[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Alpha subunit of Escherichia coli ATP synthase was expressed with a C-terminal 6-His tag and purified. Pure alpha was monomeric, was competent in nucleotide binding, and had normal N-terminal sequence. In F1 subunit dissociation/reassociation experiments it supported full reconstitution of ATPase, and reassociated complexes were able to bind to F1-depleted membranes with restoration of ATP-driven proton pumping. Therefore interaction between the stator delta subunit and the N-terminal residue 1-22 region of alpha occurred normally when pure alpha was complexed with other F1 subunits. On the other hand, three different types of experiments showed that no interaction occurred between pure delta and isolated alpha subunit. Unlike in F1, the N-terminal region of isolated alpha was not susceptible to trypsin cleavage. Therefore, during assembly of ATP synthase, complexation of alpha subunit with other F1 subunits is prerequisite for delta subunit binding to the N-terminal region of alpha. We suggest that the N-terminal 1-22 residues of alpha are sequestered in isolated alpha until released by binding of beta to alpha subunit. This prevents 1/1 delta/alpha complexes from forming and provides a satisfactory explanation of the stoichiometry of one delta per three alpha seen in the F1 sector of ATP synthase, assuming that steric hindrance prevents binding of more than one delta to the alpha3/beta3 hexagon. The cytoplasmic fragment of the b subunit (bsol) did not bind to isolated alpha. It might also be that complexation of alpha with beta subunits is prerequisite for direct binding of stator b subunit to the F1-sector.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cysteine-free mouse MDR3 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was constructed by mutagenesis of the nine natural Cys to Ala. The Cys-free protein was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. Yield, purity, ATPase activity, K(m)(MgATP), and stimulation of ATPase by verapamil, were similar to wild-type mouse Ppg. Mouse Cys-free Pgp was superior in yield and stability to Cys-free human MDR1 Pgp. Mutants Y1040A and Y1040C were constructed in mouse Cys-free Pgp background. Both showed extremely low ATPase activity, strongly-impaired vanadate-trapping of ADP, and reduced photolabeling by 8-azido-ATP. The results are consistent with the conclusion that Tyr-1040 is located in the MgATP-binding site in NBD2 and is required for correct binding and/or orientation of bound MgATP substrate in Pgp as previously suggested by X-ray structures of other ABC transporters and by sequencing of photolabeled Pgp. The results also support our previous conclusion that both catalytic sites must be intact for normal function in Pgp.
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 02/2006; 445(1):124-8. DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2005.11.004 · 3.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We found recently that the combined mutation of both "catalytic carboxylate" residues (E552A/E1197A) in mouse P-glycoprotein (Pgp) arrested the protein in an "occluded nucleotide conformation", possibly a stabilized dimer of nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), that binds MgATP tightly at stoichiometry of 1 mol/mol Pgp [Tombline, G., Bartholomew, L., Urbatsch, I. L., and Senior, A. E. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 31212-31220]. Here, we further examine this conformation in respect to its potential involvement in the catalytic pathway. The occluded nucleotide conformation is promoted by drugs. Verapamil markedly accelerated the rate of tight binding of MgATP, whereas it did not effect the rate of dissociation. Mutations in "Q-loop" residues that are thought to interfere with communication between drug and catalytic sites prevented the occluded nucleotide conformation, as did covalent reagents N-ethylmaleimide and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole, which are known to inhibit ATP hydrolysis by reacting in catalytic sites. Mutations of Walker A Ser and Lys residues in combination with E552A/E1197A had the same effect, showing that interaction of these conserved residues with MgATP is required to stabilize the occluded nucleotide conformation. We present an enzymatic scheme that incorporates this conformation. We propose that upon initial loose binding of MgATP at two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs), together with drug binding, the NBDs dimerize to form the occluded conformation, with one tightly bound MgATP committed to hydrolysis. The pathway progresses such that the tightly bound MgATP enters the transition state and is hydrolyzed. This work suggests that small molecules or peptides that interact at the NBD