Lars-Göran Strömblad

Lund University, Lund, Skane, Sweden

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Publications (8)17.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: This 15-year-old girl was operated due to an ectopic recurrence of a craniopharyngioma along the previous surgical route. She presented with a sellar craniopharyngioma at the age of 4 years and underwent a right subfrontal craniotomy. Two and a half years later she had a local recurrence in the sella that was resected along the same surgical route. Postoperative cranial radiotherapy was administered with 50 Gy divided into 28 fractions. Nine years later, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a local recurrence within the sella together with a supraorbital cystic mass. Both tumors were surgically removed. Microscopic examination revealed recurrence of an adamantinous craniopharyngioma at both localisations. Histopathological preparations showed a higher MIB-1 index at the simultaneous recurrences in the sella and in the frontal lobe and also an elevated focal p53 expression, compared to previous operations, suggesting a transformation to a more aggressive tumor. This is the first case report of ectopic recurrence in a child that had received conventional radiotherapy of 50 Gy to the sella. Careful intra-operative procedure is probably crucial for preventing ectopic recurrences. The future will reveal if the transsphenoidal surgical route will put an end to ectopic tumor recurrence in patients with a craniopharyngioma.
    Child s Nervous System 01/2011; 27(5):845-51. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a well accepted neurosurgical procedure performed for the relief of spasticity interfering with motor function in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). The goal is to improve function, but long-term outcome studies are rare. The aims of this study were to evaluate long-term functional outcomes, safety and side effects during five postoperative years in all children with diplegia undergoing SDR combined with physiotherapy. This study group consisted of 35 children, consecutively operated, with spastic diplegia, of which 26 were Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels III-V. Mean age was 4.5 years (range 2.5-6.6). They were all assessed by the same multidisciplinary team at pre- and at 6, 12, 18 months, 3 and 5 years postoperatively. Clinical and demographic data, complications and number of rootlets cut were prospectively registered. Deep tendon reflexes and muscle tone were examined, the latter graded with the modified Ashworth scale. Passive range of motion (PROM) was measured with a goniometer. Motor function was classified according to the GMFCS and measured with the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-88) and derived into GMFM-66. Parent's opinions about the children's performance of skills and activities and the amount of caregiver assistance were measured with Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI). The mean proportion of rootlets cut in S2-L2 was 40%. Muscle tone was immediately reduced in adductors, hamstrings and dorsiflexors (p < 0.001) with no recurrence of spasticity over the 5 years. For GMFCS-subgroups I-II, III and IV-V significant improvements during the five years were seen in PROM for hip abduction, popliteal angle and ankle dorsiflexion (p = 0.001), capacity of gross motor function (GMFM) (p = 0.001), performance of functional skills and independence in self-care and mobility (PEDI) (p = 0.001). SDR is a safe and effective method for reducing spasticity permanently without major negative side effects. In combination with physiotherapy, in a group of carefully selected and systematically followed young children with spastic diplegia, it provides lasting functional benefits over a period of at least five years postoperatively.
    BMC Pediatrics 12/2008; 8:54. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pain measurement is a necessity in pain treatment but can be difficult in young children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Behavioural Observational Pain Scale (BOPS) as a postoperative pain measurement scale for children aged 1-7 yrs. The scale assesses three elements of pain behaviors: facial expression, verbalization, and body position. A prospective study. A day surgery care unit for children and a neurosurgical postoperative care unit. Seventy-six children aged 1-7 yrs (4.5 +/- 1.8) undergoing elective surgical procedures were observed. None. The study was divided into interrater reliability, concurrent validity, and construct validity. The interrater reliabilities of the observers were very good with a high agreement between the different nurses' BOPS scores. Each item of the BOPS scale ranged from kappa(w) 0.86 to 0.95. In the concurrent validity, BOPS and Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Pain Scale scores had a positive correlation indicating that both tools described similar behaviors (r(s) = .871, p < .001). In construct validity, the effect of analgesic was tested before analgesic administration and at 15, 30, and 60 mins after analgesic administration. The differences in BOPS score between the time intervals were significant (p < .01) before administration of analgesia and at 15, 30, and 60 mins. There was also statistical significance in the BOPS score (p < .01) between 15 and 60 mins after administration of analgesia. With BOPS, the caretaker can evaluate and document pain with high reliability and validity and thereby improve postoperative pain treatment in preschool children. The simple scoring system makes BOPS easy to incorporate in a postoperative unit.
