[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This case report describes a rare and potentially fatal condition associated with anesthesia administration. Our aim was to discuss the causes of sudden cardiac arrest during the perioperative period in apparently healthy patients and the pathophysiology of anomalous origin of the coronary arteries as a cause of sudden cardiac arrest.
Female patient, 44 years old, with no previous symptoms of heart disease or arrhythmias, had a sudden cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in two different situations. In the first episode, the patient presented signs of acute abdomen, but remained hemodynamically stable. Following induction of anesthesia, the patient exhibited bradycardia and hypotension refractory to volume replacement and vasopressors. The condition progressed to asystole. The patient was successfully resuscitated and discharged from the hospital in good condition. In the second episode, one year after the first, the patient was in good clinical condition to undergo an elective surgery. After induction of anesthesia, the patient developed ventricular tachycardia followed by asystole, which was promptly reversed. After extensive investigation, an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery was identified.
Our report is illustrative as it emphasizes that a thorough diagnostic investigation should be done in cases of sudden cardiac arrest during the perioperative period, even in patients that appear to be healthy.
Revista brasileira de anestesiologia 11/2012; 62(6):878-84.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The head-up tilt test (HUT) is widely used to investigate unexplained syncope; however, in clinical practice, it is long and sometimes not well tolerated.
To compare the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and patients' tolerance of a conventional and shortened HUT.
Patients with a history of vasovagal syndrome (VVS) were randomized to a conventional HUT (group I) consisting of 20-minute passive tilt followed by 25 minutes after administration of sublingual isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN), or a shortened HUT (group II) where ISDN was given immediately after tilt and observed for 25 minutes. The control group consisted of age- and gender-matched subjects without VVS symptoms. A specific questionnaire to evaluate tolerance was applied.
Sixty patients (29 ± 10 years, 82% female) were included. In group I, 22/30 patients had a positive HUT compared to 21/30 in group II (73% vs 70%, P = 0.77). There was also no difference in the accuracy between the two protocols (63% vs 73%, P = 0.24). The time to positivity was shorter in group II (13.2 minutes vs 30 minutes, P < 0.001). Within the control group (n = 60), the frequency of false-positives was 47% and 23% for the conventional and shortened HUT, respectively (P = 0.058). After conventional HUT, 65.2% subjects reported that the test was too long compared to 25% subjects after the shortened HUT (P = 0.002).
In this study, the HUT without passive phase was not inferior to the conventional HUT regarding sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Furthermore, the shortened ISDN-potentiated protocol allowed faster diagnosis and was better tolerated.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 06/2012; 35(8):1005-11. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Luminal esophageal temperature (LET) monitoring is one strategy to minimize esophageal injury during atrial fibrillation ablation procedures. However, esophageal ulceration and fistulas have been reported despite adequate LET monitoring. The objective of this study was to assess a novel approach to LET monitoring with a deflectable LET probe on the rate of esophageal injury in patients undergoing atrial fibrillation ablation.
Forty-five consecutive patients undergoing an atrial fibrillation ablation procedure followed by esophageal endoscopy were included in this prospective observational pilot study. LET monitoring was performed with a 7F deflectable ablation catheter that was positioned as close as possible to the site of left atrial ablation using the deflectable component of the catheter guided by visualization of its position on intracardiac echocardiography. Ablation in the posterior left atrial was limited to 25 W and terminated when the LET increased 2°C from baseline. Endoscopy was performed 1 to 2 days after the procedure. All patients had at least 1 LET elevation >2°C necessitating cessation of ablation. Deflection of the LET probe was needed to accurately measure LET in 5% of patients when ablating near the left pulmonary veins, whereas deflection of the LET probe was necessary in 88% of patients when ablating near the right pulmonary veins. The average maximum increase in LET was 2.5±1.5°C. No patients had esophageal thermal injury on follow-up endoscopy.
