[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although antidepressant drugs do not differ much in their efficacy rates, the particular characteristics of one drug may make it a better choice in a given patient. This article provides insight into the art of prescribing antidepressants in primary care, with recommendations for prescribing for patients with chronic pain, sexual dysfunction, anxiety, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, severe insomnia, old age, diabetes, and heart problems.
Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine 10/2013; 80(10):625-631. · 3.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic neuropathic pain in thalamic pain syndrome remains intractable. Its poor response is ascribed to destruction of the integrated neuromatrix in experience of pain. Deep brain stimulation is a promising technique to modulate activity of implicated structures. However, traditional approaches targeting sensori-motor substrates have failed to affect disability. The offending lesion in thalamic pain syndrome that almost invariably destroys sensory pain pathways may render these classical approaches ineffective. Instead, we hypothesize that targeting structures representing emotion and affective behavior-ventral striatum/anterior limb of the internal capsule, may alleviate disability.Methods/design: We present the design of our phase I randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, crossover trial that examines safety, feasibility and efficacy of our proposed approach. In our ongoing trial, we intend to enroll ten patients with thalamic pain syndrome. Following implantation, patients are randomized to receive active deep brain stimulation to the ventral striatum/anterior limb of the internal capsule or sham for 3 months, after which they are crossed over. The primary endpoint is Pain Disability Index. Other outcomes include visual analog scale, depression and anxiety inventories, quality of life, and functional neuroimaging.
Designing trials of deep brain stimulation for pain is challenging owing to the ethical-scientific dilemma of introducing a control arm, complicated blinding, heterogeneous etiologies, patient expectations, and inadequate assessment of disability. The quality of evidence in the field is classified as level III (poor) because it mainly includes a multitude of uncontrolled case series reporting variable outcomes, with little regard for the placebo effect related to implantation. Without valid data on efficacy, use of deep brain stimulation for pain remains "off label". We present our trial design to discuss feasibility of conducting sham-controlled phase I studies that may represent significant refinement for the field. Double-blinding would reduce influence of patient expectations and therapeutic confusion amongst investigators. With a cross-over approach, the dilemma regarding including a control group can be mitigated. Use of homogeneous etiology, measurement of disability, depression and quality of life, besides pain perception, all represent strategies to evaluate efficacy rigorously. Functional imaging would serve to define mechanisms underlying observed effects and may help optimize future targeting.Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01072656.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder is a common and disabling illness and is the leading cause of disability worldwide. Despite aggressive medical, behavioral, and electroconvulsive therapies, a significant number of these patients remain refractory to treatment. Deep brain stimulation has proven efficacy in neurobehavioral disorders and, in a general sense, works by modulation of corticostriatopallidothalamocortical (CSPTC) circuits implicated in these disorders. METHODS: Current data, treatment rationales, and future directions are presented. RESULTS: The two targets most commonly used for DBS in treatment-resistant depression are the subgenual cingulate gyrus and the ventral internal capsule/ventral striatum. Data on DBS of these regions is preliminary, with promise shown in early studies. CONCLUSION: Early work suggests DBS may become a therapeutic option in treatment-resistant depression. Further study is justified given the immense burden of disease.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: To review the current state of cerebral stimulation for neuropathic pain and to propose that cerebral stimulation should aim also at the affective sphere of chronic pain rather than solely focusing on the primary sensory-discriminative sphere. METHODS: The past and current goals of cerebral stimulation are reviewed as well as its limitations. A novel deep brain stimulation approach is proposed to evaluate this conceptual shift from somatosensory to affective sphere of pain targeting. APPROACH: Thalamic and other central pain syndromes are typically intractable to current treatment methods, including cerebral neuromodulation of somatosensory pathways, leading to long-term distress and disability. Our modern understanding of chronic pain pathophysiology is based largely on the neuromatrix theory, where cognitive, affective, and sensory-discriminative spheres contribute equally to the overall pain experience. During the last decade, the safety and feasibility of chronic stimulation of neural pathways related to mood and affect has been explored with promising results. Here, we propose a novel approach to modulate the affective sphere of chronic pain by targeting similar networks in patients with treatment-refractory central pain. Our primary goal is not to produce (or measure) analgesia, but rather to modulate the affective burden of chronic pain. DISCUSSION: Cerebral neuromodulation for neuropathic pain has had limited efficacy thus far. Shifting our aim to neural networks related to the affective sphere of pain may allow us to reduce pain conditioning and pain-related disability. Our ultimate goal is to promote rehabilitation from chronic pain-social and occupational.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The underlying hypothesis of our work is that specific clinical neuropsychiatric benefits can be achieved by selective activation of specific axonal pathways during deep brain stimulation (DBS). As such, the goal of this study was to develop a method for identifying axonal pathways whose activation is most likely necessary for achieving therapeutic benefits during DBS.
