Eric Bauce

Laval University, Québec, Quebec, Canada

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Publications (75)137.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Efficacy of commercial formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. kurstaki (Btk) against spruce budworm Choristoneura fumiferana in black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) was investigated in Québec’s Côte-Nord region. As expected, larval mortality was higher in Btk-treated plots (80.26 ± 2.34 %) than in control plots (66.32 ± 2.80 %). There were no differences in larval mortality among the three host tree species tested. Btk was most efficient in reducing spruce budworm defoliation when applied to black spruce and white spruce trees. Black spruce and white spruce exhibited lower final defoliation in Btk-treated plots than balsam fir. Btk applications produced a reduction in defoliation of 36 % in balsam fir, 44 % in white spruce and 41 % in black spruce. Control plots exhibited about 35 % higher amount of current-year foliage destroyed (AFD) and 56 % lower amount of current-year foliage remaining (ARF) than Btk-treated plots, whereas no differences in the amount of current-year foliage produced (AFP) were observed among host tree species. Black spruce trees showed the lowest AFD. Although not statistically significant, black spruce also showed the highest ARF. Our results suggest that Btk application is more efficient in protecting against spruce budworm damage when it is applied to spruce species than it is to balsam fir. It appears that the observed inter-specific differences in host tree foliage protection might be related to interactions between Btk, host tree foliage, and larval feeding behaviour.
    Journal of Pest Science 01/2015; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstact During insect outbreaks, the high number of individuals feeding on its host plant causes a depletion of the food source. Reduced availability and decreased quality of nutrients negatively influences life-history traits of insects driving them to develop adaptive strategies to persist in the enviroment. In a laboratory experiment with three repetitions we tested the effect of chronic nutritional stress on spruce budworm performance during three generations to determine the adaptative strategies employed by the insect to deal with a selection pressure produced by low quality diet. Our results show that all tested life-history traits (mortality, developmental time, pupal mass, growth rate and female fecundity) but female fertility were negatively influenced by the low quality diet simulating food depletion during outbreak conditions. However, especially females in the third generation under chronic nutritional stress show an adaptive response in life-history traits when compared to those reared only one generation on low quality diet. Larval developmental time significantly decreased and pupal mass, growth rate, and fecundity significantly increased. The study demonstrates the capacity of spruce budworm to react to chronic nutritional stress with adaptations that may be caused by epigenetic parental effects. This information can help to understand the course of an outbreak especially at peak densities and during the collapse.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Evolutionary Biology 12/2014; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Periodic outbreaks of spruce budworm (SBW) affect large areas of ecologically and economically important conifer forests in North America causing tree mortality and reduced forest productivity. Host resistance against SBW has been linked to growth phenology and chemical composition of foliage, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and population variation are largely unknown. Using a genomics approach, we discovered a β-glucosidase gene, Pgβglu-1, whose expression levels and function underpin natural resistance to SBW in mature white spruce (Picea glauca) trees. In phenotypically resistant trees, Pgβglu-1 transcripts were up to 1000 times more abundant compared to non-resistant trees and highly enriched in foliage. The encoded PgβGLU-1 enzyme catalyzed the cleavage of acetophenone sugar conjugates to release the aglycons piceol and pungenol. These aglycons were previously shown to be active against SBW. Levels of Pgβglu-1 transcripts and biologically active acetophenone aglycons were substantially different between resistant and non-resistant trees over time, positively correlated to each other, and highly variable in a natural white spruce population. These results suggest that expression of Pgβglu-1 and accumulation of acetophenone aglycons is a constitutive defense mechanism in white spruce. Progeny of resistant trees had higher Pgβglu-1 gene expression than non-resistant progeny indicating that the trait is heritable. With reported increases of the intensity of SBW outbreaks, influenced by climate, variation of Pgβglu-1 transcript expression, PgβGLU-1 enzyme activity, and acetophenone accumulation may serve as resistance markers to better predict impacts of SBW both in managed and wild spruce populations.