[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB controls the expression of multiple genes involved in immunity and inflammation. The initial activation and duration of NF-kappaB signaling is regulated by posttranslational modifications to IkappaB kinase, which earmarks inhibitors of NF-kappaB for degradation. Prior studies suggest that K63-linked ubiquitination of NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator), an IkappaB kinase regulatory subunit, is critical for NF-kappaB and MAPK signaling following engagement of Ag receptors. We now demonstrate that NF-kappaB and MAPK pathways are largely unaffected in primary cells from mice harboring a ubiquitination-defective form of NEMO, NEMO-KR. TLR- but not Ag receptor-induced cellular responses are impaired in NEMO-KR mice, which are more resistant to LPS-induced endotoxic shock than wild-type animals. Thus, one function of NEMO ubiquitination is to fine tune innate immune responses under TLR control.
The Journal of Immunology 07/2008; 180(11):7107-11. · 5.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reoviruses induce apoptosis both in cultured cells and in vivo. Apoptosis plays a major role in the pathogenesis of reovirus encephalitis and myocarditis in infected mice. Reovirus-induced apoptosis is dependent on the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB and downstream cellular genes. To better understand the mechanism of NF-kappaB activation by reovirus, NF-kappaB signaling intermediates under reovirus control were investigated at the level of Rel, IkappaB, and IkappaB kinase (IKK) proteins. We found that reovirus infection leads initially to nuclear translocation of p50 and RelA, followed by delayed mobilization of c-Rel and p52. This biphasic pattern of Rel protein activation is associated with the degradation of the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha but not the structurally related inhibitors IkappaBbeta or IkappaBepsilon. Using IKK subunit-specific small interfering RNAs and cells deficient in individual IKK subunits, we demonstrate that IKKalpha but not IKKbeta is required for reovirus-induced NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis. Despite the preferential usage of IKKalpha, both NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis were attenuated in cells lacking IKKgamma/Nemo, an essential regulatory subunit of IKKbeta. Moreover, deletion of the gene encoding NF-kappaB-inducing kinase, which is known to modulate IKKalpha function, had no inhibitory effect on either response in reovirus-infected cells. Collectively, these findings indicate a novel pathway of NF-kappaB/Rel activation involving IKKalpha and IKKgamma/Nemo, which together mediate the expression of downstream proapoptotic genes in reovirus-infected cells.
Journal of Virology 03/2007; 81(3):1360-71. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reovirus infection activates NF-kappaB, which leads to programmed cell death in cultured cells and in the murine central nervous system. However, little is known about how NF-kappaB elicits this cellular response. To identify host genes activated by NF-kappaB following reovirus infection, we used HeLa cells engineered to express a degradation-resistant mutant of IkappaBalpha (mIkappaBalpha) under the control of an inducible promoter. Induction of mIkappaBalpha inhibited the activation of NF-kappaB and blocked the expression of NF-kappaB-responsive genes. RNA extracted from infected and uninfected cells was used in high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to examine the expression of constitutively activated genes and reovirus-stimulated genes in the presence and absence of an intact NF-kappaB signaling axis. Comparison of the microarray profiles revealed that the expression of 176 genes was significantly altered in the presence of mIkappaBalpha. Of these genes, 64 were constitutive and not regulated by reovirus, and 112 were induced in response to reovirus infection. NF-kappaB-regulated genes could be grouped into four distinct gene clusters that were temporally regulated. Gene ontology analysis identified biological processes that were significantly overrepresented in the reovirus-induced genes under NF-kappaB control. These processes include the antiviral innate immune response, cell proliferation, response to DNA damage, and taxis. Comparison with previously identified NF-kappaB-dependent gene networks induced by other stimuli, including respiratory syncytial virus, Epstein-Barr virus, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and heart disease, revealed a number of common components, including CCL5/RANTES, CXCL1/GRO-alpha, TNFAIP3/A20, and interleukin-6. Together, these results suggest a genetic program for reovirus-induced apoptosis involving NF-kappaB-directed expression of cellular genes that activate death signaling pathways in infected cells.
