William A Wallace

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

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Publications (72)433.57 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Donkey Pulmonary Fibrosis (DPF) is a spontaneous syndrome of aged donkeys with high prevalence (35%). No previous detailed characterisation of DPF has been performed. We sought to determine the similarities of DPF to recognised patterns of human pulmonary fibrosis. Whole lungs were collected from 32 aged donkeys at routine necropsy. Gross examination revealed pulmonary fibrosis in 19 donkeys (DPF cases), while 13 (controls) had grossly normal lungs. Eighteen whole inflated ex vivo lungs (11 DPF, 7 controls) were imaged with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), while the remainder were sectioned and photographed. Tissue samples were collected from all lungs for histopathological evaluation using a standardised protocol. HRCT images and histology sections were reviewed independently and blindly. Lung tissue was analysed for herpes virus, fungal hyphae, mycobacteria and dust content. Ten of 19 DPF lungs were categorised as being 'consistent with' pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) according to previously defined histological and imaging criteria. All 10 PPFE-like lungs had marked pleural and subpleural fibrosis, predominantly within the upper lung zone, with accompanying intra-alveolar fibrosis and elastosis. Asinine herpesvirus (AsHV) was ubiquitously expressed within control and DPF lung tissue. No other aetiological agents were identified. Many cases of DPF share key pathological and imaging features with human PPFE, a rare interstitial pneumonia. Consequently, further study of DPF may help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of human PPFE.
    Chest 03/2014; · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 02/2014; 189(4):500-1. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -18F-Sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) are promising novel biomarkers of disease activity in aortic stenosis. We compared 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG uptake with histological characterization of the aortic valve and assessed whether they predicted disease progression. -Thirty patients with aortic stenosis underwent combined positron emission and computed tomography (PET/CT) using 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG radiotracers. In 12 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement surgery (10 for each tracer), radiotracer uptake (mean TBR) was compared to CD68 (inflammation), alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin (calcification) immunohistochemistry of the excised valve. In 18 patients (6 aortic sclerosis; 5 mild, 7 moderate), aortic valve CT calcium scoring was performed at baseline and after 1 year. Aortic valve 18F-NaF uptake correlated with both alkaline phosphatase (r=0.65, P=0.04) and osteocalcin (r=0.68, P=0.03) immunohistochemistry. There was no significant correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and CD68 staining (r=-0.43, P=0.22). After 1 year, aortic valve calcification increased from 314 (193-540) to 365 (207-934) Agatston units (P<0.01). Baseline 18F-NaF uptake correlated closely with the change in calcium score (r=0.66, P<0.01) and this improved further (r= 0.75, P<0.01) when 18F-NaF uptake overlying CT-defined macrocalcification was excluded. No significant correlation was noted between valvular 18F-FDG uptake and change in calcium score (r=-0.11, P=0.66). -18F-NaF uptake identifies active tissue calcification and predicts disease progression in patients with calcific aortic stenosis. Clinical Trial Registration-URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01358513.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 02/2014; · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of non-invasive imaging to identify ruptured or high-risk coronary atherosclerotic plaques would represent a major clinical advance for prevention and treatment of coronary artery disease. We used combined PET and CT to identify ruptured and high-risk atherosclerotic plaques using the radioactive tracers (18)F-sodium fluoride ((18)F-NaF) and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG). In this prospective clinical trial, patients with myocardial infarction (n=40) and stable angina (n=40) underwent (18)F-NaF and (18)F-FDG PET-CT, and invasive coronary angiography. (18)F-NaF uptake was compared with histology in carotid endarterectomy specimens from patients with symptomatic carotid disease, and with intravascular ultrasound in patients with stable angina. The primary endpoint was the