Bo Rum Ryu

Ajou University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (10)37.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated which isoforms of PKCs can be modulated and what their roles are during l-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO)-induced neuronal death. We observed the isoform specific translocation of PKC-epsilon from the soluble fraction to the particulate in cortical neurons treated with 10 mM BSO. The translocation of PKC-epsilon by BSO was blocked by antioxidant trolox, suggesting the PKC-epsilon as a downstream of reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevated by BSO. Trolox inhibited the ROS elevation and the neuronal death in BSO-treated cortical cells. The BSO-induced neuronal death was remarkably inhibited by both the pharmacological inhibition of PKC-epsilon with epsilonV1-2 and the functional blockade for PKC-epsilon through overexpression of PKC-epsilon V1 region, suggesting the detrimental role of PKC-epsilon. These results suggest that PKC-epsilon is the major PKC isoform involved in the pathways triggered by ROS, leading to neuronal death in BSO-treated cortical neurons.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 08/2004; 320(3):789-94. · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sulfasalazine is widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. Besides anti-inflammatory actions such as blockade of nuclear factor-kappaB and cyclooxygenases, we found that 30 to 1000 micro M sulfasalazine dose dependently blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated excitotoxicity without intervening kainate or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effects of sulfasalazine were attributable to prevention of Ca(2+) influx and accumulation through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors as a low-affinity antagonist. The systemic administration of sulfasalazine reduced neuronal death following transient cerebral and retinal ischemia in adult rat. The present findings suggest that the neuroprotective action of sulfasalazine can be therapeutically applied to halt devastating neuronal death following hypoxic ischemia, trauma, and neurodegenerative diseases.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2003; 305(1):48-56. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces neuronal cell apoptosis. We investigated if mitochondria-mediated death signals would contribute to neuronal apoptosis following administration of glutamate antagonists. The administration of MK-801 and CNQX (MK-801/CNQX), the selective antagonists of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate receptors, produced widespread neuronal death in neonatal rat brain and cortical cell cultures. MK-801/CNQX-induced neuronal apoptosis was prevented by zVAD-fmk, a broad inhibitor of caspases, but insensitive to inhibitors of calpain or cathepsin D. Activation of caspase-3 was observed within 6-12 h and sustained over 36 h after exposure to MK-801/CNQX, which cleaved PHF-1 tau, the substrate for caspase-3. Activation of caspase-3 was blocked by high K+ and mimicked by BAPTA-AM, a selective Ca2+ chelator. Reducing extracellular Ca2+, but not Na+, activated caspase-3, suggesting an essential role of Ca2+ deficiency in MK-801/CNQX-induced activation of caspases. Cortical neurons treated with MK-801/CNQX triggered activation of caspase-9, release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and translocation of Bax into mitochondria. The present study suggests that blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors causes caspase-3-mediated neuronal apoptosis due to Ca2+ deficiency that is coupled to the sequential mitochondrial death pathway.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 05/2003; 85(2):525-33. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synaptically released Zn2+ ions enter into neurons primarily through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) or N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, which can mediate pathological neuronal death. We studied the possibility (and underlying mechanisms) that aspirin, known to prevent NMDA neurotoxicity, would also attenuate Zn2+ neurotoxicity. Administration of 3 to 10 mM aspirin, in cortical cell cultures, attenuated the evolution of neuronal death following exposure to 300 microM Zn2+ for 30 min. This neuroprotective effect of aspirin was attributable to the prevention of Zn2+ ion entry. Aspirin interfered with inward currents and an increase in [Ca2+]i through VGCC and selective binding of omega-conotoxin, sensitive to N-type Ca2+ channel. The omega-conotoxins GVIA or MVIIC, the selective inhibitors of N-type Ca2+ channels, attenuated Zn2+ neurotoxicity. Aspirin derivatives lacking the carboxyl acid group did not reduce Zn2+ neurotoxicity. The present findings suggest that aspirin prevents Zn2+-mediated neuronal death by interfering with VGCC, and its action specifically requires the carboxyl acid group.
