ABSTRACT: To determine owner impressions of 3 premium canine diets when factors such as price and retail source were removed; to compare body condition scores (BCSs) assigned by owners versus a veterinarian; and to determine consistency of owner impressions of diets when owners were not informed that they were feeding the same diet during 2 consecutive periods.
Randomized controlled trial.
44 healthy adult dogs.
During the initial 12 months of the study, dogs were each fed 3 premium diets for 4 months in random order. After feeding each diet for 1 and 4 months, owners completed questionnaires regarding palatability of the diet; the dog's attitude, energy level, fecal consistency, frequency of defecation, hair coat quality, and BCS; and whether they would feed the diet if available commercially. During the last 4 months of the study, owners fed the same diet they had been feeding during the previous 4 months.
Scores for most variables did not differ among diets. However, mean BCS assigned by owners was significantly lower than mean BCS assigned by an investigator, with a moderate correlation between scores. When asked at the end of the third and fourth study periods whether they would consider feeding the diet long-term, 12 of the 44 (27%) owners gave inconsistent responses.
Results indicate that when unaware of retail price and source, owners have similar impressions of 3 premium diets fed to healthy adult dogs, suggesting that factors other than the diets themselves may affect owner impressions. Owners also underestimate their dog's BCS.
Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 01/2006; 227(12):1931-6. · 1.79 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To compare glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured via urinary clearance of inulin (UCI) with plasma clearance of technetium Tc 99m pentetate (99mTc-pentetate) and creatinine in dogs.
6 healthy Beagles and 18 Beagles with reduced renal function.
13 blood samples were obtained between 5 and 600 minutes after i.v. bolus injections of (99m)Tc-pentetate and creatinine. Plasma clearance of (99m)Tc-pentetate was computed on the basis of 1, 2, or 13 samples, and plasma clearance of creatinine was computed on the basis of 2, 5, or 13 samples. During plasma clearance procedures, constant i.v. infusion of carboxyl carbon 14 inulin was begun and UCI was determined in urine collected from 90 to 120, 120 to 180, and 180 to 240 minutes. Clearance procedures were repeated in 12 dogs to evaluate reproducibility of results.
Significant association between UCI and plasma clearance was determined via all methods. However, plasma clearances were moderately to markedly different from UCI, depending on test substance, GFR, and sample numbers used for plasma clearance computations. Comparisons were particularly discordant when some methods of limiting samples were used to define plasma clearance.
Values derived from plasma clearance methods for (99m)Tc-pentetate and creatinine were not interchangeable with UCI results, which raises questions about their reliability as clinical research tools for measurement of GFR. Plasma clearance methods that are relative indices of renal function should not be interpreted as accurate measures of GFR without validation.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 07/2005; 66(6):1046-55. · 1.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether pharmacokinetic analysis of data derived from a single i.v. dose of iohexol could be used to predict creatinine clearance and evaluate simplified methods for predicting serum clearance of iohexol with data derived from 2 or 3 blood samples in clinically normal foals.
10 healthy foals.
Serum disposition of iohexol and exogenous creatinine clearance was determined simultaneously in each foal (5 males and 5 females). A 3-compartment model of iohexol serum disposition was selected via standard methods. Iohexol clearance calculated from the model was compared with creatinine clearance. Separate limited-sample models were created with various combinations of sample times from the terminal slope of the plasma versus time profile for iohexol. Correction factors were determined for the limited-sample models, and iohexol clearance calculated via each method was compared with exogenous creatinine clearance by use of method comparison techniques.
Mean exogenous creatinine clearance was 2.17 mL/min/kg. The disposition of iohexol was best described by a 3-compartment open model. Mean clearance value for iohexol was 2.15 mL/min/kg and was not significantly different from mean creatinine clearance. A method for predicting serum iohexol clearance based on a 2-sample protocol (3- and 4-hour samples) was developed.
Iohexol clearance can be used to predict exogenous creatinine clearance and can be determined from 2 blood samples taken after i.v. injection of iohexol. Appropriate correction factors for adult horses and horses with abnormal glomerular filtration rate need to be determined.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 01/2004; 64(12):1486-90. · 1.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To determine whether the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril would lower systemic arterial and glomerular capillary pressure and reduce the magnitude of renal injury in a canine model of renal insufficiency.
18 adult dogs that had renal mass reduced by partial nephrectomy.
After surgical reduction of renal mass and baseline measurements, dogs in 2 equal groups received either placebo (group 1) or enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h; group 2) for 6 months.
Values for systemic mean arterial blood pressure determined by indirect and direct measurement after 3 and 6 months of treatment, respectively, were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1. During treatment, monthly urine protein-to-creatinine ratios were consistently lower in group 2 than in group 1, although values were significantly different only at 3 months. At 6 months, significant reduction in glomerular capillary pressure in group 2 was detected, compared with group 1, but glomerular filtration rate in group 2 was not compromised. Glomerular hypertrophy, assessed by measurement of planar surface area of glomeruli, was similar in both groups. Glomerular and tubulointerstitial lesions were significantly less in group 2, compared with group 1.
Data suggest that inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme was effective in modulating progressive renal injury, which was associated with reduction of glomerular and systemic hypertension and proteinuria but not glomerular hypertrophy. Inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme may be effective for modulating progression of renal disease in dogs.
American Journal of Veterinary Research 04/2003; 64(3):321-7. · 1.27 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Systemic hypertension is hypothesized to cause renal injury to dogs. This study was performed on dogs with surgically induced renal failure to determine whether hypertension was associated with altered renal function or morphology. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured before and after surgery. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine protein:creatinine ratios (UPC) were measured at 1, 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks after surgery, and renal histology was evaluated terminally. The mean of weekly MAP, SAP, and DAP measurements for each dog over the 1st 26 weeks was used to rank dogs on the basis of MAP, SAP, or DAP values. A statistically significant association was found between systemic arterial pressure ranking and ranked measures of adverse renal responses. When dogs were divided into higher pressure and lower pressure groups on the basis of SAP, group 1 (higher pressure, n = 9) compared with group 2 (lower pressure, n = 10) had significantly lower GFR values at 36 and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, and fibrosis. When dogs were divided on MAP and DAP values, group 1 compared with group 2 had significantly lower GFR values at 12, 24, 36, and 56-69 weeks; higher UPC values at 12 and 56-69 weeks; and higher kidney lesion scores for mesangial matrix, tubule damage, fibrosis, and cell infiltrate. These results demonstrate an association between increased systemic arterial pressure and renal injury. Results from this study might apply to dogs with some types of naturally occurring renal failure.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 18(3):289-94. · 1.99 Impact Factor