comparison of (18)F-fluoride tissue-to-background ratios of culprit and non-culprit coronary plaques of patients with acute myocardial infarction. In 37 (93%) patients with myocardial infarction, the highest coronary (18)F-NaF uptake was seen in the culprit plaque (median maximum tissue-to-background ratio: culprit 1·66 [IQR 1·40-2·25] vs highest non-culprit 1·24 [1·06-1·38], p<0·0001). By contrast, coronary (18)F-FDG uptake was commonly obscured by myocardial uptake and where discernible, there were no differences between culprit and non-culprit plaques (1·71 [1·40-2·13] vs 1·58 [1·28-2·01], p=0·34). Marked (18)F-NaF uptake occurred at the site of all carotid plaque ruptures and was associated with histological evidence of active calcification, macrophage infiltration, apoptosis, and necrosis. 18 (45%) patients with stable angina had plaques with focal (18)F-NaF uptake (maximum tissue-to-background ratio 1·90 [IQR 1·61-2·17]) that were associated with more high-risk features on intravascular ultrasound than those without uptake: positive remodelling (remodelling index 1·12 [1·09-1·19] vs 1·01 [0·94-1·06]; p=0·0004), microcalcification (73% vs 21%, p=0·002), and necrotic core (25% [21-29] vs 18% [14-22], p=0·001). (18)F-NaF PET-CT is the first non-invasive imaging method to identify and localise ruptured and high-risk coronary plaque. Future studies are needed to establish whether this method can improve the management and treatment of patients with coronary artery disease. Chief Scientist Office Scotland and British Heart Foundation.
    The Lancet 11/2013; · 39.21 Impact Factor
  • Thorax 09/2013; · 8.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the advent of PET scanning and endoscopic minimally invasive methods of sampling mediastinal lymph nodes, surgical assessment, particularly by mediastinoscopy, remains an important tool for staging non-small cell lung cancer. We carried out a retrospective review of mediastinoscopic lymph node biopsies taken at The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh between 1996 and 2006 and performed additional histological investigations on select cases. In total, 89/802 (11%) patients had a negative mediastinoscopy but final resection stage of N2/N3. Within this group, 41/89 (46%) patients had positive resection lymph nodes in stations potentially accessible to biopsy at mediastinoscopy. Of these, 30 (34%) patients had had the metastatic station sampled at mediastinoscopy. Further histopathological examination (multiple levels and pancytokeratin immunohistochemistry) of these original biopsies detected micrometastases in two cases, one of which, in retrospect, had been missed on the original section at the time of reporting. Isolated tumour cells were detected by immunohistochemistry in another two cases. Routine examination of additional levels and immunohistochemical staining of mediastinal lymph nodes biopsies is not required and would not improve the overall negative predictive value of the procedure.
    Journal of clinical pathology 08/2013; · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) continues to have poor prognosis with a 2 year survival of less than 20%. Recent studies have suggested that SCLC may affect the immune system to allow it to evade immunological responses. We hypothesised that any such effect would be characterised by a decrease in lymphoid cells associated with tumour in biopsies and that this might relate to patient outcome. METHODS Sixty-four SCLC biopsies were immunohistochemically stained with anti-CD45 antibody to identify immune cells associated with tumour. A mean CD45 count per high power field for each case was obtained and the results correlated with age, sex, stage, performance status (PS), treatment with chemotherapy / radiotherapy and overall survival. RESULTS The median CD45 count for all cases was taken as 40 (CD4540). Kaplan-Meier plots demonstrated better survival for patients with a CD4540 >40 (p<0.009). No relationship between CD4540 and age, sex , stage, treatment by chemotherapy or radiotherapy was identified. While PS was a significant predictor of survival (p=0.014) it did not correlate with CD4540. In patients with better ECOG performance status (PS ≤ 2) the CD4540 demonstrated a highly significant survival advantage for those with CD4540 >40 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS The data indicate that a) simple immunohistochemical assessment of immune cell infiltrates in routinely processed and stained biopsies of primary tumours can provide prognostic information in SCLC; and, b) tumour associated CD45+ cells in SCLC biopsies may be a good clinical marker to identify patients with poor prognosis despite good PS.