Our approach combined clinical data, diffusion tensor tractography, and computer models of patient-specific neurostimulation to identify particular axonal pathways activated by DBS and determine their correlations with individual clinical outcome measures. We used this method to evaluate a cohort of seven treatment-resistant depression patients treated with DBS of the ventral anterior internal capsule and ventral striatum (VC/VS).
Clinical responders exhibited five axonal pathways that were consistently activated by DBS. All five pathways coursed lateral and medial to the VS or dorsal and lateral to the nucleus accumbens; however, details of their specific trajectories differed. Similarly, one common pathway was identified across nonresponders.
Our method and preliminary results provide important background for studies aiming to expand scientific characterization of neural circuitry associated with specific psychiatric outcomes from DBS. Furthermore, identification of pathways linked to therapeutic benefit provides opportunities to improve clinical selection of surgical targets and stimulation settings for DBS devices.
Human Brain Mapping 04/2011; 33(4):958-68. · 6.88 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the behavioral and subjective effects of acute electrical stimulation along the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) and ventral striatum (VS).
Intraoperative awake electrical stimulation and postoperative programming was performed in a group of 6 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) undergoing bilateral deep brain stimulation of the ALIC and VS areas.
Electrical stimulation of the VS area acutely produced changes in mood as well as alertness, anxiety, dizziness, sensation of warmth and "flushing". Stimulation of the ventral capsule area just dorsal to the anterior commissure was associated with increments in mood, sensation of energy and alertness, laughing, calmness and talkative behavior. Behavioral effects were less commonly observed with stimulation of the dorsal region of the ALIC.
Acute behavioral and subjective responses can be consistently obtained from stimulation in the ventral ALIC and VS region. Positive changes in mood and anxiety were reproducibly elicited in the ventral ALIC area.
Intraoperative awake stimulation and postoperative programming of patients undergoing DBS for MDD provide unique opportunities to explore the subjective responses and behavioral phenomena related to electrical stimulation of the area spanning from the dorsal ALIC to the ventral striatum.
Clinical neurophysiology: official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology 09/2009; 120(11):1941-8. · 3.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) for treatment refractory depression.
Fifteen patients with chronic, severe, highly refractory depression received open-label DBS at three collaborating clinical sites. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the VC/VS region. Stimulation was titrated to therapeutic benefit and the absence of adverse effects. All patients received continuous stimulation and were followed for a minimum of 6 months to longer than 4 years. Outcome measures included the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 item (HDRS), the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), and the Global Assessment of Function Scale (GAF).
Significant improvements in depressive symptoms were observed during DBS treatment. Mean HDRS scores declined from 33.1 at baseline to 17.5 at 6 months and 14.3 at last follow-up. Similar improvements were seen with the MADRS (34.8, 17.9, and 15.7, respectively) and the GAF (43.4, 55.5, and 61.8, respectively). Responder rates with the HDRS were 40% at 6 months and 53.3% at last follow-up (MADRS: 46.7% and 53.3%, respectively). Remission rates were 20% at 6 months and 40% at last follow-up with the HDRS (MADRS: 26.6% and 33.3%, respectively). The DBS was well-tolerated in this group.
Deep brain stimulation of the VC/VS offers promise for the treatment of refractory major depression.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Psychiatric neurosurgery teams in the United States and Europe have studied deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule and adjacent ventral striatum (VC/VS) for severe and highly treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. Four groups have collaborated most closely, in small-scale studies, over the past 8 years. First to begin was Leuven/Antwerp, followed by Butler Hospital/Brown Medical School, the Cleveland Clinic and most recently the University of Florida. These centers used comparable patient selection criteria and surgical targeting. Targeting, but not selection, evolved during this period. Here, we present combined long-term results of those studies, which reveal clinically significant symptom reductions and functional improvement in about two-thirds of patients. DBS was well tolerated overall and adverse effects were overwhelmingly transient. Results generally improved for patients implanted more recently, suggesting a 'learning curve' both within and across centers. This is well known from the development of DBS for movement disorders. The main factor accounting for these gains appears to be the refinement of the implantation site. Initially, an anterior-posterior location based on anterior capsulotomy lesions was used. In an attempt to improve results, more posterior sites were investigated resulting in the current target, at the junction of the anterior capsule, anterior commissure and posterior ventral striatum. Clinical results suggest that neural networks relevant to therapeutic improvement might be modulated more effectively at a more posterior target. Taken together, these data show that the procedure can be successfully implemented by dedicated interdisciplinary teams, and support its therapeutic promise.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the pattern of activation associated with electrical stimulation through bilateral deep brain stimulation electrodes placed within the anterior limb of the internal capsule to the level of the ventral striatum for treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
A 44-year-old man with a 26-year history of obsessive-compulsive disorder underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and deep brain stimulation-evoked cortical potential testing after bilateral implantation of deep brain stimulation leads. Stimulation was delivered independently through the distal two contacts of each percutaneously extended lead using an external pulse generator. On postoperative Day 2, we used a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance system to measure changes in the fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent signal using stimulation parameters that were predetermined to demonstrate behavioral effects.