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    The Plant Journal 10/2014; · 6.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ecology and management of boreal forest ecosystems are drawing greater attention worldwide as their importance is being increasingly recognized for carbon sequestration or for harbouring the world's largest remaining intact forests. Selection cuts have been introduced as a more socially acceptable silvicultural method to improve the maintenance of habitat structure and functions as they mimic aspects of boreal forest succession dynamics. Many studies have shown that selection cutting helps maintaining arthropod communities in mature forests, but few have examined the increased risks of damage by bark- and wood-boring insects in boreal forests of eastern North America. We used multidirectional flight-interception traps to quantify the response of these beetles to 25 and 40% selection cutting in a balsam fir–white birch forest of Québec, Canada. The abundance and species number of both cerambycid and scolytid beetles were 5–6 times larger in selectively cut stands than in controls the year following treatments. Analyses revealed that bark- and wood-boring beetles’ response was mostly associated with increased canopy openness in selectively cut stands (and sun-exposed locations within them) and residual tree injuries caused by harvesting operations. These conditions attracted beetles such as Trypodendron lineatum (Scolytinae) and Rhagium inquisitor (Cerambycidae), two species known for their ability to attack weakened, dying and dead hosts. Most species were more abundant in selection cuts, except for Evodinus m. monticola (Cerambycidae) whose abundance was strongly reduced after treatment. Some beetles can have detrimental effects on residual trees and thus could reduce timber value, but most species found in treated stands do not represent a high risk for healthy trees. Thus, selection cuts do not seem favourable to the establishment of tree-killing beetles. However, as they were found more active/abundant after selection cutting, it would be wise to further study their population dynamics over mid- and long-term periods, along with the ecological and economic implications associated with this silvicultural treatment.
    Journal of Applied Entomology 10/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The balsam woolly adelgid (Adelges piceae) is a gout-inducing hemipteran native to the silver fir forests of Europe. Introduced to eastern North America approximately 100 years ago, it is now found in most balsam fir forests in Atlantic Canada. When A. piceae feed, they trigger a reaction in the host branch that alters both xylem and phloem morphology. We conducted a field survey to examine the relationship between A. piceae gout density and balsam fir foliar chemistry and shoot growth in naturally unthinned and precommercially thinned stands. A. piceae gout density negatively affected branch growth and was related to changes in the chemistry of older, but not current-year foliage. Older foliage experienced decreases in camphene and bornyl acetate, while foliar concentrations of camphene, myrcene, phenolics, potassium and water differed between thinned and unthinned stands. Foliar chemistry was also influenced by interactions between thinning and A. piceae gout density in old foliage. This study suggests that changes in balsam fir associated with A. piceae gout density may force native defoliators that feed in highly gouted trees to adapt to diets of different chemical compositions and that thinning may alter these interactions.
    Arthropod-Plant Interactions 08/2014; 8(4). · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Silvicultural treatments such as thinning have been suggested as management tools against the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Among other things, parasitoids are also proposed to be influenced by silvicultural procedures, but the effect of thinning on spruce budworm's natural enemies has not been tested yet. In this study, the influence of partial cutting on parasitism of endemic spruce budworm populations has been investigated in mature balsam fir-white birch forests. Two intensities of partial cutting (25 and 40% stand basal area reduced) were conducted in 2009 and parasitism of introduced spruce budworm larvae and pupae was determined during the 3 yr after these treatments. Pupal parasitism was too low for comparison between treatments. However, 2 yr after treatments, parasitism of the fourth- and fifth-instar larvae was significantly reduced in plots with both intensities of partial cutting, which was attributed to the parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Brischke). Three years after treatments, no significant influence of partial cutting on parasitism of spruce budworm larvae was found. This study suggests that the influence of partial cutting on parasitism of endemic spruce budworm populations is not consistent, but that under certain circumstances parasitism is reduced by partial cutting.