Journal of Virology 03/2006; 80(3):1077-86. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB governs the expression of multiple genes involved in cell growth, immunity, and inflammation. Nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB is regulated from the cytoplasm by IkappaB kinase-beta (IKKbeta), which earmarks inhibitors of NF-kappaB for polyubiquination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Activation of IKKbeta is contingent upon signal-induced phosphorylation of its T loop at Ser-177/Ser-181. T loop phosphorylation also renders IKKbeta a substrate for monoubiquitination in cells exposed to chronic activating cues, such as the Tax oncoprotein or sustained signaling through proinflammatory cytokine receptors. Here we provide evidence that the T loop-proximal residue Lys-163 in IKKbeta serves as a major site for signal-induced monoubiquitination with significant regulatory potential. Conservative replacement of Lys-163 with Arg yielded a monoubiquitination-defective mutant of IKKbeta that retains kinase activity in Tax-expressing cells but is impaired for activation mediated by chronic signaling from the type 1 receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Phosphopeptide mapping experiments revealed that the Lys-163 --> Arg mutation also interferes with proper in vivo but not in vitro phosphorylation of cytokine-responsive serine residues located in the distal C-terminal region of IKKbeta. Taken together, these data indicate that chronic phosphorylation of IKKbeta at Ser-177/Ser-181 leads to monoubiquitin attachment at nearby Lys-163, which in turn modulates the phosphorylation status of IKKbeta at select C-terminal serines. This mechanism for post-translational cross-talk may play an important role in the control of IKKbeta signaling during chronic inflammation.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2005; 280(52):43272-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a key regulatory role in the cellular response to pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). In the absence of TNF, NF-kappaB is sequestered in the cytoplasm by inhibitory IkappaB proteins. Phosphorylation of IkappaBby the beta-catalytic subunit of IKK, a multicomponent IkappaB kinase, targets the inhibitor for proteolytic destruction and facilitates nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. This pathway is initiated by TNF-dependent phosphorylation of T loop serines in IKKbeta, which greatly stimulates IkappaB kinase activity. Prior in vitro mixing experiments indicate that protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) can dephosphorylate these T loop serines and inactivate IKK, suggesting a negative regulatory role for PP2A in IKK signaling. Here we provided several in vivo lines of evidence indicating that PP2A plays a positive rather than a negative role in the regulation of IKK. First, TNF-induced degradation of IkappaB is attenuated in cells treated with okadaic acid or fostriecin, two potent inhibitors of PP2A. Second, PP2A forms stable complexes with IKK in untransfected mammalian cells. This interaction is critically dependent on amino acid residues 121-179 of the IKKgamma regulatory subunit. Third, deletion of the PP2A-binding site in IKKgamma attenuates T loop phosphorylation and catalytic activation of IKKbeta in cells treated with TNF. Taken together, these data provide strong evidence that the formation of IKK.PP2A complexes is required for the proper induction of IkappaB kinase activity in vivo.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2005; 280(43):35974-82. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Staphylococcal enterotoxin B and related toxins that target T cells have the capacity to elicit systemic inflammation, tissue injury, and death. Genes that encode mediators of inflammation can be globally inhibited by blocking the nuclear import of stress-responsive transcription factors. Here we show that cell-permeant peptides targeting Rch1/importin alpha/karyopherin alpha 2, a nuclear import adaptor protein, are delivered to T cells where they inhibit the staphylococcal enterotoxin B-induced production of inflammatory cytokines ex vivo in cultured primary spleen cells and in vivo. The systemic production of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and interleukin-6 was attenuated in mice either by a cell-permeant cyclized form of SN50 peptide or by a transgene whose product suppresses the nuclear import of transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B in T cells. The extent of liver apoptosis and hemorrhagic necrosis was also reduced, which correlated with significantly decreased mortality rates. These findings highlight nuclear import inhibitors as a potentially useful countermeasure for staphylococcal enterotoxin B and other toxins that trigger harmful systemic inflammatory responses.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2004; 279(18):19239-46. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initiation of the genetic programs for inflammation and immunity involves nuclear mobilization of transcription factor NF-kappaB. This signal-dependent process is controlled in part by the beta-catalytic subunit of IkappaB kinase (IKKbeta), which marks IkappaBalpha and other cytoplasmic inhibitors of NF-kappaB for proteolytic destruction. The catalytic activity of IKKbeta is stimulated by pathologic and physiologic inducers of NF-kappaB, such as the Tax oncoprotein and proinflammatory cytokines. We now report evidence that these NF-kappaB inducers target IKKbeta for conjugation to ubiquitin (Ub) in mammalian cells. The apparent molecular size of modified IKKbeta is compatible with monoubiquitination rather than attachment of a multimeric Ub chain. The modification is contingent upon signal-induced phosphorylation of the activation T loop in IKKbeta at Ser-177/Ser-181. The formation of IKKbeta-Ub conjugates is disrupted in cells expressing YopJ, a Ub-like protein protease that interferes with the NF-kappaB signaling pathway. These findings indicate an important mechanistic link between phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and the biologic action of IKKbeta.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(49):48903-6. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Initiation of the genetic programs for inflammation and immunity involves nuclear mobilization of transcription factor NF-κB.
