the radio synchrotron brightness. We suggest that the radio emission is primarily associated with a radiative shell in the interclump medium of a molecular cloud, while the gamma-ray emission is primarily associated with the interaction of the radiative shell with molecular clumps. The shell interaction produces a high pressure region, so that the gamma-ray luminosity can be approximately reproduced even if shock acceleration of particles is not efficient, provided that energetic particles are trapped in the cooling region. In this model, the spectral shape \ga 2 GeV is determined by the spectrum of cosmic ray protons. Models in which diffusive shock acceleration determines the spectrum tend to underproduce TeV emission because of the limiting particle energy that is attained.
    03/2014; 784(2).
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    ABSTRACT: Type IIn supernovae have bright optical emission and high bolometric luminosities. Due to their high mass loss, their are expected to have dense circumstellar interaction, thus produce bright radio and X-ray emission. We aim to carry out systematic study to understand their circumstellar interaction, mass loss properties. Here, I provide specific examples of two Type IIn supernovae, 2006jd and 2010jl.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze HST and ground based observations of the luminous Type IIn SN 2010jl from 26 to 1128 days. At maximum the bolometric luminosity was 3x10^{43} erg/s and even at ~ 850 days exceeds 10^{42} erg/s. An emission excess in the NIR, dominating after 400 days, probably originates in dust in the CSM. The observed total radiated energy is at least 6.5x10^{50} ergs. The spectral lines display two distinct components, one broad, due to electron scattering, and one narrow. The broad component is initially symmetric around zero velocity, but becomes blueshifted after ~50 days. We find that dust absorption in the ejecta is unlikely to explain the line shifts, and attribute this instead to radiative acceleration by the SN radiation. From the lines, and the X-ray and dust properties, there is strong evidence for large scale asymmetries in the circumstellar medium. The narrow line component suggests an expansion velocity of ~100 km/s for the CSM. The UV spectrum shows strong low and high ionization lines, while the optical shows a number of narrow coronal lines excited by the X-rays. From the narrow UV lines we find large N/C and N/O ratios, indicative of CNO processing in the progenitor. The luminosity evolution is consistent with a radiative shock in an r^{-2} CSM and indicates a mass loss rate of ~ 0.1 M_O/yr for a 100 km/s wind. The total mass lost is at least ~3 Msun. The mass loss rate, wind velocity, density and CNO enrichment are consistent with the SN expanding into a dense CSM characteristic of that of an LBV progenitor. Even in the last full spectrum at 850 days we do not see any indication of debris processed in a core collapse SN. We attribute this to the extremely dense CSM, which is still opaque to electron scattering. Finally, we discuss the relevance of these UV spectra for detecting Type IIn supernovae in high redshift surveys.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Supernova (SN) explosions are crucial engines driving the evolution of galaxies by shock heating gas, increasing the metallicity, creating dust, and accelerating energetic particles. In 2012 we used the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array to observe SN 1987A, one of the best-observed supernovae since the invention of the telescope. We present spatially resolved images at 450um, 870um, 1.4mm, and 2.8mm, an important transition wavelength range. Longer wavelength emission is dominated by synchrotron radiation from shock-accelerated particles, shorter wavelengths by emission from the largest mass of dust measured in a supernova remnant (>0.2Msun). For the first time we show unambiguously that this dust has formed in the inner ejecta (the cold remnants of the exploded star's core). The dust emission is concentrated to the center of the remnant, so the dust has not yet been affected by the shocks. If a significant fraction survives, and if SN 1987A is typical, supernovae are important cosmological dust producers.