    Chest 07/2012; · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Rationale: Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, with no currently effective pharmacological therapies. Neutrophils have been specifically implicated in the pathogenesis of ALI, and there has been significant research into the mechanisms of early neutrophil recruitment, but those controlling the later phases of neutrophil emigration that characterize disease are poorly understood. Objectives: To determine the influence of peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) in established ALI. Methods: In a murine model of LPS-induced ALI, three separate models of conditional monocyte ablation were used: systemic liposomal clodronate (sLC), inducible depletion using CD11b diphtheria toxin receptor (CD11b DTR) transgenic mice, and antibody-dependent ablation of CCR2(hi) monocytes. Measurements and Main Results: PBMs play a critical role in regulating neutrophil emigration in established murine LPS-induced lung injury. Gr1(hi) and Gr1(lo) PBM subpopulations contribute to this process. PBM depletion is associated with a significant reduction in measures of lung injury. The specificity of PBM depletion was demonstrated by replenishment studies in which the effects were reversed by systemic PBM infusion but not by systemic or local pulmonary infusion of mature macrophages or lymphocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that PBMs, or the mechanisms by which they influence pulmonary neutrophil emigration, could represent therapeutic targets in established ALI.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 07/2012; 186(6):514-24. · 11.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stem cell and other cell-based therapies have emerged as potential, novel treatment options for a wide range of diseases including acute myocardial infarction and severe heart failure. 1–5 Ensuring the delivery of a sufficient number of cells to the target site is critical to the devel-opment and assessment of these therapies. Several meth-ods have been proposed for tracking cells in vivo, but their translation into the clinical setting has been hampered for many reasons including limitations of the imaging modality in humans and the failure of reagents to comply with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) standards: a prerequisite for clinical use. Background—Cell therapy is an emerging and exciting novel treatment option for cardiovascular disease that relies on the delivery of functional cells to their target site. Monitoring and tracking cells to ensure tissue delivery and engraftment is a critical step in establishing clinical and therapeutic efficacy. The study aims were (1) to develop a Good Manufacturing Practice–compliant method of labeling competent peripheral blood mononuclear cells with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO), and (2) to evaluate its potential for magnetic resonance cell tracking in humans. Methods and Results—Peripheral blood mononuclear cells 1–5×10 9 were labeled with SPIO. SPIO-labeled cells had similar in vitro viability, migratory capacity, and pattern of cytokine release to unlabeled cells. After intramuscular administration, up to 10 8 SPIO-labeled cells were readily identifiable in vivo for at least 7 days using magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using a phased-dosing study, we demonstrated that systemic delivery of up to 10 9 SPIO-labeled cells in humans is safe, and cells accumulating in the reticuloendothelial system were detectable on clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In a healthy volunteer model, a focus of cutaneous inflammation was induced in the thigh by intradermal injection of tuberculin. Intravenously delivered SPIO-labeled cells tracked to the inflamed skin and were detectable on magnetic resonance imaging. Prussian blue staining of skin biopsies confirmed iron-laden cells in the inflamed skin. Conclusions—Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be labeled with SPIO without affecting their viability or function. SPIO labeling for magnetic resonance cell tracking is a safe and feasible technique that has major potential for a range of cardiovascular applications including monitoring of cell therapies and tracking of inflammatory cells. (Circ Cardiovasc Imaging. 2012;5:509-517.) Clinical Trial Registration—URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00972946, NCT01169935.