This signal-dependent process is controlled in part by the β-catalytic subunit of IκB kinase (IKKβ), which marks IκBα and
other cytoplasmic inhibitors of NF-κB for proteolytic destruction. The catalytic activity of IKKβ is stimulated by pathologic
and physiologic inducers of NF-κB, such as the Tax oncoprotein and proinflammatory cytokines. We now report evidence that
these NF-κB inducers target IKKβ for conjugation to ubiquitin (Ub) in mammalian cells. The apparent molecular size of modified
IKKβ is compatible with monoubiquitination rather than attachment of a multimeric Ub chain. The modification is contingent
upon signal-induced phosphorylation of the activation T loop in IKKβ at Ser-177/Ser-181. The formation of IKKβ-Ub conjugates
is disrupted in cells expressing YopJ, a Ub-like protein protease that interferes with the NF-κB signaling pathway. These
findings indicate an important mechanistic link between phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and the biologic action of IKKβ.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2003; 278(49):48903-48906. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inducible protection from apoptosis in vivo controls the size of cell populations. An important question in this respect is how differentiation affects mechanisms of apoptosis regulation. Among mature T lymphocytes, the NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factors are coupled to receptors that control cell population sizes by concurrently regulating survival and multiplication. In the present study, we used a transgenic inhibitor of NF-kappaB/Rel signaling to investigate the role of this pathway in proliferation and death of mature T cells in vivo. The results indicate that NF-kappaB integrates two critical yet distinct molecular pathways preventing apoptosis affected by the death receptor Fas, coordinately regulating levels of FLIP and Bcl-x(L) in primary T cells. Surprisingly, NF-kappaB blockade preferentially impacted naive as compared to memory T cells. The Fas/FasL pathway was linked to these findings by evidence that the abnormalities imposed by NF-kappaB inhibition were ameliorated by Fas deficiency, particularly for the CD4(+) lineage. Moreover, levels of an inhibitor of Fas-mediated apoptosis, c-FLIP, were diminished in cells expressing the transgenic inhibitor. NF-kappaB was also linked to T cell survival in vivo by mediating induction of Bcl-x(L): restoration of Bcl-x(L) levels reversed the preferential deficit of naive T cells, differentially impacting the CD4 and CD8 subsets. These results show that promoting survival and effective multiplication are central roles for NF-kappaB in T lymphoid homeostasis in vivo, but this effect and its underlying mechanisms are influenced by the developmental state of the lymphocyte.
