[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It has been proposed that infections with helminths can protect from the development of allergic diseases. However, epidemiological and experimental studies have yielded conflicting results. Therefore we investigated if an infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis influenced the development of allergen-induced Th2 cell responses in mice. We found a decrease in allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and Eotaxin levels in the airways when mice were infected with the helminths 8 weeks, and especially 4 weeks, but not 1 or 2 weeks before ovalbumin (OVA)-airway challenge. While OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE serum levels and cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions were not reduced by the helminth infection, there was a reduction in OVA-specific IgG1 and IgE levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice. Suppression of allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and reduction of Eotaxin production was not observed in IL-10 deficient mice. In addition, we found that helminth-induced airway eosinophilia and Eotaxin production was strongly increased in IL-10 deficient mice infected with the helminths in comparison to control mice. Taken together, these results show that infection with N. brasiliensis suppresses the development of allergen-induced airway eosinophilia and that this effect may be mediated by IL-10. Our results support the view that helminth infections can contribute to the suppression of allergies in humans.
International Immunology 05/2004; 16(4):585-96. · 3.18 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most infections with respiratory viruses induce Th1 responses characterized by the generation of Th1 and CD8(+) T cells secreting IFN-gamma, which in turn have been shown to inhibit the development of Th2 cells. Therefore, it could be expected that respiratory viral infections mediate protection against asthma. However, the opposite seems to be true, because viral infections are often associated with the exacerbation of asthma. For this reason, we investigated what effect an influenza A (flu) virus infection has on the development of asthma. We found that flu infection 1, 3, 6, or 9 wk before allergen airway challenge resulted in a strong suppression of allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. This effect was associated with strongly reduced numbers of Th2 cells in the airways and was not observed in IFN-gamma- or IL-12 p35-deficient mice. Mice infected with flu virus and immunized with OVA showed decreased IL-5 and increased IFN-gamma, eotaxin/CC chemokine ligand (CCL)11, RANTES/CCL5, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCL2 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and increased airway hyperreactivity compared with OVA-immunized mice. These results suggest that the flu virus infection reduced airway eosinophilia by inducing Th1 responses, which lead to the inefficient recruitment of Th2 cells into the airways. However, OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 serum levels, blood eosinophilia, and goblet cell metaplasia in the lung were not reduced by the flu infection. Flu virus infection also directly induced AHR and goblet cell metaplasia. Taken together, our results show that flu virus infections can induce, exacerbate, and suppress features of asthmatic disease in mice.
The Journal of Immunology 06/2003; 170(9):4601-11. · 5.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously published data relating the expression of p53 and Ki-67 to radiation response in head and neck cancer are conflicting. This may be due to differences in patient selection and treatment modalities. In this study of a homogenous population of patients with oral cavity cancer, Ki-67 and p53 indices were correlated with histopathologically assessed tumor regression after preoperative radiochemotherapy and longterm outcome.
Eighty-eight patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and treated between September 1985 and November 1995 by preoperative radiochemotherapy and definitive surgery were included in this analysis. By immunohistochemistry (IHC) the pre-irradiation expression of p53 and of Ki-67 were analyzed and correlated with the histopathologically proven tumor regression, overall survival and local control.
The overall 2- and 5-year survival rates were 76.5% and 63%, the locoregional control rates were 84% and 79%, respectively. After preoperative radiochemotherapy 29 patients (33%) showed complete tumor regression (ypT(0) classification). Survival and local control rates were significantly higher for patients showing ypT(0) classification than ypT(1-4) classification (p < 0.01). This effect was independent of pretreatment tumor classification in multivariate analysis. Pre-irradiation p53 status and Ki-67 index had no influence on tumor regression and clinical outcome in these patients.
Complete tumor regression after preoperative treatment is related to an improved outcome in combined modality treatment of oral cavity cancer. The presented study could not demonstrate an influence of p53 and Ki-67 status as detected by immunohistochemical staining on survival, local control, or tumor regression after radiochemotherapy.
International Journal of Radiation OncologyBiologyPhysics 01/2001; 49(1):147-54. · 4.18 Impact Factor