    Environmental Entomology 04/2014; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The heritability of life-history traits is of particular importance for insects that are very dependent on host conditions. Severe defoliation caused by the spruce budworm negatively impacts its food source, which in turn imposes environmental constraints on the insect. The heritability of those traits can help elucidate this species' evolutionary process. Heritability also helps identify which traits exhibit significant additive variance and can be key to understanding natural selection effects. Individuals were reared under laboratory conditions over three generations on an artificial diet. Heritability was estimated by parent–offspring regression. Fertility and fecundity demonstrated significant heritability followed by larval development, while pupal mass showed minimal heritable variation. These results suggest an important percent of additive variance in life-history traits. This study contributes to our understanding of the relationship of this forest pest to its environmental conditions. This study also reveals an important genetic architectural structure of life-history traits in the spruce budworm.
    Entomological Science 01/2014; 17(1). · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    Enric Frago, Eric Bauce
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    ABSTRACT: Food shortage is a common situation in nature but little is known about the strategies animals use to overcome it. This lack of knowledge is especially true for outbreaking insects, which commonly experience nutritional stress for several successive generations when they reach high population densities. The aim of this study is to evaluate the life history consequences of chronic nutritional stress in the outbreaking moth Choristoneura fumiferana. Larvae were reared on two different artificial diets that emulate nutritional conditions larvae face during their natural population density cycle (low and medium quality artificial diets). After four generations, a subset of larvae was fed on the same diet as their parents, and another on the opposite diet. We explored larval life-history strategies to cope with nutritional stress, its associated costs and the influence of nutritional conditions experienced in the parental generation. We found no evidence of nutritional stress in the parental generation increasing offspring ability to feed on low quality diet, but the contrary: compared to offspring from parents that were fed a medium quality diet, larvae from parents fed a low quality diet had increased mortality, reduced growth rate and reduced female reproductive output. Our results support a simple stress hypothesis because the negative effects of malnutrition accumulated over successive generations. Density-dependent deterioration in plant quality is thought to be an important factor governing the population dynamics of outbreaking insects and we hypothesize that chronic nutritional stress can be a driver of outbreak declines of C. fumiferana, and of forest insects in general.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(2):e88039. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Artificial diet is commonly used to rear the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in the laboratory. While its effect on spruce budworm performance is relatively well studied, no information exists about the influence of rearing diet on larval parasitism. In this study, spruce budworm larvae reared in the laboratory on artificial diet or balsam fir, Abies balsamea (Linnaeus) Miller (Pinaceae), foliage were introduced in the field to compare parasitism. Additionally, a laboratory choice test was conducted with the larval parasitoid Tranosema rostrale (Brischke) (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae). No significant influence of spruce budworm rearing diet on parasitism in the field was found. However, in the laboratory, T. rostrale attacked significantly more foliage-fed larvae. We conclude that even if initial differences in parasitism may exist between diet-fed and foliage-fed larvae in the laboratory, spruce budworm larvae reared on artificial diet can be used in field studies investigating parasitism of wild spruce budworm populations without concern that the food source would affect parasitism.