Cell Death and Differentiation 10/2003; 10(9):1032-44. · 8.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a pivotal regulatory role in the genetic programs for cell cycle progression and inflammation. Nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB is controlled by an inducible protein kinase called IKK, which earmarks cytoplasmic inhibitors of NF-kappaB for proteolytic destruction. IKK contains two structurally related catalytic subunits termed IKKalpha and IKKbeta as well as a noncatalytic subunit called IKKgamma/NEMO. Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding IKKgamma can interfere with NF-kappaB signaling and lead to immunodeficiency disease. Although its precise mechanism of action remains unknown, IKKgamma is phosphorylated in concert with the induction of NF-kappaB by the viral oncoprotein Tax and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF). We now demonstrate that TNF-induced phosphorylation of IKKgamma is blocked in cells deficient for IKKbeta but not IKKalpha. Phosphopeptide-mapping experiments with metabolically radiolabeled cells indicate that IKKbeta phosphorylates human IKKgamma at Ser-31, Ser-43, and Ser-376 following the enforced expression of either the Tax oncoprotein or the type 1 TNF receptor. Inducible phosphorylation of IKKgamma is attenuated following the deletion of its COOH-terminal zinc finger domain (amino acids 397-419), a frequent target for mutations that occur in IKKgamma-associated immunodeficiencies. As such, IKKbeta-mediated phosphorylation of IKKgamma at these specific serine targets may facilitate proper regulation of NF-kappaB signaling in the immune system.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2003; 278(22):19642-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tax transforming protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) persistently activates transcription factor NF-kappaB and deregulates the expression of downstream genes that mediate cell cycle entry. We recently found that Tax binds to and chronically stimulates the catalytic function of IkappaB kinase (IKK), a cellular enzyme complex that phosphorylates and inactivates the IkappaB inhibitory subunit of NF-kappaB. We now demonstrate that the IKKbeta catalytic subunit and IKKgamma regulatory subunit of IKK are chronically phosphorylated in HTLV1-infected and Tax-transfected cells. Alanine substitutions at Ser-177 and Ser-181 in the T loop of IKKbeta protect both of these IKK subunits from Tax-directed phosphorylation and prevent the induction of IkappaB kinase activity. Each of these inhibitory effects is recapitulated in Tax transfectants expressing the bacterial protein YopJ, a potent in vivo agonist of T loop phosphorylation. Moreover, ectopically expressed forms of IKKbeta that contain glutamic acid substitutions at Ser-177 and Ser-181 have the capacity to phosphorylate a recombinant IKKgamma substrate in vitro. We conclude that Tax-induced phosphorylation of IKKbeta is required for IKKbeta activation, phosphoryl group transfer to IKKgamma, and acquisition of the deregulated IKK phenotype.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2001; 276(27):24445-8. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tax transforming protein encoded by human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) persistently activates transcription factor
NF-κB and deregulates the expression of downstream genes that mediate cell cycle entry. We recently found that Tax binds to
and chronically stimulates the catalytic function of IκB kinase (IKK), a cellular enzyme complex that phosphorylates and inactivates
the IκB inhibitory subunit of NF-κB. We now demonstrate that the IKKβ catalytic subunit and IKKγ regulatory subunit of IKK
are chronically phosphorylated in HTLV1-infected and Tax-transfected cells. Alanine substitutions at Ser-177 and Ser-181 in
the T loop of IKKβ protect both of these IKK subunits from Tax-directed phosphorylation and prevent the induction of IκB kinase
activity. Each of these inhibitory effects is recapitulated in Tax transfectants expressing the bacterial protein YopJ, a
potent in vivo agonist of T loop phosphorylation. Moreover, ectopically expressed forms of IKKβ that contain glutamic acid substitutions
at Ser-177 and Ser-181 have the capacity to phosphorylate a recombinant IKKγ substrate in vitro. We conclude that Tax-induced phosphorylation of IKKβ is required for IKKβ activation, phosphoryl group transfer to IKKγ,
and acquisition of the deregulated IKK phenotype.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2001; 276(27):24445-24448. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transcription factor NF-kappaB is biochemically coupled to the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and activated transiently during an adaptive immune response. The author's laboratory is investigating the signal-dependent regulation of NF-kappaB, its downstream gene targets, and its function in lymphocyte biology. Our studies have revealed novel enzymatic checkpoints in the NF-kappaB signaling pathway and constitutive repressors of NF-kappaB that might be clinically applicable for therapeutic control of the immune system. We have also found that the Tax transforming protein encoded by human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV1) binds to and persistently activates an inducible protein kinase in the TCR/NF-kappaB axis. This viral/host interaction appears to trigger the inappropriate expression of NF-kappaB and the development of HTLV1-associated disease.
