[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term incidence of cancer progression and mortality in men with localized prostate cancer treated with primary androgen deprivation (AD).
A retrospective chart review, from a medical oncology practice specializing in prostate cancer, was conducted of 73 men eligible for surgery or radiation treated with induction AD. Entry criteria consisted of a minimum of 9 months of induction AD, treatment initiation before 1999, clinical stage < T3, and outcome defined as the incidence of delayed local therapy, cancer progression, cancer mortality, and mortality from other causes.
Median follow-up was 12 years. Fifteen men were at low risk, 38 were at intermediate risk, and 20 were at high risk. Three men (4%) experienced metastatic disease and died of prostate cancer after 3.5, 7.7, and 11 years, respectively. Two men were in the intermediate-risk category and 1 was high risk. Nineteen men (26%) died of non-prostate cancer causes. None had metastatic disease at the time of death. Of the remaining 51 survivors, none has experienced bone metastasis. Twenty-one men (29%) required no further therapy after the first induction course of AD. Twenty-four men (33%) maintained a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level < 5.0 ng/mL with 2 to 5 cycles of intermittent AD. Twenty-eight men (38%) underwent delayed local therapy after a median of 5.5 years. Median follow-up after local therapy was 6.2 years. Three of these men experienced subsequent rising PSA levels but none has progressed to bone metastasis. Sixteen of 20 men (80%) in the high-risk category but only 12 of 53 men (23%) in the low- and intermediate-risk categories had delayed local therapy.
Primary intermittent AD is feasible for men with localized prostate cancer. Men who are younger and men with high-risk disease undergo delayed local therapy more frequently.
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer 12/2011; 9(2):89-94. · 1.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: More than 85% of men with prostate cancer die of other causes. An effective method is needed to distinguish fatal forms of prostate cancer from benign variants.
We performed a retrospective chart review from a medical oncology practice specializing in prostate cancer. All men with negative bone scans, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level less than 100 ng/mL, adequate records for review, and who started taking testosterone inactivating pharmaceutical (TIP) agents before January 2000 were included in the study. Six factors were evaluated as potential predictors of prostate cancer-specific mortality: PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL while taking TIP, PSA doubling time of less than 12 months, Gleason score, stage, baseline PSA level greater than 20 ng/mL, and age.
The study criteria were met by 160 men. The median follow-up was 10 years. The median age, PSA level, PSA nadir, and PSA doubling time was 65.6 years, 9.6 ng/mL, 0.03 ng/mL, and 10 months, respectively. Of the 160 men, 39 died of prostate cancer. Death from prostate cancer was far more common (78% versus 11%) and accelerated (median of 4 years versus 7 years) for men with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL than for those with a lower nadir. Multivariate Cox regression analysis indicated that the hazard ratio for prostate cancer-specific mortality in men with a PSA nadir greater than 0.05 ng/mL was 11.6 (P <0.0001). The hazard ratio for men with a PSA doubling time of less than 12 months was 2.9 (P = 0.04). Gleason score, stage, baseline PSA level greater than 20 ng/mL, and age were not statistically significant.
Of the factors studied, the PSA nadir while taking a TIP was the best predictor of prostate cancer-specific mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Men with prostate cancer treated intermittently with TIP benefit from improved quality of life when TOP with recovered testosterone is prolonged. We examined factors influencing the duration of TOP.
We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 101 men treated with intermittent TIP in a 9-year period. Men with positive bone scan, men in whom a PSA nadir of less than 0.1 ng/ml on TIP failed to be achieved and maintained and men in whom testosterone failed to recover to greater than 150 ng/dl during the first 12 months of TOP were excluded. Potential factors predicting prolonged TOP or accelerated time to AIPC were studied with Cox regression analysis.
Patient characteristics were clinical stage T1c-T2a in 51 and T2b-T3b in 11, PSA relapse in 29, and T3c, D0 or D1 in 10. Median PSA was 7.6 ng/ml, Gleason score was 3 + 4 = 7 and TIP duration was 15.8 months. The 60 group 1 patients received finasteride and the 41 in group 2 received no finasteride. Median TOP in groups 1 and 2 was 31 and 15 months, respectively, using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis indicated that longer TIP, finasteride and increased age predicted longer TOP. A slow PSA decrease while on TIP, higher baseline PSA and increased Gleason score predicted shorter TOP. Cox regression analysis indicated that only higher clinical stage but not finasteride predicted the earlier onset of AIPC.
Finasteride doubles the duration of TOP. AIPC was not increased by finasteride after almost 9 years of observation.
The Journal of Urology 06/2006; 175(5):1673-8. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The combination of high dose ketoconazole and hydrocortisone (HDK) is active against androgen independent prostate cancer (AIPC). Median response times with HDK tend to be brief but a significant minority of AIPC patients benefit with extended responses. Well characterized response and survival information, especially in the cohort of patients who experience these longer, more durable, responses has not been previously reported. Characterization of this subgroup is of particular interest since men with long-term responses derive the greatest benefit from HDK therapy.
The medical records of 78 patients with AIPC treated with HDK between March 1991 and February 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Baseline clinical and laboratory factors predictive of prolonged response and survival were identified.
The median baseline prostate specific antigen (PSA) before the initiation of HDK was 25.1. The number of patients with zero, 1 to 3, and more than 3 lesions on bone scan were 25, 35 and 18, respectively. Median and mean time to PSA progression was 6.7 and 14.5 months. Median and mean survival time was 38.0 and 42.4 months, respectively. Response time and survival were highly correlated (r = 0.799). A total of 34 (44%) men had a greater than 75% decrease in PSA. The median survival times in men with more vs less than a 75% decrease were 60 vs 24 months, respectively. In a Cox proportional hazard regression, prolonged survival was predicted by percent PSA decrease, extent of disease on bone scan and baseline PSA.
Ketoconazole can induce prolonged responses, occasionally lasting for years. Long responses are more likely to occur in men initiating HDK earlier in the course of disease before the cancer burden becomes excessive.
The Journal of Urology 07/2005; 173(6):1947-52. · 3.70 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This trial investigated the tolerability and effect of modified citrus pectin (Pecta-Sol) in 13 men with prostate cancer and biochemical prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure after localized treatment, that is, radical prostatectomy, radiation, or cryosurgery. A total of 13 men were evaluated for tolerability and 10 for efficacy. Changes in the prostate-specific antigen doubling time (PSADT) of the 10 men were the primary end point in the study. We found that the PSADT increased (P-value<0.05) in seven (70%) of 10 men after taking MCP for 12 months compared to before taking MCP. This study suggests that MCP may lengthen the PSADT in men with recurrent prostate cancer.
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases 02/2003; 6(4):301-4. · 2.81 Impact Factor