    The Canadian Entomologist 10/2013; 145(05). · 0.90 Impact Factor
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    Éric Bauce, Alvaro Fuentealba
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    ABSTRACT: Forest management activities such as thinning have been proposed to reduce defoliation damage incurred by spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)). Yet, information regarding thinning effects on tree and stand vulnerability to spruce budworm is equivocal. A better understanding of thinning with respect to host tree resistance and budworm performance could be useful to reduce its impacts while respecting forest ecological integrity. Our objectives were (1) to evaluate the effects of thinning and site drainage quality on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and black spruce (P. mariana (Mill.) BSP) resistance to spruce budworm through time (6 years) and (2) to produce a resistance classification model that could be used by forest managers to determine when and where to apply this treatment. Field-rearing experiments of spruce budworm were conducted, together with foliar chemical analyses, along a gradient of stand thinning intensity (0%, control; 25%, light; 40%, heavy) and drainage class (rapidly drained, class 2; mesic with seepage, class 3; subhygric, class 4; hydric, class 5). Budworm performance was followed throughout the insect’s life cycle, including its winter biology. Balsam fir resistance, unlike that of white and black spruce, was significantly reduced 1 year after thinning. Fir response was related to increased defoliation linked to reduction of certain monoterpenes on mesic sites and to decreased foliage production on subhygric sites. On hydric sites, thinning increased fir resistance by increasing foliage production. We observed an opposite response 3 years after treatment. Heavy thinning (40%) positively affected balsam fir and white spruce tolerance and, therefore, tree resistance, by increasing foliage production and the amount remaining after budworm feeding throughout the study, except 6 years after thinning in white spruce growing on mesic sites. From the fourth year onward, black spruce resistance was positively affected by thinning. This response was observed despite thinning also having favoured insect performance (high female pupal mass), which resulted in greater foliage destruction in thinned stands. These findings suggest that thinning may be used to increase tree and stand resistance to spruce budworm. Our resistance classification system could be useful to forest managers in planning thinning that would reduce budworm impacts at the stand level.
    Forest Ecology and Management 09/2013; 304:212–223. · 2.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Ce-rambycidae), is one of the most damaging wood-boring insects in recently burned boreal forests of North America. In Canada, salvage logging after wildfire contributes to maintaining the timber volume required by the forest industry, but larvae of this insect cause significant damage that reduces the economic value of lumber products. This study aimed to estimate damage progression as a function of temperature in recently burned black spruce (Picea mariana (Miller) Britton, Sterns, and Poggenburg) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lambert) trees. Using axial tomographic technology, we modeled subcortical development and gallery depth progression rates as functions of temperature for both tree species. Generally, these rates were slightly faster in black spruce than in jack pine logs. Eggs laid on logs kept at 12 degrees C did not hatch or larvae were unable to establish themselves under the bark because no larval development was observed. At 16 degrees C, larvae stayed under the bark for > 200 d before penetrating into the sapwood. At 20 degrees C, half of the larvae entered the sapwood after 30-50 d, but gallery depth progression stopped for approximately 70 d, suggesting that larvae went into diapause. The other half of the larvae entered the sapwood only after 100-200 d. At 24 and 28 degrees C, larvae entered the sapwood after 26-27 and 21 d, respectively. At 28 degrees C, gallery depth progressed at a rate of 1.44 mm/d. Temperature threshold for subcortical development was slightly lower in black spruce (12.9 degrees C) than in jack pine (14.6 degrees C) and it was 1 degrees C warmer for gallery depth progression for both tree species. These results indicate that significant damage may occur within a few months after fire during warm summers, particularly in black spruce, which highlights the importance of beginning postfire salvage logging as soon as possible to reduce economic losses.
    Journal of Economic Entomology 06/2013; 106(3):1331-8. · 1.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: After fire, the whitespotted sawyer, Monochamus scutellatus scutellatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is considered one of the most damaging xylophagous insects by forest industries in the eastern boreal forest of North America. Although this species is often considered opportunistic because it dwells on various stressed host trees, it can be found in very high abundance after forest fire and, consequently, it has been suspected of being a pyrophilous species or fire-associated species. The aim of this study was first to determine whether the whitespotted sawyer lays eggs preferentially on burned rather than unburned hosts, and second, to determine its preference between black spruce (Picea mariana [Mill.] B.S.P.) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.) for oviposition. Host suitability also was estimated to determine if whitespotted sawyer females make optimal choices to maximize offspring development. To determine host suitability, we used the abundance distribution of larval instars as a proxy of larval development quickness and we compared weight and head-capsule width of larvae of different larval instars as measures of insect growth in each type of log. Based on the frequency of oviposition behavior, females showed no preference for either burned or unburned black spruce logs, and both were equally suitable for larval development. Furthermore, females laid more eggs on black spruce than on jack pine, but host suitability was not statistically affected. Nevertheless, larvae had mostly reached the fourth instar on black spruce, whereas those on jack pine were mostly at the third instar, suggesting faster development on black spruce.