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 07/2012; 5:509-517. · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cell therapy is an emerging and exciting novel treatment option for cardiovascular disease that relies on the delivery of functional cells to their target site. Monitoring and tracking cells to ensure tissue delivery and engraftment is a critical step in establishing clinical and therapeutic efficacy. The study aims were (1) to develop a Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant method of labeling competent peripheral blood mononuclear cells with superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO), and (2) to evaluate its potential for magnetic resonance cell tracking in humans. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells 1-5 × 10(9) were labeled with SPIO. SPIO-labeled cells had similar in vitro viability, migratory capacity, and pattern of cytokine release to unlabeled cells. After intramuscular administration, up to 10(8) SPIO-labeled cells were readily identifiable in vivo for at least 7 days using magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using a phased-dosing study, we demonstrated that systemic delivery of up to 10(9) SPIO-labeled cells in humans is safe, and cells accumulating in the reticuloendothelial system were detectable on clinical magnetic resonance imaging. In a healthy volunteer model, a focus of cutaneous inflammation was induced in the thigh by intradermal injection of tuberculin. Intravenously delivered SPIO-labeled cells tracked to the inflamed skin and were detectable on magnetic resonance imaging. Prussian blue staining of skin biopsies confirmed iron-laden cells in the inflamed skin. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can be labeled with SPIO without affecting their viability or function. SPIO labeling for magnetic resonance cell tracking is a safe and feasible technique that has major potential for a range of cardiovascular applications including monitoring of cell therapies and tracking of inflammatory cells. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00972946, NCT01169935.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 07/2012; 5(4):509-17. · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acute tissue injury is often considered in the context of a wound. The host response to wounding is an orchestrated series of events, the fundamentals of which are preserved across all multicellular organisms. In the human lung, there are a myriad of causes of injury, but only a limited number of consequences: complete resolution, persistent and/or overwhelming inflammation, a combination of resolution/remodelling with fibrosis or progressive fibrosis. In all cases where complete resolution does not occur, there is the potential for significant ongoing morbidity and ultimately death through respiratory failure. In this review, we consider the elements of injury, resolution and repair as they occur in the lung. We specifically focus on the role of the macrophage, long considered to have a pivotal role in regulating the host response to injury and tissue repair.
    International Journal of Experimental Pathology 07/2012; 93(4):243-51. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although the biology the PLUNC (recently renamed BPI fold, BPIF) family of secreted proteins is poorly understood, multiple array based studies have suggested that some are differentially expressed in lung diseases. We have examined the expression of BPIFB1 (LPLUNC1), the prototypic two-domain containing family member, in lungs from CF patients and in mouse models of CF lung disease. BPIFB1 was localized in CF lung samples along with BPIFA1, MUC5AC, CD68 and NE and directly compared to histologically normal lung tissues and that of bacterial pneumonia. We generated novel antibodies to mouse BPIF proteins to conduct similar studies on ENaC transgenic (ENaC-Tg) mice, a model for CF-like lung disease. Small airways in CF demonstrated marked epithelial staining of BPIFB1 in goblet cells but staining was absent from alveolar regions. BPIFA1 and BPIFB1 were not co-localised in the diseased lungs. In ENaC-Tg mice there was strong staining of both proteins in the airways and luminal contents. This was most marked for BPIFB1 and was noted within 2 weeks of birth. The two proteins were present in distinct cells within epithelium. BPIFB1 was readily detected in BAL from ENaC-Tg mice but was absent from wild-type mice. Alterations in the expression of BPIF proteins is associated with CF lung disease in humans and mice. It is unclear if this elevation of protein production, which results from phenotypic alteration of the cells within the diseased epithelium, plays a role in the pathogenesis of the disease.