A strategy of optimal LET probe placement using a deflectable LET probe and intracardiac echocardiography guidance, combined with cessation of radiofrequency ablation with a 2°C rise in LET, may reduce esophageal thermal injury during left atrial ablation procedures.
Circulation Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology 02/2011; 4(2):149-56. · 5.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complexity of reentrant circuits related to ventricular tachycardias decreases the success rate of radiofrequency ablation procedures.
To evaluate whether the epicardial mapping with multiple electrodes carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping helps in ablation procedures of sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with nonischemic heart disease.
Twenty-six patients with recurrent sustained VT, of which 22 (84.6%) presenting chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy, 2 (7.7%) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 2 with right ventricular arrhythmogenic dysplasia (RVAD), were submitted to epicardial mapping with two or three microcatheters, with 8 electrodes each, simultaneously to the conventional endocardial mapping. A catheter with a 4-mm tip was used for the ablation by radiofrequency (RF) carried out during the induced VT.
Of the 33 induced VT, 25 were mapped and 20 had their origin defined. Eleven had epicardial and 9 had endocardial origin. The programmed ventricular stimulation did not induce sustained VT in 11 (42.0%) of the 26 patients after the ablation. Events such as VT recurrence and death occurred in 10.0% of the patients submitted to successful ablation and in 59.0% of the unsuccessful cases, during a mean ambulatory follow-up of 357 ± 208 days.
Subepicardial circuits are frequent in patients with nonischemic heart disease. The epicardial mapping with multiple catheters carried out simultaneously with the endocardial mapping contributes to the identification of these circuits in a same procedure.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 01/2011; 96(2):114-20. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Resumen El test de inclinación (TI) es muy utilizado para la investigación de síncopes y presíncopes, pues posibilita el diagnóstico de diferentes tipos de disautonomías. La principal causa de síncope es el Síndrome Vasovagal, cuyo diagnóstico es el más frecuente entre las indicaciones de TI. EL examen es utilizado hace cerca de 20 años, pero muchos médicos desconocen la metodología. Son importantes la indicación apropiada, después de exclusión de causas cardíacas de síncope, y la orientación del paciente para garantizar la tranquilidad y la seguridad del test. Existen controversias en la literatura sobre la capacidad diagnóstica y la confiabilidad de los resultados. Los estudios con protocolos diversos pueden explicar la variabilidad de los resultados. En esta revisión, son colocadas las indicaciones y la metodología recomendadas por las directrices, complicaciones, limitaciones y perspectivas de ese examen.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The head-up tilt test (HUTT) is widely used for investigation of syncope and presyncope, since it allows diagnosing different types of dysautonomia. The main cause of syncope is the vasovagal syndrome, the most common diagnosis among patients with HUTT indication. The test has been used for nearly 20 years, but many doctors are unaware of the methodology. After the cardiac causes of syncope are ruled out, the appropriate indication of the test and instructions to patients are important to ensure that the test will be carried out in a safe and relaxed manner. There are controversies in the literature over the diagnostic capacity and reliability of results. Studies with various protocols may explain the variability of results. This review describes the guidelines-recommended methodology and indications, complications, limitations and perspectives of this test.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 01/2011; 96(3):246-54. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension and ischemic nephropathy. Despite successful renal revascularization, not all patients (pt) overcome it and some get worse.
This study was designed to assess the value of renal resistance index (RI) in predicting the outcome of renal revascularization.
Between Jan 1998 and Feb 2001, 2,933 pts were referred to renal duplex ultrasound. 106 out of these had significant RAS and underwent angiography and renal revascularization. Arterial blood pressure (BP) was measured before and after the intervention, at intervals of up to 2 years and medications recorded. Prior to revascularization, RI was measured at 3 sites of each kidney and averaged.