    Environmental Entomology 04/2013; 42(2):270-6. · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864 include more than 300 species worldwide, with maximum diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. To date, approximately 50 species of Pityophthorus have been recorded in Canada, and these species are associated mainly with coniferous trees. Since 1981, no comprehensive study on this difficult taxonomic group has been conducted in Quebec, Canada, most likely due to their limited significance as forest pests. Based on data gathered from five years of field sampling in conifer seed orchards and compiled from various entomological collections, the distribution of Pityophthorus species in Quebec is presented. Approximately 291 new localities were recorded for the Pityophthorus species. Five species-group taxa, namely Pityophthorus puberulus (LeConte, 1868), Pityophthorus pulchellus pulchellus Eichhoff, 1869, Pityophthorus pulicarius (Zimmermann, 1868), Pityophthorus nitidus Swaine, 1917,and Pityophthorus cariniceps LeConte&Horn, 1876 were the most widespread. In contrast, Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte, 1878, Pityophthorus intextus Swaine, 1917, Pityophthorus dentifrons Blackman, 1922, Pityophthorus ramiperda Swaine, 1917, and Pityophthorus concavus Blackman, 1928 display a notably limited distribution. In addition, the first distribution records of Pityophthorus intextus and Pityophthorus biovalis Blackman, 1922 are furnished, and the subspecies Pityophthorus murrayanae murrayanae Blackman, 1922is reported from Quebec for the second time. Moreover, distribution maps are provided for all Pityophthorus species recorded in the province of Quebec.
    ZooKeys 01/2013; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The frequency of extreme events, such as cold spells, is expected to increase under global warming. Therefore, the ability of insects to survive rapid changes in temperature is an important aspect to investigate in current population ecology. The hemlock looper (HL), Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), a defoliator of boreal balsam fir forests in eastern Canada, overwinters at the egg stage on tree trunks and branches where eggs can be exposed to very low subzero air temperatures. Using eggs from the island of Newfoundland (NL) and Quebec mainland (QC), we undertook field and laboratory experiments to determine: (1) their supercooling point (SCP) in mid-January and mid-February; (2) overwintering mortality; (3) cold tolerance to various combinations of subzero temperatures (−25, −30, −33, −35, or −37 °C) and exposure durations (2, 4, 8, 12, or 16 h); and (4) potential causes of death at subzero temperatures above the SCP. Regardless of population or sampling date, eggs supercooled on average at −40.1 °C. In the field, 59% of eggs from either population that overwintered in Sainte-Foy (QC) and Corner Brook (NL) hatched successfully, whereas none did in Armagh (QC) or Epaule (QC). In the laboratory, 50% of eggs survived after 4 h at −34.4 °C or after 14 h at −32.9 °C. In contrast, regardless of exposure duration, >50% of eggs hatched at temperatures ≥−33 °C, but <50% did so at ≤−35 °C, suggesting high pre-freeze mortality. However, when eggs were attached to thermocouples and exposed to temperatures ranging from −25 to −37 °C for 16 h, 69% froze at temperatures of −35 to −37 °C, but only 2% did at −25 or −30 °C. Time to freeze decreased as subzero temperatures declined, and this was more evident in island eggs than in mainland eggs. Overall, eggs can freeze after a brief exposure to subzero temperatures higher than the standard SCP, and are thus highly vulnerable to cold spells.
    Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 01/2013; 149(3):206-218. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe seasonal patterns of parasitism by Telenomus coloradensis Crawford, Telenomus droozi Muesebeck, Telenomus flavotibiae Pelletier (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), and Trichogramma spp. (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoids of the hemlock looper, Lambdina fiscellaria (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), after a 3-yr survey of defoliated stands in the lower St. Lawrence region (Quebec, Canada). Results from sentinel trap sampling indicate that T. coloradensis and T. droozi are the most common species, whereas parasitism by T. flavotibiae and Trichogramma spp. is rare. Telenomus coloradensis and T. droozi show similar seasonal periods of parasitism, both species being active in early spring (late April) at temperatures as low as 4°C. Using thermal threshold (T(0)) and thermal constant (K) for immature development of T. coloradensis males and females from egg to adult emergence, we estimated that the spring progeny emerges in the middle of the summer while hemlock looper eggs are absent from the forest environment. Parasitoid females would then mate and remain in the environment to 1) exploit alternate host species, 2) enter into quiescence and later parasitize eggs laid by hemlock looper females in the fall, 3) enter into a reproductive diapause and parasitize hemlock looper eggs only the next spring, or all of these. Although previous studies have shown that T. coloradensis can overwinter in its immature form within the host egg, our field and laboratory results indicate that in the lower St. Lawrence region, this species principally enters diapause as fertilized females, with a mean supercooling point of -30.6°C in the fall.
    Environmental Entomology 12/2012; 41(6):1290-301. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Alvaro Fuentealba, Eric Bauce
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    ABSTRACT: Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.)) is the most destructive insect pest in the maritime and boreal forests of North America. Thinning has been recommended to reduce damage caused by spruce budworm. The positive impact of this silvicultural procedure on the vigour of the residual trees should render them more resistant to budworm defoliation. However, various research projects focused upon effects of this silvicultural tool on host tree resistance have yielded equivocal results. The main objective of this project is to determine the real effect of thinning on host tree resistance to spruce budworm attacks. Field-rearing experiments with spruce budworm were conducted, together with foliar chemical analyses, along a gradient of stand thinning density (0%, 25%, and 40% stand basal area reduction) and drainage class (mesic with seepage, class 3; subhygric, class 4; hydric, class 5) in balsam fir–paper birch association stands. Rearing experiments were also conducted in rapidly drained sites (class 2). The results showed that resistance to spruce budworm of balsam fir, unlike white and black spruce, is significantly reduced one year after thinning. This response was likely due to increased defoliation linked to reduction in certain monoterpene concentrations and to decreased foliage production, except on drainage class 5, where the treatment increased fir resistance. However, three years after treatment we observed the opposite response. High thinning intensity (40%) positively affected balsam fir and white spruce tolerance and, therefore, tree resistance by increasing foliage production and the amount that remained after budworm feeding. This increased resistance persists for at least 6 years after the treatment was conducted.
    Entomological Society of America Annual Meeting 2012; 11/2012
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    ABSTRACT: 1. Hopkins' host selection principle (HSP) states that insects should prefer foliage from their rearing host plant over that of an alternative host. 2. The current study tested whether eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana (Clem.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), that were laid and developed on, respectively, resistant and susceptible white spruce Picea glauca (Moench) Voss, showed differences in their feeding and oviposition preferences for these two hosts. 3. The data revealed that previous experience of spruce budworm on a host tree type does not influence the host acceptance and feeding behaviour of later larval stages. However, adult budworm reared on resistant white spruce needles preferentially selected susceptible white spruce needles as the host for their progeny, whereas those reared on susceptible needles showed no preference. 4. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of an insect showing an oviposition preference for the non-rearing host plant. This would tend to increase mixing between insects from susceptible and resistant trees. The present results thus argue against Hopkins' HSP and suggest that learned aversion to resistant foliage experienced by larvae is carried into the adult stage.
    Ecological Entomology 05/2012; 37(3):204-211. · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bark beetles, especially Dendroctonus species, are considered to be serious pests of the coniferous forests in North America. Bark beetle forest pests undergo population eruptions, causing region wide economic losses. In order to save forests, finding new and innovative environmentally friendly approaches in wood-boring insect pest management is more important than ever. Several biological control methods have been attempted over time to limit the damage and spreading of bark beetle epidemics. The use of entomopathogenic microorganisms against bark beetle populations is an attractive alternative tool for many biological control programmes in forestry. However, the effectiveness of these biological control agents is strongly affected by environmental factors, as well as by the susceptibility of the insect host. Bark beetle susceptibility to entomopathogens varies greatly between species. According to recent literature, bark beetles are engaged in symbiotic relationships with fungi and bacteria. These types of relationship are very complex and apparently involved in bark beetle defensive mechanisms against pathogens. The latest scientific discoveries in multipartite symbiosis have unravelled unexpected opportunities in bark beetle pest management, which are discussed in this article.