    12/2013; 782(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present extensive radio and X-ray observations of SN\, 2012au, the energetic radio luminous supernova of type Ib that may be a link between subsets of hydrogen-poor superluminous and normal core-collapse supernovae. The observations closely follow models of synchrotron emission from shock heated circum-burst medium that has a wind density profile ($\rho \propto r^{-2}$). We infer a sub-relativistic velocity for the shock wave $v \approx 0.2\,c$ and a radius of $r \approx 1.4 \times 10^{16} \rm cm$ at 25 days after the estimated date of explosion. For a constant wind velocity of 1000 km/s we determine the constant mass loss rate of the progenitor to be $\dot{M} = 3.6 \times 10^{-6} \rm M_{\odot} yr^{-1}$, consistent with the estimates from X-ray observations. We estimate the total internal energy of the radio emitting material to be $E \approx 10^{47} \rm erg$, which is intermediate to SN\,1998bw and SN\,2002ap. Evolution of the radio light curves of SN\,2012au is consistent with interaction with a smoothly distributed circum-burst medium and absence of stellar shells ejected from previous outbursts out to $r \approx 10^{17} \rm cm$ from the supernova site. Based on this we conclude that the evolution of the SN\,2012au progenitor star was relatively quiet during the final years preceding explosion. We find that the bright radio emission from SN2012au was not dissimilar from other core collapse supernovae despite it's extraordinary optical properties. We speculate that it was the nature of the explosion that led to the unusual demise of the SN2012au progenitor star.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ~10^49 erg is coupled to mildly-relativistic (Gamma=1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with rate Mdot ~10^-5 Msun yr^-1 (for wind velocity v_w = 1000 km s^-1). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB100316D as one of the weakest central-engine driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation which dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t>10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretion onto a newly formed black hole might explain the excess of radiation. However, significant departure from the standard fall-back scenario is required.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The 2012 explosion of SN2009ip raises questions about our understanding of the late stages of massive star evolution. Here we present a comprehensive study of SN2009ip during its remarkable re-brightening(s). High-cadence photometric and spectroscopic observations from the GeV to the radio band obtained from a variety of ground-based and space facilities (including the VLA, Swift, Fermi, HST and XMM) constrain SN2009ip to be a low energy (E~ 10^50 erg for an ejecta mass ~ 0.5 Msun) and likely asymmetric explosion in a complex medium shaped by multiple eruptions of the restless progenitor star. Most of the energy is radiated as a result of the shock breaking out through a dense shell of material located at 5x10^14 cm with M~0.1 Msun, ejected by the precursor outburst ~40 days before the major explosion. We interpret the NIR excess of emission as signature of dust vaporization of material located further out (R>4x 10^15 cm), the origin of which has to be connected with documented mass loss episodes in the previous years. Our modeling predicts bright neutrino emission associated with the shock break-out if the cosmic ray energy is comparable to the radiated energy. We connect this phenomenology with the explosive ejection of the outer layers of the massive progenitor star, that later interacted with material deposited in the surroundings by previous eruptions. Future observations will reveal if the luminous blue variable (LBV) progenitor star survived. Irrespective of whether the explosion was terminal, SN2009ip brought to light the existence of new channels for sustained episodic mass-loss, the physical origin of which has yet to be identified.
    05/2013;
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    Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: Supernovae of Type IIn (narrow line) appear to be explosions that had strong mass loss before the event, so that the optical luminosity is powered by the circumstellar interaction. If the mass loss region has an optical depth $>c/v_s$, where $v_s$ is the shock velocity, the shock breakout occurs in the mass loss region and a significant fraction of the explosion energy can be radiated. The emission from the superluminous SN 2006gy and the normal luminosity SN 2011ht can plausibly be attributed to shock breakout in a wind, with SN 2011ht being a low energy event. Superluminous supernovae of Type I may derive their luminosity from interaction with a mass loss region of limited extent. However, the distinctive temperature increase to maximum luminosity has not been clearly observed in Type I events. Suggested mechanisms for the strong mass loss include pulsational pair instability, gravity-waves generated by instabilities in late burning phases, and binary effects.