Immunologic Research 02/2001; 23(2-3):157-66. · 2.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mutations in the gene encoding Bruton's tyrosine kinase (btk) cause the B cell deficiency diseases X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) in humans and X-linked immunodeficiency (xid) in mice. In vivo and in vitro studies indicate that the BTK protein is essential for B cell survival, cell cycle progression, and proliferation in response to B cell antigen receptor (BCR) stimulation. BCR stimulation leads to the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, which in turn regulates genes controlling B cell growth. We now demonstrate that a null mutation in btk known to cause the xid phenotype prevents BCR-induced activation of NF-kappaB. This defect can be rescued by reconstitution with wild-type BTK. This mutation also interferes with BCR-directed activation of IkappaB kinase (IKK), which normally targets the NF-kappaB inhibitor IkappaBalpha for degradation. Taken together, these findings indicate that BTK couples IKK and NF-kappaB to the BCR. Interference with this coupling mechanism may contribute to the B cell deficiencies observed in XLA and xid.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 06/2000; 191(10):1745-54. · 13.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oncogenic mutations in ras lead to constitutive activation of downstream signaling pathways that modulate the activities of transcription factors. In turn, these factors control the expression of a subset of genes responsible for neoplastic cell transformation. Recent studies suggest that transcription factor NF-kappa B contributes to cell transformation by inhibiting the cell death signal activated by oncogenic Ras. In this study, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity by forced expression of a super-repressor form of I kappa B alpha, the major inhibitor of NF-kappa B, markedly decreased the growth rate, saturation density and tumorigenicity of oncogenic H-Ras transformed rat embryo fibroblasts. Such clonally isolated cells overexpressing I kappa B alpha super-repressor not only were viable but also exhibited no sign of spontaneous apoptosis. Inhibition of NF-kappa B in these cells was functionally demonstrated by both the loss of cytokine induced DNA binding activity and a profoundly increased sensitivity to cell death in response to TNF-alpha treatment. In contrast, inhibition of NF-kappa B activity in non-transformed fibroblasts had minimal effect on growth, but rendered the cells resistant to a subsequent transformation by H-ras oncogene. Similar results were also obtained with rat intestinal epithelial cells harboring an inducible ras oncogene. Taken together, these findings suggest that NF-kappa B activity is essential for abnormal cell proliferation and tumorigenicity activated by the ras oncogene and highlight an alternative functional role for NF-kappa B in oncogenic Ras-mediated cell transformation that is distinct from its anti-apoptotic activity. Oncogene (2000) 19, 841 - 849.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD83 is expressed on the surface of mature dendritic cells that present processed antigens to T lymphocytes. In addition, T cells acquire CD83 expression following mitogenic stimulation in vitro. Here we report two lines of evidence demonstrating that this inducible lymphocyte response is genetically programmed by transcription factor NF-κB and contingent upon proteolytic breakdown of its cytoplasmic inhibitor IκBα. First, signal-dependent induction of CD83 mRNA expression is blocked in both transformed and primary T cells harboring a degradation-resistant mutant of IκBα that constitutively represses NF-κB. Second, as revealed in gel retardation assays, the IκBα constitutive repressor prevents the inducible interaction of NF-κB with consensus recognition sites identified in the CD83 promoter. Given that IκBα is functionally coupled to the T-cell antigen receptor, these findings suggest that the downstream transcription unit for CD83 is triggered by NF-κB during an adaptive immune response.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endotoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a proinflammatory agonist produced by gram-negative bacteria and a contributor to the majority of the 400,000 septic shock cases recorded annually in US hospitals. The primary target cells for LPS are monocytes and macrophages. Their response consists of massive production of proinflammatory cytokines, reactive oxygen- and nitrogen-intermediates, procoagulants, and cell adhesion molecules. In turn, expression of these LPS-responsive factors contributes to collapse of the circulatory system, to disseminated intravascular coagulation, and to a 30% mortality rate. A common intracellular mechanism responsible for the expression of