    Pediatric Critical Care Medicine 03/2007; 8(2):102-8. · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • Karin Hesselgard, Lars-Göran Strömblad, Bertil Romner, Peter Reinstrup
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    ABSTRACT: Children undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) experience severe pain postoperatively; a pain related to both the extensive surgical exposure with multilevel laminectomy and nerve root manipulation. We sought to define an optimal dose of continuous intrathecal (IT) morphine and bupivacaine to treat this severe pain. The aim of this study was to compare two different concentrations of morphine in a fixed dose of bupivacaine with regard to the analgesic effect and survey if they differed in side effects. Twenty-six children, aged 2.7-7.4 years undergoing SDR were included in this study. Postoperatively 11 children received a continuous infusion of morphine 0.4 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and bupivacaine 40 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) (low-dose group) and 15, a continuous infusion of morphine 0.6 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) and bupivacaine 40 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1) (high-dose group). The Behavioral Observational Pain Scale (BOPS) was used to evaluate pain. Better pain relief was obtained in the high-dose group seen in lower BOPS score compared with the low-dose group [P = 0.03, Fisher's permutation test and P = 0.06 Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney (WMW) test]. The low-dose group received seven times as much ketobemidone 0.43 +/- 0.54 mg x kg(-1) 48 h(-1) compared with 0.06 +/- 0.09 mg x kg(-1) 48 h(-1) in the high-dose group (P = 0.0005 Fisher's permutation test, P = 0.0017 WMW test). There was no statistical difference in pruritus and postoperative nausea and vomiting between the groups. Respiratory and hemodynamic depression was not found. This study shows that, compared with low-dose, the higher dose of continuous IT morphine combined with bupivacaine, significantly reduce pain score and postoperative intravenous analgesic requirements without increasing adverse effects.
    Pediatric Anesthesia 05/2006; 16(4):436-43. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report long-term effects of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) on epileptiform activity in 15 children, and how these changes are related to activity stage and to clinical effects on seizure reduction, seizure severity (NHS3) and quality of life (QOL). Initially, and after 3 and 9 months of VNS-treatment, 15 children were investigated with 24 h ambulatory EEG monitoring for spike detection. The number of interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) and the inter spike intervals (ISIs) were analysed during 2 h in the awake state, and 1h of rapid eye movement (REM)-, spindle- and delta-sleep, respectively. Total number and duration of electrographic seizure episodes were also analysed. At 9 months the total number of IEDs was significantly reduced (p=0.04). There was a tendency of reduction in all activity stages, and significantly so in delta-sleep (p=0.008). Total electrographic seizure number was significantly reduced in the 24 h EEG at 3 and 9 months (p=0.03, 0.05). There was a significant concordance in direction of changes in epileptiform activity and electrographic seizures at 9 months (p=0.04). Concordance in direction of changes was seen in 9 of 15 children between clinical seizures and IED (p>0.3), in 10 of 15 children between QOL and IED (p=0.3) and in 8 of 15 children between NHS3 and IED (p>0.3). There was no direct correlation between the extent of improvement in these clinical data and the degree of spike reduction. This study shows that VNS reduces IEDs especially in REM and delta sleep, as well as the number of electrographic seizures. It also shows a concordance between reduction in IEDs and electrographic seizures.