    04/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report spectroscopic and photometric observations of the Type IIb SN 2011dh obtained between 4 and 34 days after the estimated date of explosion (May 31.5 UT). The data cover a wide wavelength range from 2,000 Angstroms in the UV to 2.4 microns in the NIR. Optical spectra provide line profiles and velocity measurements of HI, HeI, CaII and FeII that trace the composition and kinematics of the SN. NIR spectra show that helium is present in the atmosphere as early as 11 days after the explosion. A UV spectrum obtained with the STIS reveals that the UV flux for SN 2011dh is low compared to other SN IIb. The HI and HeI velocities in SN 2011dh are separated by about 4,000 km/s at all phases. We estimate that the H-shell of SN 2011dh is about 8 times less massive than the shell of SN 1993J and about 3 times more massive than the shell of SN 2008ax. Light curves (LC) for twelve passbands are presented. The maximum bolometric luminosity of $1.8 \pm 0.2 \times 10^{42}$ erg s$^{-1}$ occurred about 22 days after the explosion. NIR emission provides more than 30% of the total bolometric flux at the beginning of our observations and increases to nearly 50% of the total by day 34. The UV produces 16% of the total flux on day 4, 5% on day 9 and 1% on day 34. We compare the bolometric light curves of SN 2011dh, SN 2008ax and SN 1993J. The LC are very different for the first twelve days after the explosions but all three SN IIb display similar peak luminosities, times of peak, decline rates and colors after maximum. This suggests that the progenitors of these SN IIb may have had similar compositions and masses but they exploded inside hydrogen shells that that have a wide range of masses. The detailed observations presented here will help evaluate theoretical models for this supernova and lead to a better understanding of SN IIb.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2013; 781(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Xiaping Tang, Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for young pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae. The model is characterized by a termination shock (TS) between the PWN and unshocked pulsar wind. Relativistic particles are injected at the TS and follow an advective flow to the outer boundary. However, toroidal structure of well studied young PWN like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58 and G21.5-0.9 is only present in the region close to the TS. In the outer parts of the nebulae, filamentary and loop-like structure is observed. Also, the radial variation of spectral index due to synchrotron losses is smoother than expected in the MHD flow model. We find that a pure diffusion model with energy independent diffusion and a transmitting boundary can reproduce the basic data on nebular size and spectral index variation for the Crab, 3C 58, and G21.5-0.9. Energy dependent diffusion is also discussed. Power law variations of the coefficient with energy are degenerate with variation in the input particle energy distribution index in the steady state case. Monte Carlo simulations of particle transport with both diffusion and advection for the Crab nebula and 3C 58 suggest a picture in which advection dominates the inner part of the PWN where toroidal structure is clearly present. Diffusion dominates the outer part of the PWN where filamentary and loop-like structure is observed. The source of the chaotic field is uncertain, but may be related to Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the outer boundary of young nebulae and/or the kink instability of the toroidal magnetic field.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 03/2013; 8(S291):265-268.
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    ABSTRACT: We present observations with VLT and HST of the broad emission lines from the inner ejecta and reverse shock of SN 1987A from 1999 until 2012 (days 4381 -- 9100 after explosion). We detect broad lines from H-alpha, H-beta, Mg I], Na I, [O I], [Ca II] and a feature at 9220 A. We identify the latter line with Mg II 9218, 9244,most likely pumped by Ly-alpha fluorescence. H-alpha, and H-beta both have a centrally peaked component, extending to 4500 km/s and a very broad component extending to 11,000 km/s, while the other lines have only the central component. The low velocity component comes from unshocked ejecta, heated mainly by X-rays from the circumstellar ring collision, whereas the broad component comes from faster ejecta passing through the reverse shock. The reverse shock flux in H-alpha has increased by a factor of 4-6 from 2000 to 2007. After that there is a tendency of flattening of the light curve, similar to what may be seen in soft X-rays and in the optical lines from the shocked ring. The core component seen in H-alpha, [Ca II] and Mg II has experienced a similar increase, consistent with that found from HST photometry. The ring-like morphology of the ejecta is explained as a result of the X-ray illumination, depositing energy outside of the core of the ejecta. The energy deposition in the ejecta of the external X-rays illumination is calculated using explosion models for SN 1987A and we predict that the outer parts of the unshocked ejecta will continue to brighten because of this. We finally discuss evidence for dust in the ejecta from line asymmetries.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2012; 768(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type IIn supernovae (SNe IIn) are a rare (<10%) subclass of SNe that exhibit narrow emission lines due to a dense, pre-existing circumstellar medium (CSM). Although all evidence points to massive star progenitors, the precise stellar type remains elusive since few observed stars and no theoretical models can reproduce the mass-loss characteristics. More confusing, the narrow lines and dense winds associated with SNe IIn have now been identified in an unexpectedly diverse list of subclasses, suggesting multiple progenitors may be responsible. Multi-wavelength observations, spanning the X-ray to the infrared (IR) to the radio regime, can probe various aspects of shock interaction and dust formation associated with the dense CSM for months to years after the radioactive emission fades. Such diagnostics probe the progenitor mass-loss history, CSM characteristics, and even the elusive SN shock breakout. Given the required coordination amongst space-based and large ground-based telescopes, however, existing data sets are sparse and insufficient. Here we submit a joint Spitzer/Chandra proposal to trace the mass-loss history of SNe IIn with a thorough, coordinated, multi-wavelength approach. With guaranteed time on Keck and JVLA already at our disposal and an aligned team of SNe IIn experts spanning all wavelengths, now is the time for such a program.