Out of the 106 patients, 81 had RI<80 and 25 RI>80. RAS was corrected with angioplasty (PTA) alone in 25 pts, PTA + stent in 56 pts and corrected by surgery in 25 pts. Of patients who benefited from renal revascularization; 57 of the 81 patients with RI <80 improved as compared to 5 of 25 with RI>80. Using a multiple logistic regression model, RI was significantly associated with BP outcome (p=0.001), adjusted for the effects of age, sex, SBP, DBP, duration of hypertension, type of revascularization, number of medication in use, creatinine level, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, stroke, peripheral and coronary artery disease and kidney size (OR 99.6 - 95%CI for OR 6.1 to 1,621.2).
Intrarenal arterial resistance measured by duplex ultrasound plays an important role in predicting BP outcome after renal revascularization for RAS.
Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia 03/2010; 94(4):452-6. · 1.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-secreting tumor of the adrenal glands, usually with benign manifestations, whose typical clinical presentation includes the triad of headache, palpitations and diaphoresis. However, a wide range of signs and symptoms may be present. In the cardiovascular system, the most common signs are labile hypertension and sinus tachycardia. Systolic heart failure and ST-segment deviations mimicking myocardial infarction have also been reported, as well as QT interval prolongation and, rarely, ventricular tachycardia. We describe a challenging diagnosis of pheochromocytoma with many cardiovascular manifestations, which could have been missed due to the absence of typical symptoms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and AimsSlow conduction scarred areas are related with ventricular tachycardia (VT) arrhythmogenesis in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
The purpose of this study was to characterize the substrate in both epicardial and endocardial surfaces of the left ventricle
and to evaluate the effectiveness of substrate mapping and ablation for VT in Chagas cardiomyopathy.
Methods and ResultsSeventeen patients were evaluated prospectively using a simultaneous epicardial and endocardial electroanatomical substrate
mapping and ablation. With a mean of 201 ± 94 epicardial and 169 ± 77 endocardial points, the epicardial voltage areas ≤0.5mV
were 56.8 ± 40.6 (range 4.4 to 154.8cm2) as compared to 22.5 ± 15.8cm2 (range 5.4 to 61.0cm2; p = 0.004) in the endocardium. Analyzing the epicardial surface, there was a strong correlation between the bipolar voltage
electrograms and the electrogram duration at the epicardium during sinus rhythm (r = 0.897, p < 0.0001). Acute success was obtained in 83.3% of patients with no serious complications. At the end of follow-up from 14
patients with acute success, 11 (78.6%) had been event-free based on implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) interrogation
ConclusionChronic Chagas cardiomyopathy patients have larger epicardial as compared to endocardial substrate areas. Combined epicardial
endocardial substrate mapping and ablation during sinus rhythm proves effective in preventing VT recurrences and appropriate
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although oral anticoagulation has proved beneficial for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and embolic risk factors, it is still underused. The objective of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of anticoagulation therapy in patients with AF followed in a private clinic specialized in cardiology, in accordance with the American and European societies of cardiology guidelines/2006 and with the Brazilian Guidelines/2003.
Between November 2005 and August 2006, we evaluated 7,486 electrocardiograms and selected 53 patients with AF and complete chart records. Clinical characteristics, including embolic risk factor, echocardiographic data and medical treatment were reviewed.
Among the 53 patients (68+/-16 years; 29 men), 25 (48%) had hypertension, 20 (38%) heart failure and 3 (6%) diabetes. Among the 15 patients with high embolic risk, 13 (86%) were on oral anticoagulation. In accordance with the American and European guidelines: 32 (60%) patients were Class I, 17 (32%) Class IIa, 1 (2%) Class IIb and 3 (6%) Class III. Treatment was adequate in 21 (66%) Class I patients and 13 (76%) Class IIa. In these, anticoagulation therapy was used in 7/19 (37%) patients > 75 years compared to 22/30 (73%) younger. Among the 3 patients within Class III, 1 was incorrectly on OAC. According to Brazilian guidelines, 33 (62%) were on correctly indicated antithrombotic therapy. There was no difference in the appropriate prescription of oral anticoagulants, comparing the international and Brazilian guidelines (55% vs. 55%).
