[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intravenous administration of heparin and heparin-bonded extracorporeal circuits are frequently used to mitigate the deleterious effects of blood contact with synthetic materials. The work described here utilized human blood in a micro-perfusion circuit to experimentally examine the effects of intravenous and surface-bound heparin on cellular activation. Activation markers of coagulation and of the inflammatory response were examined using flow cytometry; specifically, markers of platelet, monocyte, polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN), and lymphocyte activation were quantified. The results indicate that surface-bound heparin reduces the inflammatory response whereas systemically administered heparin does not. This finding has important implications for blood-contacting devices, particularly within the context of recently elucidated connections between inflammation pathways and coagulation disorders. Data presented indicate that surface-bound heparin and intravenously administered heparin play distinct, but vital roles in rendering biomaterial surfaces compatible with blood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The blood compatibility of materials and surfaces used for medical device fabrication is a crucial factor in their function and effectiveness. Expansion of device use into more sensitive and longer term applications warrants increasingly detailed evaluations of blood compatibility that reach beyond the customary measures mandated by regulatory requirements. A panel of tests that assess both deposition on the surface and activation of circulating blood in contact with the surface has been developed. Specifically, the ability of a surface to modulate the biological response of blood is assessed by measuring: (1) dynamic thrombin generation; (2) surface-bound thrombin activity after exposure to blood; (3) activation of monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets; (4) activation of complement; and (5) adherent monocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, lymphocytes, and platelets on blood-contacting surfaces. The tests were used to evaluate surfaces modified with immobilized heparin (Ension's proprietary bioactive surface) and demonstrated that the modified surfaces reduced platelet activation, leukocyte activation, and complement activation in flowing human blood. Perfusion of the surfaces with human platelet-rich plasma showed that the immobilized heparin surfaces also reduce both dynamic thrombin levels in the circulating plasma and residual thrombin generated at the material surface.
Journal of Biomaterials Applications 12/2011; · 2.76 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Collagen was covalently linked to the surface of Titanium (Ti) by a surface modification process involving deposition of a thin film from hydrocarbon plasma followed by acrylic acid grafting. The composition and properties of surface-modified Ti were investigated by a number of surface sensitive techniques: XPS, ATR-IR, atomic force microscopy and AFM force-separation curves. In vitro tests were performed to check samples cytotoxicity and the behavior of osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells. In vivo experiments involved 12 weeks implants in rabbit muscle as general biocompatibility assessment and 1-month implants in rabbit bone to evaluate the effect of surface modification on osteointegration rate. Results of XPS measurements show how surface chemistry is affected throughout each step of the surface modification process, finally leading to a complete and homogeneous collagen overlayer on top of the Ti samples. AFM data clearly display the modification of the surface topography and of the surface area of the samples as a consequence of the grafting and coupling process. AFM force-distance curves show that the interfacial structure responds by shrinking or swelling to variations of ionic force of the surrounding aqueous environment, suggesting that the aqueous interface of the biochemically modified Ti samples has enhanced degrees of freedom as compared to the inorganic surface of plain Ti. As to biological evaluations, the biochemically modified Ti samples are safe in terms of cytotoxicity and in vivo biocompatibility assessment. SaOS-2 cells growth rate is lower on collagen modified surfaces, and no significant difference is detected in terms of alkaline phosphatase production as compared to control Ti. Importantly, implants in rabbit femur show a significant increase of bone growth and bone-to-implant contact in the case of the collagen modified samples, confirming that biochemical modifications of Ti surface can enhance the rate of bone healing as compared to plain Ti.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Heparinization of artificial surfaces has been proven to reduce the intrinsic thrombogenicity of such surfaces. The mechanism by which immobilized heparin reduces thrombogenicity is not completely understood. In the present study heparin-, alginic acid- and chondroitin-6-sulphate-coated surfaces were examined for protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and thrombin generation. The protein-binding capacity from solutions of purified proteins was significantly higher for heparin-coated surfaces when compared with alginic acid- and chondroitin sulphate-coated surfaces. Yet, when the surfaces were exposed to flowing plasma, only the heparinized surface adsorbed significant amounts of antithrombin. None of the surfaces adsorbed fibrinogen under these conditions, and as a result no platelets adhered from flowing whole blood. Our results indicate that protein adsorption and platelet adhesion from anticoagulated blood cannot be used to assess the thrombogenicity of (coated) artificial surfaces. Indeed, the thrombin generation potentials of the different surfaces varied remarkable: while non-coated surface readily produced thrombin, alginic acid- and chondroitin sulphate-coated surfaces showed a marked reduction and virtually no thrombin was generated in flowing whole blood passing by heparinized surfaces.