    Spitzer Proposal. 12/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a generalized analytic formalism for the inverse Compton X-ray emission from hydrogen-poor supernovae and apply this framework to SN 2011fe using Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT), UVOT, and Chandra observations. We characterize the optical properties of SN 2011fe in the Swift bands and find them to be broadly consistent with a "normal" SN Ia, however, no X-ray source is detected by either XRT or Chandra. We constrain the progenitor system mass-loss rate \dot{M}< 2\times 10^{-9}\ {M_{\odot }}\ yr^{-1} (3σ c.l.) for wind velocity vw = 100 km s-1. Our result rules out symbiotic binary progenitors for SN 2011fe and argues against Roche lobe overflowing subgiants and main-sequence secondary stars if >~ 1% of the transferred mass is lost at the Lagrangian points. Regardless of the density profile, the X-ray non-detections are suggestive of a clean environment (n CSM < 150 cm-3) for 2 × 1015 <~ R <~ 5 × 1016 cm around the progenitor site. This is either consistent with the bulk of material being confined within the binary system or with a significant delay between mass loss and supernova explosion. We furthermore combine X-ray and radio limits from Chomiuk et al. to constrain the post-shock energy density in magnetic fields. Finally, we searched for the shock breakout pulse using gamma-ray observations from theInterplanetary Network and find no compelling evidence for a supernova-associated burst. Based on the compact radius of the progenitor star we estimate that the shock breakout pulse was likely not detectable by current satellites.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2012; 751(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on Expanded Very Large Array observations of the Type IIb supernova 2011dh, performed over the first 100 days of its evolution and spanning 1-40 GHz in frequency. The radio emission is well described by the self-similar propagation of a spherical shockwave, generated as the supernova ejecta interact with the local circumstellar environment. Modeling this emission with a standard synchrotron self-absorption (SSA) model gives an average expansion velocity of v Almost-Equal-To 0.1c, supporting the classification of the progenitor as a compact star (R{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 11} cm). We find that the circumstellar density is consistent with a {rho}{proportional_to}r{sup -2} profile. We determine that the progenitor shed mass at a constant rate of Almost-Equal-To 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, assuming a wind velocity of 1000 km s{sup -1} (values appropriate for a Wolf-Rayet star), or Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} assuming 20 km s{sup -1} (appropriate for a yellow supergiant [YSG] star). Both values of the mass-loss rate assume a converted fraction of kinetic to magnetic energy density of {epsilon}{sub B} = 0.1. Although optical imaging shows the presence of a YSG, the rapid optical evolution and fast expansion argue that the progenitor is a more compact star-perhaps a companion to the YSG. Furthermore, the excellent agreement of the radio properties of SN 2011dh with the SSA model implies that any YSG companion is likely in a wide, non-interacting orbit.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 05/2012; 750(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report four years of radio and X-ray monitoring of the Type IIn supernova SN 2006jd at radio wavelengths with the Very Large Array, Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and Expanded Very Large Array; at X-ray wavelengths with {\em Chandra}, {\em XMM-Newton} and {\em Swift}-XRT. We assume that the radio and X-ray emitting particles are produced by shock interaction with a dense circumstellar medium. The radio emission shows an initial rise that can be attributed to free-free absorption by cool gas mixed into the nonthermal emitting region; external free-free absorption is disfavored because of the shape of the rising light curves and the low gas column density inferred along the line of sight to the emission region. The X-ray luminosity implies a preshock circumstellar density $\sim 10^6$ cm$^{-3}$ at a radius $r\sim 2\times 10^{16}$ cm, but the column density inferred from the photoabsorption of X-rays along the line of sight suggests a significantly lower density. The implication may be an asymmetry in the interaction. The X-ray spectrum shows Fe line emission at 6.9 keV that is stronger than is expected for the conditions in the X-ray emitting gas. We suggest that cool gas mixed into the hot gas plays a role in the line emission. Our radio and X-ray data both suggest the density profile is flatter than $r^{-2}$ because of the slow evolution of the unabsorbed emission.