    Neurobiology of Disease 11/2001; 8(5):774-83. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neurotrophins render neurons highly vulnerable to certain injuries. We examined the possibility that NT-4/5 would enhance free radical neurotoxicity in vivo as well as in vitro. Striatal neurons exposed to 10 microM Fe(2+) or 1 mM l-buthionine-[S, R]-sulfoximine (BSO) underwent mild degeneration within 24 h. With concurrent addition of 10-100 ng/ml NT-4/5, neuronal death following exposure to Fe(2+) or BSO was significantly increased and suppressed by addition of 100 microM trolox, an antioxidant. In the adult brain, the intrastriatal injections of 20 nmol Fe(2+) revealed features of neuronal necrosis such as swelling cell body and mitochondria, fenestration of plasma membrane prior to nuclear membrane, and scattering condensation of nuclear chromatin. Cotreatment with 1.8 microg NT-4/5 augmented the striatal damage 24 h following the injections of Fe(2+). This study implies that free radicals produce necrotic degeneration in vivo as well as in vitro that becomes more sensitive in the presence of neurotrophins.
    Neurobiology of Disease 09/2000; 7(4):251-9. · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the possibility that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and caspase-3 would be activated for execution of apoptosis and excitotoxicity, the two major types of neuronal death underlying hypoxicischemic and neurodegenerative diseases. Mouse cortical cell cultures underwent widespread neuronal apoptosis 24 h following exposure to 10-30 nM calyculin A, a selective inhibitor of Ser/Thr phosphatase I and IIA. Activity of p38 was increased 2-4 h following exposure to 30 nM calyculin A. Addition of 3-10 microM PD169316, a selective p38 inhibitor, partially attenuated calyculin A neurotoxicity. Activity of caspase-3-like proteases was increased in cortical cell cultures exposed to 30 nM calyculin A for 8-16 h as shown by cleavage of DEVD-p-nitroanilide and phosphorylated tau. Proteolysis of tau was completely blocked by addition of 100 microM N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (z-VAD-fmk), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of caspases, but incompletely by 10 microM PD169316. Calyculin A neurotoxicity was partially sensitive to 100 microM z-VAD-fmk. Cotreatment with 10 microM PD169316 and 100 microM z-VAD-fmk showed additive neuroprotection against calyculin A. Neither PD169316 nor z-VAD-fmk showed a beneficial effect against excitotoxic neuronal necrosis induced by exposure to 20 microM NMDA. Thus, caspase-3-like proteases and p38 likely contribute to calyculin A-induced neuronal apoptosis but not NMDA-induced neuronal necrosis.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2000; 74(6):2455-61. · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Addition of the natural gangliosides monosialoganglioside (GM1), disialoganglioside, trisialoganglioside, or tetrasialoganglioside in the range of 10 to 100 microM, but not asialoganglioside lacking the sialic acid moiety, attenuated cortical neuronal apoptosis induced by serum deprivation, ionomycin, or cyclosporin A but not by protein kinase inhibitors (staurosporine, genistein, lavendustin A, or herbimycin A). Coaddition of 100 nM wortmannin, a selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but not 1 microM Go6976, a selective protein kinase C inhibitor, blocked the neuroprotective effect of GM1. In contrast to its antiapoptotic effect, GM1 at up to 200 microM did not attenuate cortical neuronal necrosis induced by exposure to the excitotoxins N-methyl-D-aspartate or kainate. Furthermore, GM1 increased the necrosis induced by oxidative stress (addition of Fe(2+) or buthionine sulfoximine). These data suggest that neuroprotective effects of natural gangliosides may preferentially reflect reduction of neuronal apoptosis rather than necrosis, and be mediated through mechanisms involving activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 09/1999; 290(2):811-6. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined effects of two insulin-like growth factors, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), against apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and free radical neurotoxicity in cortical cell cultures. Like IGF-I, insulin attenuated serum deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner at 10-100 ng/mL. The anti-apoptosis effect of insulin against serum deprivation disappeared by addition of a broad protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, but not by calphostin C, a selective protein kinase C inhibitor. Addition of PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitor, blocked insulin-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) without altering the neuroprotective effect of insulin. Cortical neurons underwent activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase as early as 1 min after exposure to insulin. Inclusion of wortmannin or LY294002, selective inhibitors of PI 3-K, reversed the insulin effect against apoptosis. In contrast to the anti-apoptosis effect, neither insulin nor IGF-I protected excitotoxic neuronal necrosis following continuous exposure to 15 microM N-methyl-D-aspartate or 40 microM kainate for 24 h. Surprisingly, concurrent inclusion of 50 ng/mL insulin or IGF-I aggravated free radical-induced neuronal necrosis over 24 h following continuous exposure to 10 microM Fe2+ or 100 microM buthionine sulfoximine. Wortmannin or LY294002 also reversed this potentiation effect of insulin. These results suggest that insulin-like growth factors act as anti-apoptosis factor and pro-oxidant depending upon the activation of PI 3-kinase.