All studies were well tolerated. Trial stimulations performed intraoperatively as well as on postsurgical Day 1 were associated with acutely elevated mood and reduced anxiety. Although the benefit achieved acutely was relatively symmetric between the bilaterally placed leads, follow-up programming showed a clear advantage to right-sided stimulation. Three of the four fMRI trials demonstrated good activation, with the fourth being moderately corrupted by motion artifact. The beneficial effects observed with right-sided stimulation were associated with activation of the ipsilateral head of the caudate, medial thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex as well as the contralateral cerebellum. The distribution of the cortical evoked potentials was consistent with the locus of cortical activation observed with fMRI.
High-frequency stimulation via a lead placed in the anterior limb of the internal capsule induced widespread hemodynamic changes at both the cortical and subcortical levels including areas typically associated with the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the anterior limb of the internal capsule has been shown to be beneficial in the short term for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients who exhaust conventional therapies. Nuttin et al, who published the first DBS for OCD series, found promising results using a capsule target immediately rostral to the anterior commissure extending into adjacent ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS). Published long-term outcome data are limited to four patients. In this collaborative study, 10 adult OCD patients meeting stringent criteria for severity and treatment resistance had quadripolar stimulating leads implanted bilaterally in the VC/VS. DBS was activated openly 3 weeks later. Eight patients have been followed for at least 36 months. Group Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) scores decreased from 34.6+/-0.6 (mean+/-SEM) at baseline (severe) to 22.3+/-2.1 (moderate) at 36 months (p < 0.001). Four of eight patients had a > or =35% decrease in YBOCS severity at 36 months; in two patients, scores declined between 25 and 35%. Global Assessment of Functioning scores improved from 36.6+/-1.5 at baseline to 53.8+/-2.5 at 36 months (p < 0.001). Depression and anxiety also improved, as did self-care, independent living, and work, school, and social functioning. Surgical adverse effects included an asymptomatic hemorrhage, a single seizure, and a superficial infection. Psychiatric adverse effects included transient hypomanic symptoms, and worsened depression and OCD when DBS was interrupted by stimulator battery depletion. This open study found promising long-term effects of DBS in highly treatment-resistant OCD.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral [anterior internal] capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS) is under investigation as an alternative to anterior capsulotomy for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In neuroimaging studies of patients with OCD, dysfunction in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, and thalamus has been identified; and modulation of activity in this circuit has been observed following successful nonsurgical treatment. The purpose of the current study was to test hypotheses regarding changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during acute DBS at the VC/VS target in patients with OCD who were participating in a clinical DBS trial.
Six patients enrolled in a DBS trial for OCD underwent positron emission tomography to measure rCBF; the rCBF measured during acute DBS at high frequency was then compared with those measured during DBS at low frequency and off (control) conditions. On the basis of neuroanatomical knowledge about the VC/VS and neuroimaging data on OCD, the authors predicted that acute DBS at this target would result in modulation of activity within the implicated frontal-basal ganglia-thalamic circuit. Data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. In a comparison of acute high-frequency DBS with control conditions, the authors found significant activation of the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus.
Acute DBS at the VC/VS target is associated with activation of the circuitry implicated in OCD. Further studies will be necessary to replicate these findings and to determine the neural effects associated with chronic VC/VS DBS. Moreover, additional data are needed to investigate whether pretreatment imaging profiles can be used to predict a patient's subsequent clinical response to chronic DBS.
Journal of Neurosurgery 05/2006; 104(4):558-65. · 3.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To describe smiling and euphoria induced by deep brain stimulation (DBS).