septic shock genes in monocytes and macrophages involves the activation of NF-kappaB. This transcription factor is regulated by a family of structurally related inhibitors including IkappaBalpha, IkappaBbeta, and IkappaBepsilon, which trap NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. In this report, the investigators show that LPS derived from different gram-negative bacteria activates cytokine-responsive IkappaB kinases containing catalytic subunits termed IKKalpha (IKK1) and IKKbeta (IKK2). The kinetics of IKKalpha and IKKbeta activation in LPS-stimulated human monocytic cells differ from that recorded on their stimulation with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, thereby implying a distinct activation mechanism. LPS-activated IKK complexes phosphorylate all 3 inhibitors of NF-kappaB: IkappaBalpha, IkappaBbeta, and IkappaBepsilon. Moreover, LPS activates IKKbeta preferentially, relative to IKKalpha. Thus, IKK complex constitutes the main intracellular target for LPS-induced NF-kappaB signaling to the nucleus in human monocytic cells to activate genes responsible for septic shock.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tax oncoprotein of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 constitutively activates transcription factor NF-kappaB by a mechanism involving Tax-induced phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha, a labile cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-kappaB. To trigger this signaling cascade, Tax associates stably with and persistently activates a cellular IkappaB kinase (IKK) containing both catalytic (IKKalpha and IKKbeta) and noncatalytic (IKKgamma) subunits. We now demonstrate that IKKgamma enables Tax to dock with the IKKbeta catalytic subunit, resulting in chronic IkappaB kinase activation. Mutations in either IKKgamma or Tax that prevent formation of these higher order Tax.IKK complexes also interfere with the ability of Tax to induce IKKbeta catalytic function in vivo. Deletion mapping studies indicate that amino acids 1-100 of IKKgamma are required for this Tax targeting function. Together, these findings identify IKKgamma as an adaptor protein that directs the stable formation of pathologic Tax.IKK complexes in virally infected T cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1999; 274(22):15297-300. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Tax oncoprotein of human T cell leukemia virus type 1 constitutively activates transcription factor NF-κB by a mechanism
involving Tax-induced phosphorylation of IκBα, a labile cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. To trigger this signaling cascade,
Tax associates stably with and persistently activates a cellular IκB kinase (IKK) containing both catalytic (IKKα and IKKβ)
and noncatalytic (IKKγ) subunits. We now demonstrate that IKKγ enables Tax to dock with the IKKβ catalytic subunit, resulting
in chronic IκB kinase activation. Mutations in either IKKγ or Tax that prevent formation of these higher order Tax·IKK complexes
also interfere with the ability of Tax to induce IKKβ catalytic function in vivo. Deletion mapping studies indicate that amino acids 1–100 of IKKγ are required for this Tax targeting function. Together,
these findings identify IKKγ as an adaptor protein that directs the stable formation of pathologic Tax·IKK complexes in virally
infected T cells.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1999; 274(22):15297-15300. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Members of the NF-kappaB/Rel transcription factor family are expressed constitutively during B cell development and are further induced by mitogen activation. Mice harboring germline disruptions in individual NF-kappaB subunits exhibit distinct defects in B lymphocyte activation and survival. However, the role of NF-kappaB in the production and maintenance of B cell subsets has been difficult to dissect in these knockout animals due to functional impairment of other immune cells. To directly address the cell autonomous requirements for NF-kappaB in humoral immune compartments, transgenic mice were generated that express a transdominant form of Ikappa-Balpha in B lineage cells. Whereas expression of the inhibitor had only modest effects on basal or LPS-induced levels of NF-kappaB, transgenic B cells were significantly impaired for cellular proliferation and NF-kappaB induction in response to B cell receptor (BCR) crosslinking. Furthermore, the trans-dominant inhibitor produced a dose-dependent reduction in the population of mature splenic B cells. This cellular defect was more pronounced in long-lived B lymphocyte subsets that recirculate to the adult bone marrow. Together, these results indicate that BCR-mediated signaling must maintain NF-kappaB levels above a stringent threshold for proper regulation of B cell homeostasis.