    Histochemie 07/2012; 138(5):749-58. · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
  • American Thoracic Society 2012 International Conference, May 18-23, 2012 • San Francisco, California; 05/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) kills at least one person every 2 hr in the United Kingdom. Some patients do relatively well but most have rapidly progressive disease. There is no effective treatment and overall 2-year survival is less than 5%. Patients with SCLC have poorly understood local and systemic immune defects and can be immunocompromised. As CD4(+) T lymphocytes coordinate and regulate immunity, a better understanding of interactions between SCLC tumour cells and CD4(+) T cells may lead to effective molecular immunotherapy. We show that some, but not all, SCLC tumour cell lines secrete molecules that induce IL-10 secretion by and de novo differentiation of functional CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)CD127(lo)Helios(-) regulatory T (Treg) cells in healthy blood lymphocytes. FOXP3(+) T cells were found in SCLC tumour biopsies, and patients with higher ratios of FOXP3(+) cells in tumour infiltrates have a worse survival rate. The inhibitory effect of SCLC tumour cells was not affected by blocking IL-10 receptor or TGF-β signalling but was partially reversed by blocking IL-15, which is reported to be involved in human Treg cells induction. IL-15 was secreted by SCLC cells that inhibited CD4(+) T-cell proliferation and was present in SCLC biopsy tumour cells. These novel findings demonstrate that SCLC tumour cells can induce CD4(+) T-cell-mediated immunosuppression. This gives a potential mechanism by which SCLC tumour cells may downregulate local and systemic immune responses and contribute to poor patient survival. Our data suggest that IL-15 and Treg cells are potential new therapeutic targets to improve immune response and patient survival in SCLC.
    International Journal of Cancer 04/2012; 131(6):E928-37. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pathophysiology of aortic stenosis is incompletely understood, and the relative contributions of valvular calcification and inflammation to disease progression are unknown. Patients with aortic sclerosis and mild, moderate, and severe stenosis were compared prospectively with age- and sex-matched control subjects. Aortic valve severity was determined by echocardiography. Calcification and inflammation in the aortic valve were assessed by 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake with the use of positron emission tomography. One hundred twenty-one subjects (20 controls; 20 aortic sclerosis; 25 mild, 33 moderate, and 23 severe aortic stenosis) were administered both 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG. Quantification of tracer uptake within the valve demonstrated excellent interobserver repeatability with no fixed or proportional biases and limits of agreement of ±0.21 (18F-NaF) and ±0.13 (18F-FDG) for maximum tissue-to-background ratios. Activity of both tracers was higher in patients with aortic stenosis than in control subjects (18F-NaF: 2.87±0.82 versus 1.55±0.17; 18F-FDG: 1.58±0.21 versus 1.30±0.13; both P<0.001). 18F-NaF uptake displayed a progressive rise with valve severity (r(2)=0.540, P<0.001), with a more modest increase observed for 18F-FDG (r(2)=0.218, P<0.001). Among patients with aortic stenosis, 91% had increased 18F-NaF uptake (>1.97), and 35% had increased 18F-FDG uptake (>1.63). A weak correlation between the activities of these tracers was observed (r(2)=0.174, P<0.001). Positron emission tomography is a novel, feasible, and repeatable approach to the evaluation of valvular calcification and inflammation in patients with aortic stenosis. The frequency and magnitude of increased tracer activity correlate with disease severity and are strongest for 18F-NaF. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01358513.
    Circulation 11/2011; 125(1):76-86. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Large production volumes of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONP) might be anticipated to pose risks, of accidental inhalation in occupational and even in consumer settings. Herein, we further investigated the pathological changes induced by ZnONP and their possible mechanism of action. Two doses of ZnONP (50 and 150 cm2/rat) were intratracheally instilled into the lungs of rats with assessments made at 24 h, 1 wk, and 4 wks after instillation to evaluate dose- and time-course responses. Assessments included bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, histological analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and IgE and IgA measurement in the serum and BAL fluid. To evaluate the mechanism, alternative ZnONP, ZnONP-free bronchoalveolar lavage exudate, and dissolved Zn2+ (92.5 μg/rat) were also instilled to rats. Acridine orange staining was utilized in macrophages in culture to evaluate the lysosomal membrane destabilization by NP. ZnONP induced eosinophilia, proliferation of airway epithelial cells, goblet cell hyperplasia, and pulmonary fibrosis. Bronchocentric interstitial pulmonary fibrosis at the chronic phase was associated with increased myofibroblast accumulation and transforming growth factor-β positivity. Serum IgE levels were up-regulated by ZnONP along with the eosinophilia whilst serum IgA levels were down-regulated by ZnONP. ZnONP are rapidly dissolved under acidic conditions (pH 4.5) whilst they remained intact around neutrality (pH 7.4). The instillation of dissolved Zn2+ into rat lungs showed similar pathologies (eg., eosinophilia, bronchocentric interstitial fibrosis) as were elicited by ZnONP. Lysosomal stability was decreased and cell death resulted following treatment of macrophages with ZnONP in vitro. We hypothesise that rapid, pH-dependent dissolution of ZnONP inside of phagosomes is the main cause of ZnONP-induced diverse progressive severe lung injuries.