    Journal of Neurobiology 07/1999; 39(4):536-46. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined effects of two insulin-like growth factors, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), against apoptosis, excitotoxicity, and free radical neurotoxicity in cortical cell cultures. Like IGF-I, insulin attenuated serum deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner at 10–100 ng/mL. The anti-apoptosis effect of insulin against serum deprivation disappeared by addition of a broad protein kinase inhibitor, staurosporine, but not by calphostin C, a selective protein kinase C inhibitor. Addition of PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) inhibitor, blocked insulin-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2) without altering the neuroprotective effect of insulin. Cortical neurons underwent activation of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase as early as 1 min after exposure to insulin. Inclusion of wortmannin or LY294002, selective inhibitors of PI 3-K, reversed the insulin effect against apoptosis. In contrast to the anti-apoptosis effect, neither insulin nor IGF-I protected excitotoxic neuronal necrosis following continuous exposure to 15 μMN-methyl-d-aspartate or 40 μM kainate for 24 h. Surprisingly, concurrent inclusion of 50 ng/mL insulin or IGF-I aggravated free radical-induced neuronal necrosis over 24 h following continuous exposure to 10 μM Fe2+ or 100 μM buthionine sulfoximine. Wortmannin or LY294002 also reversed this potentiation effect of insulin. These results suggest that insulin- like growth factors act as anti-apoptosis factor and pro-oxidant depending uon the activation of PI 3-kinase. © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 39: 536–546, 1999
    Journal of Neurobiology 05/1999; 39(4):536 - 546. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the possibility that Sindbis virus, an alpha virus with a single-stranded RNA genome, would be applied for neuronal gene transfer. The recombinant defective Sindbis viruses were constructed by replacing the structural genes of Sindbis virus with genes encoding beta-galactosidase (rdSind-lacZ) or enhanced green fluorescent protein (rdSind-EGFP). In neuron-glia cocultures prepared from the neocortex, hippocampus, and striatum, EGFP or beta-galactosidase was expressed selectively in neurons 24 h after infection with rdSind-EGFP or rdSind-lacZ. Most cortical neurons were infected with rdSind-lacZ at a multiplicity of infection (M.O.I.) of 5 while glial cells were little infected. In addition, transient neuron-specific expression of beta-galactosidase was observed near injection sites over the next 3 d following administration of rdSind-lacZ in adult rat. In the cortical neurons infected with rdSind-EGFP, treatment with NMDA induced neuritic blebs and cell body swelling in a Na+-dependent manner. Therefore, recombinant defective Sindbis viruses can be used as an efficient and selective vector for gene transfer into neurons and applied to investigate biological role of target genes delivered into neurons in vitro and in vivo.
    Molecular Brain Research 01/1999; 63(1):53-61. · 2.00 Impact Factor