According to recent guidelines, anticoagulant therapy has been adequately prescribed for the majority of AF patients, although this is still far from ideal, especially in a cardiology clinic. It is even more critical in the group of older patients.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 12/2009; 56(1):56-61. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia occurs in healthy children and young adults causing syncope and sudden cardiac death. This is a familial disease, which affect de novo mutation in 50% of the cases. At least two causative genes have been described to be localized in the chromosome 1; mutation of the ryanodine receptor gene and calsequestrin gene. The classical clinical presentation is syncope triggered by exercise and emotion in children and adolescents with no structural heart disease. Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia during treadmill testing, or after isoproterenol infusion, is the most common feature. Therapeutic options include, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers and, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is indicated in high-risk patients. Risk stratification of this disease is very challenging, since some risk factors proved to be useful in some series but not in others. However, family history of sudden cardiac death and symptoms initiated in very young children are important predictors.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient with palpitations and presyncopes due to nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, who had no structural heart disease. The patient underwent electrophysiological study in an attempt to ablate the arrhythmogenic focus, whose location was determined by using mapping criteria. Because mapping of the right ventricular outflow tract was not successful, the catheter was placed inside the pulmonary artery with satisfactory mapping of the arrhythmogenic focus, and tachycardia was eliminated as soon as radiofrequency was initiated. The patient has remained asymptomatic for 14 months, with no treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs, and no arrhythmias on serial 24-hour Holter.
Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia 03/2005; 84(2):185-7. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A case of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome successfully treated by transcutaneous epicardial radiofrequency ablation is described in a patient with a posteroseptal accessory pathway who had failed prior attempts of conventional endocardial and coronary venous system approaches. Simultaneous endocardial and pericardial space mapping was performed and only ablation from the pericardial space was successful, suggesting an epicardial course of the accessory pathway.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 03/2004; 27(2):259-61. · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study assessed the role of electrophysiologic testing to identify therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy treated with amiodarone or sotalol.
One hundred fifteen patients [69 men (60%); mean age 52 +/- 10 years] with chagasic cardiomyopathy presenting with symptomatic VT were studied after loading with Class III antiarrhythmic drugs; 78 had a history of sustained VT, and 37 with symptomatic nonsustained VT had sustained VT induced at baseline electrophysiologic study. All but 12 patients also underwent baseline electrophysiologic study. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 0.49 +/- 0.14. Based on results of electrophysiologic study after loading with Class III drugs, patients were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 23) had no sustained VT induced; group 2 (n = 45) had only tolerated sustained VT induced; and group 3 (n = 47) had hemodynamically unstable sustained VT induced. After a mean follow-up of 52 +/- 32 months, total mortality rate was 39.1%; it was significantly higher in group 3 than in groups 2 and 1 [69%, 22.2%, and 26%, respectively, P < 0.0001, hazard ratio (HR) 10.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.8, 21.8]. There was no significant difference in total mortality rate between groups 1 and 2 (P = 0.40, HR 1.5, 95% CI 0.75, 4.58). Cardiac mortality and sudden cardiac death rates also were higher in group 3 patients.
In patients with chagasic cardiomyopathy and sustained VT, electrophysiologic testing can predict long-term efficacy of Class III antiarrhythmic drugs. This may help in the selection of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy.
Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 06/2003; 14(6):567-73. · 3.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery injury is a rare complication of radiofrequency catheter ablation. We describe the case of a 12-year-old girl who had an acute distal right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion during radiofrequency catheter ablation of a postero-septal accessory pathway treated with mechanical reperfusion utilizing an angioplasty guidewire. Coronary angiography performed at 1-year follow-up depicted normal left ventricular function, patent descending posterior artery and total occlusion of the postero-lateral branch, which was filled through a rich collateral circulation from the RCA marginal branch.
The Journal of invasive cardiology 04/2003; 15(3):173-5. · 1.57 Impact Factor