[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The normal sinus pacemaker complex is an extensive structure within the right atrium. We hypothesized that patients with sinus node disease (SND) would have evidence of diffuse atrial abnormalities.
Sixteen patients with symptomatic SND and 16 age-matched controls were studied. The following were evaluated: effective refractory periods (ERPs) from the high and low lateral right atrium (RA), high septal RA, and distal coronary sinus (CS); conduction time along the CS and lateral RA; P-wave duration; and conduction at the crista terminalis. Electroanatomic mapping was performed to define the sinus node complex and determine regional conduction velocity, double potentials, fractionated electrograms, regional voltage, and areas of electrical silence. Patients with SND demonstrated significant increase in atrial ERP at all right atrial sites, increased atrial conduction time along the lateral RA and CS, prolongation of the P-wave duration, and greater number and duration of double potentials along the crista terminalis. Electroanatomic mapping demonstrated the sinus node complex in SND to be more often unicentric, localized to the low crista terminalis at the site of the largest residual voltage amplitude. There was significant regional conduction slowing with double potentials and fractionation associated with areas of low voltage and electrical silence (or scar).
SND is associated with diffuse atrial remodeling characterized by structural change, conduction abnormalities, and increased right atrial refractoriness. There was a change in the nature of sinus pacemaker activity with loss of the normal multicentric pattern of activation, caudal shift of the pacemaker complex, and abnormal and circuitous conduction around lines of conduction block.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to describe the electrophysiological characteristics, anatomic distribution, and long-term outcome after focal ablation (RFA) of pulmonary vein (PV) atrial tachycardia (AT). Both atrial fibrillation (AF) and AT may be due to a rapidly firing focus in the PVs. Whether these represent two aspects of the same process is unknown.
Twenty-seven patients with 28 PV(16%) ATs of a consecutive series of 172 undergoing RFA for focal AT are reported. The mean age was 39+/-16 years, with symptoms for 9+/-14 years resistant to 1.7+/-0.8 medications. AT occurred spontaneously or with isoproterenol in all patients and was not inducible with PES in any. The distribution of PV ATs was right superior PV, 11; left superior PV, 11; left inferior PV, 5; and right inferior PV, 1; 26of 28 foci (93%) were ostial. RFA was successful in 28 of 28 PV ATs acutely. RFA was focal in 25 of 28, with PV isolation of a single target vein in 3. There were 4 recurrences at a mean of 3.3 months. Repeat RFA was performed in all 4 and successful in 3 of 4. All but one recurrence occurred from the same site. Long-term success was achieved in 26 of 27 (96%) patients at mean follow-up of 25+/-22 months. No patients have had subsequent development of AF or AT from a different site.
PV AT has a distribution similar to PV AF, with a propensity to upper veins. However, the majority of foci are ostial, and only a small percentage occur from deep in the PV. Focal RFA is associated with high long-term success, with freedom from both AT from other sites and from AF. PV AT is a localized process and therefore may be different from PV AF.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was done to characterize the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of focal atrial tachycardia originating at the mitral annulus (MA).
Though the majority of left atrial tachycardias originate around the ostia of the pulmonary veins, only isolated reports have described focal tachycardia originating from the MA.
Seven patients of a consecutive series of 172 patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation for focal atrial tachycardia are reported. Electrophysiologic study involved catheters positioned along the coronary sinus (CS), crista terminalis (CT), His bundle, and a mapping/ablation catheter.
All seven patients had tachycardia foci originating from the superior region of the MA in close proximity to the left fibrous trigone and mitral-aortic continuity. These foci demonstrated a characteristic P-wave morphology and endocardial activation pattern. The P-wave morphology in the precordial leads typically showed a biphasic pattern, with an inverted component followed by an upright component. The P-wave was consistently of low amplitude in the limb leads. Earliest endocardial activity occurred at the His bundle region in all seven patients. In general, CS activation was proximal to distal, and mid-CT activation was earlier than high or low CT. Ablation was successful at the superior aspect of the MA in all patients.
The MA is an unusual but important site of origin for focal atrial tachycardia, with a propensity to be localized to the superior aspect. It can be suspected as a potential anatomic site of tachycardia origin from analysis of P-wave morphology and the atrial endocardial activation sequence map. Using mapping targeted to anatomic structures achieved a high success rate for ablation.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 07/2003; 41(12):2212-9. · 14.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of an accessory pathway in a left inferoposterior diverticulum. The pathway masqueraded as a true left lateral pathway due to the direction of activation over a coronary sinus to left atrium connection. The patient had undergone four prior failed ablation attempts at other institutions using both a transseptal and retrograde approach.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 05/2003; 14(4):403-6. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives
The study was done to characterize the electrocardiographic and electrophysiologic features of focal atrial tachycardia originating at the mitral annulus (MA).
Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/2003; 41(12):2212-2219.