    Seizure 12/2005; 14(8):527-33. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a neurophysiologic treatment for patients with refractory epilepsy. There is growing evidence of additional quality of life (QOL) benefits of VNS. We report the effects of VNS on seizure frequency and severity and how these changes are related to cognitive abilities, QOL, behaviour and mood in 15 children with medically refractory and for surgery not eligible epilepsy. Initially, and after 3 and 9 months of VNS-treatment, 15 children were investigated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID), Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-R), Wechlser Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-III) depending on the child's level of functioning, a Visual Analogue Scale for validating QOL, Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL) for quantifying behaviour problems, Dodrill Mood Analogue Scale and Birleson Depression Self-Rating Scale, and the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale (NHS3). A diary of seizure frequency was collected. Six of 15 children showed a 50% or more reduction in seizure frequency; one of these became seizure-free. Two children had a 25-50% seizure reduction. Two children showed increased seizure frequency. In 13 of 15 children there was an improvement in NHS3. The parents reported shorter duration of seizure and recovery phase. There were no changes in cognitive functioning. Twelve children showed an improvement in QOL. Eleven of these also improved in seizure severity and mood and five also in depressive parameters. This study has shown a good anti-seizure effect of VNS, an improvement in seizure severity and in QOL and a tendency to improvement over time regarding behaviour, mood and depressive parameters. The improvement in seizure severity, QOL, behaviour, mood and depressive parameters was not related to the anti-seizure effect.
    Seizure 11/2005; 14(7):504-13. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study purpose was to evaluate sleep structure following Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) in 15 children with therapy resistant epilepsy and to correlate possible alterations with changes in epileptiform activity and clinical effects. Fifteen children were examined with ambulatory polysomnographic recordings initially, and after 3 and 9 months of VNS-treatment. Sleep parameters, all-night delta power activity and movement times (MTs), used to account for arousals were estimated. Epileptiform activity was evaluated by spike detection. Seizure frequency was recorded in a diary. The severity of the seizures was scored with the National Hospital Seizure Severity Scale (NHS3). Quality of life (QOL) was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Behaviour problems were quantified by using the total score of the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). VNS induces a significant increase in slow wave sleep (SWS) and a decrease in sleep latency and in stage 1 sleep. The number and density of MTs during total night sleep were significantly increased. There was also a significant increase in the number of MTs immediately related to the VNS stimulation periods. Of the 14 children with increased MTs, 10 had a reduction in epileptiform activity, and in clinical seizures, all had an improvement in NHS3, and 11 in QOL. Of the 10 children with increased SWS, eight also improved in QOL and eight in behaviour. Our findings indicate that VNS counteracts known adverse effects of epilepsy on sleep and increases slow wave sleep. This possibly contributes to the reported improvement in well-being. We also see an increase in MTs. This arousal effect seems to be of minor importance for QOL and could possibly be related to the antiepileptic mechanisms in VNS.
    European Journal of Paediatric Neurology 02/2005; 9(6):399-407. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this study was to assess the value of making adjustments in the opening pressure of a shunt valve and to determine shunt survival in children and young adults in whom an adjustable valve was used to manage cerebrospinal fluid drainage. The authors conducted a single-center retrospective study of 158 children and young adults who had received 199 Codman Hakim programmable valves (noninvasively adjustable to settings in the range of 30-200 mm H2O). The mean age at which the patients underwent shunt implantation was 4.4 years (median 0.4 years, maximum 18 years); 94 patients were younger than 2 years of age, including 14 patients with a gestational age younger than 38 weeks at the time of implantation. In 84 (53.2%) of the 158 patients, valve pressure adjustment was required at least once (mean 1.3 times, maximum 16 times). Among the 202 adjustments made in patients the reason for adjustment was underdrainage in 74 adjustments (36.6%) and overdrainage in 119 (58.9%). The clinical status of the patient improved after 121 (69.1%) of 175 adjustments and after 58 (73.4%) of 79 minor adjustments (less than or equal to +/- 20 mm H2O). The shunt infection rate was 13 (10.9%) of 119 patients. Shunt survival was 60.5% at 1 year, 47.1% at 2 years, and 43.9% at 3 years of follow-up review. Adjustment of the valve's opening pressure further improves outcome in pediatric patients.
    Journal of Neurosurgery 04/2003; 98(3):471-6. · 3.15 Impact Factor