[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The states of two phase-coupled superconducting rings have been investigated. Multiple current states have been revealed in the dependence of the critical current on the magnetic field. The performed calculations of the critical currents and energy states in a magnetic field have made it possible to interpret the experiment as the measurement of energy states into which the system comes with different probabilities because of the equilibrium and nonequilibrium noises upon the transition from the resistive state to the superconducting state during the measurement of the critical current.
Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics 01/2011; 113(4):678. · 0.92 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have measured periodic oscillations of rectified dc voltage versus
magnetic field Vdc(B) in a superconducting aluminum
thin-film circular-asymmetric figure-of-eight microstructure threaded by
a magnetic flux and biased with a sinusoidal alternating current
(without a dc component) near the critical temperature. The Fourier
spectra of these Vdc(B) functions contain fundamental
frequencies representing periodic responses of the larger and smaller
asymmetric circular loops, composing the microstructure, to the magnetic
field. The higher harmonics of the obtained fundamental frequencies
result from the nonsinusoidal character of loop circulating currents.
The presence of the difference and summation frequencies in these
spectra points to the interaction between the quantum states of both
loops. Magnitudes of the loop responses to the bias ac and magnetic
field vary with temperature and the bias current amplitude, both in
absolute values and with respect to each other. The strongest loop
response appears when the average resistive state of the loop
corresponds to the midpoint of the superconducting-normal phase
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The interaction between the quantum states of two aluminum superconducting rings forming an 8-shape circular-asymmetric microstructure was examined under a threading magnetic flux and bias by an alternating current without a dc component. Quantum oscillations of the rectified dc voltage Vdc(B) as a function of magnetic field were measured in the 8-shape microstructure at various bias ac currents and temperatures close to critical. Fourier and wavelet analyses of Vdc(B) functions revealed the presence of various combination frequencies in addition to two ring fundamental frequencies, which suggests the interaction in the structure. Deviation of the Vdc(B) function from oddness with respect to the magnetic field direction was found for the first time.
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences Physics 01/2008;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Periodic quantum oscillations of a rectified dc voltage Vdc(B) vs the perpendicular magnetic field B were measured near the critical temperature Tc in a single superconducting aluminum almost symmetric ring (without specially created circular asymmetry) biased by alternating current with a zero dc component. With varying bias current and temperature, these Vdc(B) oscillations behave like the Vdc(B) oscillations observed in a circular-asymmetric ring but are of smaller amplitude. The Fourier spectra of the Vdc(B) functions exhibit a fundamental frequency, corresponding to the ring area, and its higher harmonics. Unexpectedly, satellite frequencies depending on the structure geometry and external parameters were found next to the fundamental frequency and around its higher harmonics.
Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences Physics 12/2007;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A great deal of attention has recently been focused on a new class of smart materials--so-called left-handed media--that exhibit highly unusual electromagnetic properties and promise new device applications. Left-handed materials require negative permeability micro, an extreme condition that has so far been achieved only for frequencies in the microwave to terahertz range. Extension of the approach described in ref. 7 to achieve the necessary high-frequency magnetic response in visible optics presents a formidable challenge, as no material--natural or artificial--is known to exhibit any magnetism at these frequencies. Here we report a nanofabricated medium consisting of electromagnetically coupled pairs of gold dots with geometry carefully designed at a 10-nm level. The medium exhibits a strong magnetic response at visible-light frequencies, including a band with negative micro. The magnetism arises owing to the excitation of an antisymmetric plasmon resonance. The high-frequency permeability qualitatively reveals itself via optical impedance matching. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering magnetism at visible frequencies and pave the way towards magnetic and left-handed components for visible optics.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Quantum electrodynamics (resulting from the merger of quantum mechanics and relativity theory) has provided a clear understanding of phenomena ranging from particle physics to cosmology and from astrophysics to quantum chemistry. The ideas underlying quantum electrodynamics also influence the theory of condensed matter, but quantum relativistic effects are usually minute in the known experimental systems that can be described accurately by the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation. Here we report an experimental study of a condensed-matter system (graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon) in which electron transport is essentially governed by Dirac's (relativistic) equation. The charge carriers in graphene mimic relativistic particles with zero rest mass and have an effective 'speed of light' c* approximately 10(6) m s(-1). Our study reveals a variety of unusual phenomena that are characteristic of two-dimensional Dirac fermions. In particular we have observed the following: first, graphene's conductivity never falls below a minimum value corresponding to the quantum unit of conductance, even when concentrations of charge carriers tend to zero; second, the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene is anomalous in that it occurs at half-integer filling factors; and third, the cyclotron mass m(c) of massless carriers in graphene is described by E = m(c)c*2. This two-dimensional system is not only interesting in itself but also allows access to the subtle and rich physics of quantum electrodynamics in a bench-top experiment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report high-quality two-dimensional (2D) electron and hole gases induced at the surface of graphite by the electric field effect. The 2D carriers reside within a few near-surface atomic layers and exhibit mobilities up to 15,000 and 60,000 cm2/Vs at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively. The mobilities imply ballistic transport at micron scale. Pronounced Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations reveal the existence of two types of carries in both 2D electron and hole gases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe monocrystalline graphitic films, which are a few atoms thick but are nonetheless stable under ambient conditions, metallic, and of remarkably high quality. The films are found to be a two-dimensional semimetal with a tiny overlap between valence and conductance bands, and they exhibit a strong ambipolar electric field effect such that electrons and holes in concentrations up to 10(13) per square centimeter and with room-temperature mobilities of approximately 10,000 square centimeters per volt-second can be induced by applying gate voltage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dc voltage induced by an external ac current is observed in system of asymmetric mesoscopic superconducting loops. The value and sign of this dc voltage, like the one of the persistent current, depend in a periodical way on a magnetic field with period corresponded to the flux quantum within the loop. The amplitude of the oscillations does not depend on the frequency of the external ac current (in the investigated region 100 Hz - 1 MHz) and depends on its amplitude. The latter dependence is not monotonous. The observed phenomenon of rectification is interpreted as a consequence of a dynamic resistive state induced by superposition of the external current and the persistent current. It is shown that the dc voltage can be added in system of loops connected in series: the dc voltage oscillations with amplitude up to 0.00001 V were observed in single loop, up to 0.00004 V in a system of 3 loops and up to 0.0003 V in a system of 20 loops.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A dc voltage induced by an external ac current was observed in a system of asymmetric aluminum loops at temperatures corresponding
to 0.95–0.98 of the superconducting transition temperature. The voltage magnitude and sign change periodically in a magnetic
field with a period corresponding to the magnetic flux quantum through the loop. The amplitude of these oscillations depends
nonmonotonically on the amplitude of ac current and is almost independent of its frequency in the range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz.
The observed phenomenon is interpreted as the result of displacing the loop into a dynamic resistive state by the external
current, where the loop is “switched” back and forth between the closed superconducting state with a nonzero steady current
and the nonclosed state with a nonzero resistance along the loop circle. It is shown that voltages are summed up in a system
of loops connected in series. For systems with one, three, and twenty loops, the voltage reaches 10, 40, and 300 μ V, respectively.