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2012; 755(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Xiaping Tang, Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: The model for pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) as the result of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) downstream flow from a shocked, relativistic pulsar wind has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae observed close to the central pulsars. However, observations of well-studied young nebulae like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58, and G21.5--0.9 do not show the toroidal magnetic field on a larger scale that might be expected in the MHD flow model; in addition, the radial variation of spectral index due to synchrotron losses is smoother than expected in the MHD flow model. We find that pure diffusion models can reproduce the basic data on nebular size and spectral index variation for the Crab, 3C 58, and G21.5--0.9. Most of our models use an energy independent diffusion coefficient; power law variations of the coefficient with energy are degenerate with variation in the input particle energy distribution index in the steady state, transmitting boundary case. Energy dependent diffusion is a possible reason for the smaller diffusion coefficient inferred for the Crab. Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport allowing for advection and diffusion of particles suggest that diffusion dominates over much of the total nebular volume of the Crab. Advection dominates close to the pulsar and is likely to play a role in the X-ray half-light radius. The source of diffusion and mixing of particles is uncertain, but may be related to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the outer boundary of a young PWN or to instabilities in the toroidal magnetic field structure.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2012; 752(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    Roger A. Chevalier
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    ABSTRACT: A variety of supernova events, including Type IIn supernovae and ultraluminous supernovae, appear to have lost up to solar masses of their envelopes in 10's to 100's of years leading up to the explosion. In order to explain the close timing of the mass loss and supernova events, we explore the possibility that the mass loss is driven by common envelope evolution of a compact object (neutron star or black hole) in the envelope of a massive star and the supernova is triggered by the inspiral of the compact object to the central core of the companion star. The expected rate of such events is smaller than the observed rate of Type IIn supernovae but the rates may agree within the uncertainties. The mass loss velocity is related to the escape velocity from the common envelope system and is comparable to the observed velocity of 100's of km s$^{-1}$ in Type IIn events. The mass loss is expected to be denser near the equatorial plane of the binary system and there is good evidence that the circumstellar media in Type IIn supernovae are asymmetric. Some of these supernova types show evidence for energies in excess of the canonical $10^{51}$ ergs, which might be the result of explosions from rapid accretion onto a compact object through a disk.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2012; 752(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report two epochs of Chandra-ACIS X-ray imaging spectroscopy of the nearby bright Type IIn supernova SN 2010jl, taken around two months and then a year after the explosion. The majority of the X-ray emission in both spectra is characterized by a high temperature ( 10 keV) and is likely to be from the forward shocked region resulting from circumstellar interaction. The absorption column density in the first spectrum is high (~1024 cm–2), more than three orders of magnitude higher than the Galactic absorption column, and we attribute it to absorption by circumstellar matter. In the second epoch observation, the column density has decreased by a factor of three, as expected for shock propagation in the circumstellar medium. The unabsorbed 0.2-10 keV luminosity at both epochs is ~7 × 1041 erg s–1. The 6.4 keV Fe line clearly present in the first spectrum is not detected in the second spectrum. The strength of the fluorescent line is roughly that expected for the column density of circumstellar gas, provided the Fe is not highly ionized. There is also evidence for an absorbed power-law component in both spectra, which we attribute to a background ultraluminous X-ray source.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2012; 750(1):L2. · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

6k Citations
1,472.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1992–2014
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 1979–2012
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2008
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2007
    • Russian Academy of Sciences
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Moskva, Moscow, Russia
  • 2006
    • Stockholm University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden
  • 2004
    • Princeton University
      • Department of Astrophysical Sciences
      Princeton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1978
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      Maryland, United States
  • 1977–1978
    • University of Michigan
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States