[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The subventricular zone (SVZ) of the developing mammalian forebrain gives rise to astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the neocortex and white matter, and neurons in the olfactory bulb in perinatal life. We have examined the developmental fates and spatial distributions of the descendants of single SVZ cells by infecting them in vivo at postnatal day 0-1 (P0-1) with a retroviral "library". In most cases, individual SVZ cells gave rise to either oligodendrocytes or astrocytes, but some generated both types of glia. Members of glial clones can disperse widely through the gray and white matter. Progenitors continued to divide after stopping migration, generating clusters of related cells. However, the progeny of a single SVZ cell does not differentiate synchronously: individual clones contained both mature and less mature glia after short or long intervals. For example, progenitors that settled in the white matter generated three types of clonal oligodendrocyte clusters: those composed of only myelinating oligodendrocytes, of both myelinating oligodendrocytes and non-myelinating oligodendrocytes, or of only non-myelinating cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage. Thus, some progenitors do not fully differentiate, but remain immature and may continue to cycle well into adult life.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The great majority of glial cells of the mammalian forebrain are generated in the perinatal period from progenitors in the subventricular zone (SVZ). We investigated the migration of progenitors from the neonatal (postnatal day 0, P0) rat forebrain SVZ by labeling them in vivo with a green fluorescence protein (GFP) retrovirus and monitoring their movements by time-lapse video microscopy in P3 slices. We identified a small number of progenitors that migrated tangentially within the corpus callosum (CC) and crossed the midline. These cells retained a relatively uniform morphology: the leading process was extended toward the contralateral side but showed no process branching or turning away from the migratory direction. Net migration requires the elongation of the leading process and nuclear translocation, and the migrating cells in the CC showed both modes. We confirmed the presence of unmyelinated axon bundles within the P3 CC, but failed to detect any radially directed glial processes (vimentin- or GLAST-immunolabeled fibers) spanning through the CC. Confocal images showed a close proximity between neurofilament-immunolabeled axons and the leading process of the GFP-expressing progenitors in the CC. The destination of the callosal fibers was examined by applying DiI to the right cingulum; the labeled fibers ran throughout the CC and reached the left cingulate and motor areas. The distribution and final fates of the retrovirus-labeled cells were examined in P28 brains. A small proportion of the labeled cells were found in the contralateral hemisphere, where, as oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, they colonized predominantly the cortex and the underlying white matter of the cingulate and secondary motor areas. The distribution pattern appears to coincide well with the projection direction of the callosal fibers. Thus, glial progenitors migrate across the CC, presumably in conjunction with unmyelinated axons, to colonize the contralateral hemisphere.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology 05/2003; 458(4):381-8. · 3.51 Impact Factor