dimer interface might effectively disable Pgp catalysis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stator in F(1)F(o)-ATP synthase resists strain generated by rotor torque. In Escherichia coli, the b(2)delta subunit complex comprises the stator, bound to subunit a in F(o) and to the alpha(3)beta(3) hexagon of F(1). Previous work has shown that N-terminal residues of alpha subunit are involved in binding delta. A synthetic peptide consisting of the first 22 residues of alpha (alphaN1-22) binds specifically to isolated wild-type delta subunit with 1:1 stoichiometry and high affinity, accounting for a major portion of the binding energy between delta and F(1). Residues alpha6-18 are predicted by secondary structure algorithms and helical wheels to be alpha-helical and amphipathic, and a potential helix capping box occurs at residues alpha3-8. We introduced truncations, deletions, and mutations into alphaN1-22 peptide and examined their effects on binding to the delta subunit. The deletions and mutations were introduced also into the N-terminal region of the uncA (alpha subunit) gene to determine effects on cell growth in vivo and membrane ATP synthase activity in vitro. Effects seen in the peptides were well correlated with those seen in the uncA gene. The results show that, with the possible exception of residues close to the initial Met, all of the alphaN1-22 sequence is required for binding of delta to alpha. Within this sequence, an amphipathic helix seems important. Hydrophobic residues on the predicted nonpolar surface are important for delta binding, namely alphaIle-8, alphaLeu-11, alphaIle-12, alphaIle-16, and alphaPhe-19. Several or all of these residues probably make direct interaction with helices 1 and 5 of delta. The potential capping box sequence per se appeared less important. Impairment of alpha/delta binding brings about functional impairment due to reduced level of assembly of ATP synthase in cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The stator in F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase resists strain generated by rotor torque. In Escherichia coli the b(2)delta subunit complex comprises the stator, bound to subunit a in F(0) and to alpha(3)beta(3) hexagon of F(1). Proteolysis and cross-linking had suggested that N-terminal residues of alpha subunit are involved in binding delta. Here we demonstrate that a synthetic peptide consisting of the first 22 residues of alpha ("alpha N1-22") binds specifically to isolated wild-type delta subunit with high affinity (K(d) = 130 nm), accounting for a major portion of the binding energy when delta-depleted F(1) and isolated delta bind together (K(d) = 1.4 nm). Stoichiometry of binding of alpha N1-22 to delta at saturation was 1/1, showing that in intact F(1)F(0)-ATP synthase only one of the three alpha subunits is involved in delta binding. When alpha N1-22 was incubated with delta subunits containing mutations in helices 1 or 5 on the F(1)-binding face of delta, peptide binding was impaired as was binding of delta-depleted F(1). Residues alpha 6-18 are predicted to be helical, and a potential helix capping box occurs at residues alpha 3-8. Circular dichroism measurements showed that alpha N1-22 had significant helical content. Hypothetically a helical region of residues alpha N1-22 packs with helices 1 and 5 on the F(1)-binding face of delta, forming the alpha/delta interface.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The presence of the soluble intracellular heat shock protein gp96 (an endoplasmic reticulum resident protein) at the surface of certain cell types is an intriguing phenomenon whose physiological significance has been unclear. We have shown that the active surface expression of gp96 by some immune cells is found throughout the vertebrate phylum including the Agnatha, the only vertebrate taxon whose members (lamprey, hagfish) lack an adaptive immune system. To determine whether gp96 surface expression can be modulated by pathogens, we investigated the effects of in vitro stimulation by purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the heat-killed gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophilia. Purified Xenopus B cells are readily activated and markedly proliferate in vitro in response to the heat-killed bacteria but not to purified LPS. Furthermore, messenger ribonucleic acid, and intracellular and surface protein expressions of both gp96 and immunoglobulin were upregulated only after activation of B cells by heat-killed bacteria. These data are consistent with an ancestral immunological role of gp96 as an antigen-presenting or danger-signaling molecule, or both, interacting directly with antigen-presenting cells, T cells, or natural killer cells, (or all), to trigger or amplify immune responses.