    Particle and Fibre Toxicology 09/2011; 8:27. · 9.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Morphological sub-classification of non-small cell carcinoma in small biopsy specimens presents difficulties for pathologists and recent advances in chemotherapy have resulted in increased pressure to more robustly differentiate between squamous carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The results of audits examining classification of non-small cell lung carcinoma by pathologists working in a specialist team within a regional centre and the effect of introducing adjunct immunohistochemistry into the reporting pathway are presented. It is concluded that the use of a limited immunohistochemical panel substantially reduces the number of cases when a specific cell type cannot be identified or 'favoured' (34% to 6%) and that the classification obtained correlates well with that found in subsequent resection specimens. In addition the introduction of immunohistochemistry substantially reduces the variability in reporting practice between pathologists.
    Journal of clinical pathology 06/2011; 64(12):1136-8. · 2.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The fibrous shape of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) raises concern that they may pose an asbestos-like inhalation hazard, leading to the development of diseases, especially mesothelioma. Direct instillation of long and short CNTs into the pleural cavity, the site of mesothelioma development, produced asbestos-like length-dependent responses. The response to long CNTs and long asbestos was characterized by acute inflammation, leading to progressive fibrosis on the parietal pleura, where stomata of strictly defined size limit the egress of long, but not short, fibers. This was confirmed by demonstrating clearance of short, but not long, CNT and nickel nanowires and by visualizing the migration of short CNTs from the pleural space by single-photon emission computed tomographic imaging. Our data confirm the hypothesis that, although a proportion of all deposited particles passes through the pleura, the pathogenicity of long CNTs and other fibers arises as a result of length-dependent retention at the stomata on the parietal pleura.
    American Journal Of Pathology 06/2011; 178(6):2587-600. · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • W A H Wallace, D M Rassl
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    ABSTRACT: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided transbronchial or transoesophageal lymph node aspiration is increasingly used as a method of diagnosing nonsmall cell carcinoma. Data validating the accuracy of cell typing of nonsmall cell carcinoma using these cytological samples has not been assessed. 23 samples were identified in Edinburgh, UK and a further 25 in Cambridge, UK, with matching histological samples. The morphological cell type, as assessed on the cytological preparations and cell blocks, was recorded and immunohistochemical staining was performed, where possible, as an adjunct. The final cell type, as assessed by morphology with or without immunohistochemistry, was correlated with that reported in the paired histological samples. Cell blocks with tumour were available in 39 out of 48 cases. The accuracy of cell typing when no cell block was available was four out of nine cases. This increased to 25 out of 39 when a cell block was available, increasing to 33 out of 39 with the addition of immunohistochemistry. The overall accuracy of classification was 37 out of 48 cases. Accurate cell typing of nonsmall cell carcinomas can be performed using endoscopically derived fine-needle aspirates. The importance of obtaining sufficient material for the production of cell blocks is critical in allowing optimal assessment.
    European Respiratory Journal 03/2011; 38(4):911-7. · 6.36 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
433.57 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1991–2013
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • • Centre for Cardiovascular Science
      • • MRC Centre for Inflammation Research
      • • Division of Pathology
      • • College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2005–2012
    • The University of Sheffield
      • School of Clinical Dentistry
      Sheffield, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2011
    • The Bracton Centre, Oxleas NHS Trust
      Дартфорде, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2002
    • Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
      Sheffield, England, United Kingdom