The brain systems inducing emotional experiences and displays are not entirely known, but the ventral striatum including the nucleus accumbens has been posited to play a critical role in mediating emotions with positive valence. DBS has been successfully employed for the treatment of movement disorders, and most recently obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this report is to describe the emotional changes associated with stimulation of the ventral striatum.
A single patient with intractable OCD had electrode arrays placed in the right and left anterior limbs of the internal capsule and region of the nucleus accumbens. Changes in facial movement during stimulation were quantified by video recording. Ten video segments, time locked to the onset of stimulation, were digitized and changes in pixel intensity that occurred over both sides of the lower face, on a frame by frame basis, following stimulation onset were computed. These summed changes in pixel intensity represented the dependent variable of "entropy" and directly corresponded to changes in light reflectance that occur during facial movement.
During stimulation on both the right and left side, the patient consistently developed a half smile on the side of the face contralateral to the stimulating electrode, and also became euphoric. The effect ceased when DBS was discontinued.
DBS in the region of the nucleus accumbens produced smile and euphoria suggesting that alterations in the ventral striatum may result in emotional experience and displays. We hypothesize the existence of a limbic-motor network responsible for such changes. This observation suggests that DBS may be useful as a therapy for mood disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite significant advances in psychopharmacology, many patients with psychiatric disorders remain severely impaired by their conditions. Aggressive psychotherapeutic treatments also fail to improve some of these very treatment refractory patients. For these individuals, neurosurgical procedures may be an option. Anterior Cingulotomy procedures have been performed for patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and Major Depression. Anterior Capsulotomy procedures have been performed in similar populations. Results suggest that approximately 50% of treatment refractory patients will respond to these procedures. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) may present an alternative to these ablative procedures. This paper examines various aspects of the use of DBS in psychiatric disorders. This includes the rationale for this use, a summary of preliminary research done to date, and a discussion of the risks and benefits involved in considering DBS.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Intractable OCD and depression cause tremendous suffering in those affected and in their families. The impaired ability to function of those affected imposes a heavy burden on society as a whole. Existing data suggest that lesion procedures offer benefit to a large proportion (ranging from about 35%-70%) of patients with intractable OCD and depression. The literature also suggests that although serious long-term adverse events have occurred, these are relatively infrequent overall. Methodologic limitations of the earlier reports on any of these procedures were described previously in this article. The major academic centers conducting this work have since been obtaining systematic prospective data using modern assessment tools. Nevertheless, even with improved methodologies, more recent studies confront some remaining issues that have been difficult to overcome fully. First, the number of patients who have received any one procedure has been relatively small, constraining statistical power. This limits the ability of researchers to enhance patient selection based on clinical characteristics. This is important, because patients with intractable OCD and depression referred for neurosurgery have high rates of comorbid Axis I diagnoses, personality disorders, and functional impairments, which may have value in predicting response. Other features, such as age of onset, chronicity, and symptom subtypes, may be likewise useful. Another key factor in response may be postoperative management, which has varied most over time but also across patients enrolled in trials. As noted previously, randomized controlled trials of neurosurgical treatment for intractable psychiatric illness have not been reported, although one has been proposed for gamma knife capsulotomy in intractable OCD . The development of deep brain stimulation has also made sham-controlled studies possible and also allows within-patient designs to be considered. Bearing these problems in mind, the literature does provide important guidance on a number of key points, including approaches to referral, patient selection, and the need for long-term prospective follow-up and postoperative management. Nevertheless, important gaps in knowledge remain in all these areas. Research is expected to narrow these gaps in a number of ways, including patient selection, optimizing the procedures themselves, and understanding the mechanisms of therapeutic action. Neuroimaging studies will play a key role in achieving these aims (see the article by Rauch in this issue). So will cross-species translational research on the anatomy and physiology of the pathways implicated in the pathophysiology and response to treatment in these disorders. Future research in psychiatric neurosurgery must proceed cautiously. A recent editorial statement of the OCD-DBS Collaborative Group  recommends a minimum set of standards for any multidisciplinary teams contemplating work in this domain. The rationale for those standards is found throughout this issue and is especially developed in the article by Fins. The need for safe and effective therapeutic options for people suffering with these severe illnesses is just as clear. The experience over the last several decades provides grounds for careful optimism that refined lesion procedures or reversible deep brain stimulation may relieve suffering and improve the lives of people with these devastating disorders.
Neurosurgery Clinics of North America 05/2003; 14(2):199-212. · 1.90 Impact Factor