    Pest Management Science 02/2012; 68(7):963-75. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    Alvaro Fuentealba, Éric Bauce
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    ABSTRACT: Thinning has frequently been recommended for reducing damage caused by spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)). It is believed that this technique enhances the mechanisms of resistance of trees (antibiosis and tolerance) to this insect. However, various research projects that have focused upon effects of this silvicultural tool on host tree resistance have yielded equivocal results. A better understanding of the effects of this technique on host tree resistance and budworm performance can help us to reduce the impact of this insect while respecting the ecological integrity of the forests. We examined the effects of stand commercial thinning and drainage class on balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.)), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss), and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.) resistance to spruce budworm 3 years after thinning. We wanted to determine if this technique could be used as preventive tool against insect defoliators. Field-rearing experiments of spruce budworm were conducted, together with foliar chemical analyses, along a gradient of stand thinning intensity (0% (control), 25% (light), and 40% (heavy)) and drainage class (rapidly drained, class 2; mesic with seepage, class 3; subhygric, class 4; and hydric, class 5). Despite having favoured budworm performance (high pupal mass) and winter survival, heavy thinning increased balsam fir and white spruce tolerance (amount of current-year foliage remaining) to a level that resulted in overall increased host tree resistance to the insect. This response was caused by strong foliage production in reaction to the thinning treatment. Light thinning did not increase host tolerance, except in balsam fir and white spruce that were growing on hydric and subhygric sites, respectively, demonstrating the importance of this variable in determining host tree resistance. These results suggest that heavy thinning may be used as a preventive measure during the low-density phase of budworm populations, since this technique increased foliar production in balsam fir and white spruce, rendering them more resistant to attack by this insect.
    Canadian Journal of Forest Research 01/2012; 42(10). · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    A Fuentealba, E Bauce
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of host nutritional quality on spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana (Clemens)) parental and offspring performance was studied using field and laboratory rearing experiments, and foliar chemical analyses. Foliage of balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) and black spruce (P. mariana (Mill.) BSP) was used to rear the parental generation in the field, whereas an artificial diet was used to rear the progeny under laboratory conditions. Important differences in the food quality were provided by the three hosts. Black spruce foliage had higher concentrations of certain monoterpene deterrents and total phenolics, together with stronger seasonal declines in nutrients such as N, P and Mg, compared with the other hosts. We hypothesise that this trend may be related to poor performance and survival of the progeny. Laboratory rearing showed that progeny of parents that fed on black spruce exhibited longer developmental times and greater mortality, and had lower pupal mass than progeny of parents fed on the other hosts. Further, artificial food-fed progeny of insects reared on black spruce reached sixth-instar later, with lower mass, and exhibited higher relative growth rate (RGR) than progeny of parents fed on the other hosts. These results suggest nutritionally-based parental effects. These results also confirmed that the quality of food consumed by the parents can influence the fitness of the next generation.
    Bulletin of entomological research 11/2011; 102(3):275-84. · 1.99 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

346 Citations
137.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1994–2014
    • Laval University
      • • Department of Wood and Forest Sciences
      • • Faculty of Forestry and Geomatics
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2006–2012
    • Université du Québec
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010
    • Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada
      • Horticultural Research and Development Centre
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
    • Natural Resources Canada
      • Canadian Forest Service
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 1997–2010
    • Centre d'enseignement et de recherche en foresterie de Sainte-Foy
      Québec, Quebec, Canada
  • 2001–2003
    • University of New Brunswick
      • Faculty of Forestry & Environmental Management
      Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada