[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin-to-skin contact (SSC) between mother and infant, commonly referred to as Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC), is recommended as an intervention for procedural pain. Evidence demonstrates its consistent efficacy in reducing pain for a single painful procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the sustained efficacy of KMC, provided during all routine painful procedures for the duration of Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) hospitalization, in diminishing behavioral pain response in preterm neonates. The efficacy of KMC alone will be compared to standard care of 24% oral sucrose, as well as the combination of KMC and 24% oral sucrose.
Infants admitted to the NICU who are less than 36 6/7 weeks gestational age (according to early ultrasound), that are stable enough to be held in KMC, will be considered eligible (N = 258). Using a single-blinded randomized parallel group design, participants will be assigned to one of three possible interventions: 1) KMC, 2) combined KMC and sucrose, and 3) sucrose alone, when they undergo any routine painful procedure (heel lance, venipuncture, intravenous, oro/nasogastric insertion). The primary outcome is infant's pain intensity, which will be assessed using the Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP). The secondary outcome will be maturity of neurobehavioral functioning, as measured by the Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant (NAPI). Gestational age, cumulative exposure to KMC provided during non-pain contexts, and maternal cortisol levels will be considered in the analysis. Clinical feasibility will be accounted for from nurse and maternal questionnaires.
This will be the first study to examine the repeated use of KMC for managing procedural pain in preterm neonates. It is also the first to compare KMC to sucrose, or the interventions in combination, across time. Based on the theoretical framework of the brain opioid theory of attachment, it is expected that KMC will be a preferred standard of care. However, current pain management guidelines are based on minimal data on repeated use of either intervention. Therefore, regardless of the outcomes of this study, results will have important implications for guidelines and practices related to management of procedural pain in preterm infants.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01561547.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To estimate the influence of changing practice patterns of post-term induction of labour on severe neonatal morbidity.
This population-based cohort study used data from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database to evaluate the effect of post-term induction of labour on stillbirth and neonatal mortality and severe neonatal morbidity in low-risk pregnancies. The study population included all pregnant women ≥ 40 weeks' gestation delivering in Nova Scotia from 1988 to 2008 who underwent induction of labour with a single fetus in cephalic presentation. Major congenital anomalies and pre-existing or severe gestational hypertension and diabetes were excluded. Women delivering post-term from 1994 to 2008 (after the Post-term Pregnancy Trial) were compared with women delivering from 1988 to 1992 to evaluate outcomes with changing maternal characteristics and obstetric practice patterns.
Evaluation and comparison of time epochs (1988 to 1992, 1994 to 1998, 1999 to 2003, and 2004 to 2008) demonstrated an increased risk for perinatal mortality or severe neonatal morbidity, especially low five-minute Apgar score, among both nulliparous and multiparous women. There were no significant differences in the risks for stillbirth or perinatal mortality over time. Comparable relationships were demonstrated in a subgroup of lower risk women.
The increase in post-term induction of labour with time is associated with a significant increase in severe neonatal morbidity, especially among infants born to multiparous women. Evaluation of the antepartum and intrapartum management of these low-risk pregnancies may provide additional information to reduce morbidity.
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada: JOGC = Journal d'obstetrique et gynecologie du Canada: JOGC 04/2012; 34(4):330-40.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To establish the evidence of therapeutic hypothermia for newborns with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy(HIE).
Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and previous reviews.
Randomized controlled trials that compared therapeutic hypothermia to normothermia for newborns with HIE.
Death or major neurodevelopmental disability at 18 months.
Seven trials including 1214 newborns were identified. Therapeutic hypothermia resulted in a reduction in the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability(risk ratio [RR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69-0.84) and increase in the rate of survival with normal neurological function (1.63; 1.36-1.95) at age 18 months. Hypothermia reduced the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability at age 18 months in newborns with moderate HIE (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.56-0.81) and in newborns with severe HIE (0.83; 0.74-0.92). Both total body cooling and selective head cooling resulted in reduction in the risk of death or major neurodevelopmental disability(RR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66-0.85 and 0.77; 0.65-0.93,respectively).
Hypothermia improves survival and neurodevelopment in newborns with moderate to severe HIE.Total body cooling and selective head cooling are effective methods in treating newborns with HIE. Clinicians should consider offering therapeutic hypothermia as part of routine clinical care to these newborns.
Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine 02/2012; 166(6):558-66. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if dexamethasone given to premature infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia would result in cardiac diastolic dysfunction in early childhood, a topic unstudied in humans.
We compared seven children ages 3 to 8 years born at 26 weeks' gestation and given dexamethasone for bronchopulmonary dysplasia with eight gestation-matched and age-matched control children using echocardiography to assess measures of systolic and diastolic function. All dexamethasone patients had resolved hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Dexamethasone patients had the same normal τ and isovolumic relaxation time (24.9 ± 2.8 and 54.6 ± 6.3 ms) as control patients (22.1 ± 3.0 and 48.8 ± 6.7 ms). Peak A velocities were the same in dexamethasone patients as in control patients (59.5 ± 15 versus 49.4 ± 5.8 cm/s, P = .10), resulting in unchanged E:A ratios (1.89 ± 0.57 versus 2.15 ± 0.43, P = .22). Peak E velocity and E-wave deceleration times were not different. We found no significant differences in measures of systolic function (heart rate-corrected velocity of circumferential fiber shortening, wall stress, and ejection fraction). Left ventricular mass was the same between the groups confirming resolution of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
These data are consistent with normal myocardial relaxation, suggesting that long-term diastolic function is reassuringly normal in children who received dexamethasone as premature infants with resolution of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
The Journal of pediatrics 03/2011; 159(2):227-31. · 4.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied patterns of prenatal corticosteroid use, respiratory distress syndrome, and associated mortality rates to assess the congruence between knowledge and clinical practice related to such prophylaxis.
We used data on all live births in the United States (for the years 1989-1991, 1995-1997, and 2002-2004) and Nova Scotia, Canada (for the years 1988-2007). Gestational age-specific temporal trends in infant deaths resulting from respiratory distress syndrome were quantified in the United States, and gestational age-specific temporal trends in corticosteroid use and morbidity (respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage) were quantified in Nova Scotia.
In the United States, infant deaths associated with respiratory distress syndrome decreased by 48% (95% confidence interval: 46%-50%) from 1989-1991 to 1995-1997 and then decreased by another 18% (95% confidence interval: 15%-22%) by 2002-2004. The latter mortality reduction was evident at 28 to 32 weeks but not 33 to 36 weeks of gestation. Corticosteroid use at 28 to 32 weeks was high in Nova Scotia and increased from 30.7% in 1988-1989 to 50.0% in 1996-1997 and to 52.9% in 2006-2007, whereas rates of use at 33 to 36 weeks were much lower (eg, 6.7%, 17.0%, and 15.7% at 34 weeks in the 3 periods). Increased corticosteroid use at 33 and 34 weeks was estimated to reduce respiratory distress syndrome substantially.
Addressing the knowledge-practice gap in corticosteroid use at 33 to 34 weeks should reduce infant morbidity and mortality rates.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extremely low birth weight infants frequently receive red cell transfusions. We sought to determine whether a restrictive versus liberal hemoglobin transfusion threshold results in differences in death or adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes of extremely low birth weight infants.
Extremely low birth weight infants previously enrolled in the Preterm Infants in Need of Transfusion Trial, a randomized, controlled trial of low versus high hemoglobin transfusion thresholds, were followed up at 18 to 21 months' corrected age. Erythrocyte transfusion was determined by an algorithm of low (restrictive) or high (liberal) hemoglobin transfusion thresholds, differing by 10 to 20 g/L and maintained until first hospital discharge. The primary composite outcome was death or the presence of cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, or severe visual or hearing impairment.
Of 451 enrolled infants, the primary outcome was available in 430. There was no statistically significant difference in the primary outcome, found in 94 (45%) of 208 in the restrictive group and 82 (38%) of 213 in the liberal group. There were no statistically significant differences in preplanned secondary outcomes. However, the difference in cognitive delay (Mental Development Index score < 70) approached statistical significance. A posthoc analysis with cognitive delay redefined (Mental Development Index score < 85) showed a significant difference favoring the liberal threshold group.
Maintaining the hemoglobin of extremely low birth weight infants at these restrictive rather than liberal transfusion thresholds did not result in a statistically significant difference in combined death or severe adverse neurodevelopmental outcome.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treatment regimens for hyperbilirubinemia vary for very low birth weight infants. The present study seeks to determine whether the initiation of conservative phototherapy is as effective as aggressive phototherapy in reducing peak bilirubin levels without increasing adverse effects.
The present randomized, controlled study included infants with birth weights between 500 g and 1500 g, stratified into two birth weight groups. In one group, aggressive phototherapy was commenced by 12 h of age, while in the other group, conservative phototherapy was commenced if serum bilirubin levels exceeded 150 mumol/L. The primary outcome variables were peak serum bilirubin levels and hours of phototherapy. Secondary outcomes were age at peak bilirubin levels, number of infants with rebound hyperbilirubinemia, and number of adverse short- and long-term outcomes.
Of 174 eligible infants, 95 consented to participate -49 in the conservative arm and 46 in the aggressive arm. Ninety-two infants completed the study. There was no significant difference in peak bilirubin levels except in infants who weighed less than 1000 g -171.2+/-26 mumol/L (conservative) versus 139.2+/-46 mumol/L (aggressive); P<0.02. There was no difference in duration of phototherapy or rebound hyperbilirubinemia. There were no differences in short-term adverse outcomes. Of the 87 infants who survived until hospital discharge, 82 (94%) had some follow-up and 75 (86%) attended follow-up until 18 months corrected age. The incidence of cerebral palsy, abnormal mental developmental index at 18 months corrected age, or combined outcome of cerebral palsy and death did not significantly differ between the two groups.
In infants weighing less than 1000 g, peak bilirubin levels were significantly higher using conservative phototherapy regimens and there was a tendency for poor neurodevelopmental outcome.
Paediatrics & child health 01/2008; 12(10):853-8. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is unclear whether declines in neonatal and infant mortality have led to changes in the occurrence of cerebral palsy. We conducted a study to examine and investigate recent temporal changes in the prevalence of cerebral palsy in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants who were 24 to 30 weeks of gestational age.
A population-based cohort of very preterm infants who were born between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2002, was evaluated by the Perinatal Follow-up Program of Nova Scotia. Follow-up extended to age 2 years to ascertain the presence or absence of cerebral palsy and for overall survival. Infant survival and cerebral palsy rates were compared by year and also in two 5-year periods, 1993-1997 and 1998-2002. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors that potentially were responsible for temporal changes in cerebral palsy rates.
A total of 672 liveborn very preterm infants were born to mothers who resided in Nova Scotia between 1993 and 2002. Infant mortality among very preterm infants decreased from 256 per 1000 live births in 1993 to 114 per 1000 live births in 2002, whereas the cerebral palsy rates increased from 44.4 per 1000 live births in 1993 to 100.0 per 1000 live births in 2002. Low gestational age, postnatal dexamethasone use, patent ductus arteriosus, severe hyaline membrane disease, resuscitation in the delivery room, and intraventricular hemorrhage were associated with higher rates of cerebral palsy, whereas antenatal corticosteroid use was associated with a lower rate.
Cerebral palsy has increased substantially among very preterm infants in association with and possibly as a consequence of large declines in infant mortality.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in subgroups of infants with and without patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) who were randomized to indomethacin prophylaxis or placebo, and to examine whether adverse drug effects on edema formation and oxygenation may explain why indomethacin prophylaxis does not reduce BPD.
We studied 999 extremely low birth weight infants who participated in the Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms (TIPP) and who survived to a postmenstrual age of 36 weeks.
The incidence of BPD in the 2 subgroups of infants with PDA was 52% (55/105) after indomethacin prophylaxis and 56% (137/246) after placebo. In contrast, rates of BPD in the 2 subgroups without a PDA were 43% (170/391) after indomethacin prophylaxis and 30% (78/257) after placebo (P [interaction] = .015). Logistic regression analysis with adjustment for prognostic baseline factors showed that adverse and independent effects of indomethacin prophylaxis on the need for supplemental oxygen and on weight loss by the end of the first week of life may increase the risk of BPD in infants without PDA.
Harmful side effects on oxygenation and edema formation may explain why indomethacin prophylaxis does not prevent BPD even though it reduces PDA.
Journal of Pediatrics 07/2006; 148(6):730-734. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To test whether indomethacin prophylaxis has sex-mediated effects on severe intraventricular hemorrhage (grade III and IV) and on long-term outcomes in extremely-low-birth-weight infants. A secondary analysis was performed in the entire "Trial of Indomethacin Prophylaxis in Preterms study" cohort. The results suggest a weak differential treatment effect of indomethacin by sex.
Journal of Pediatrics 01/2006; 147(6):860-2. · 4.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine optimal ages to perform the Cognitive Adaptive Test/Clinical Linguistic and Auditory Milestone Scale (CAT/CLAMS) and optimal "cutoff" score of the CAT/CLAMS to screen very preterm infants (<31 weeks) for severe cognitive-adaptive delay and to ascertain the sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios using optimal cutoff scores compared with the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II.
A population-based cohort of very preterm infants who were born to mothers who resided in Nova Scotia or Prince Edward Island were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, and 18 months' corrected gestational age, which included a CAT/CLAMS by a physician. At 18 months' corrected gestational age, each child was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development II, the "gold standard" for developmental delay in young infants. The results of each CAT/CLAMS was compared with the 18-month MDI to identify significant developmental delay (MDI <70).
Optimal scores on the CAT/CLAMS to identify correctly MDI <70 were determined by using the kappa statistic for chance independent agreement. Sensitivities and specificities for optimal cutoff scores were as follows: 4-month score <109 (88% and 37%), 8-month score <98 (75% and 82%), 12-month score <81 (63% and 99%), and 18-month score <83 (88% and 98%).
Sensitivity and specificity of the CAT/CLAMS are high in very preterm infants at identifying major developmental delay at 12 and 18 months. For follow-up programs without psychology services, the CAT/CLAMS at 12 and 18 months is a reasonable screening tool to determine which children need expedited psychology referral for cognitive delay.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To study the incidence and mortality and morbidity rates of twin-twin transfusion syndrome in a complete population-based cohort in Nova Scotia.
A population-based cohort study of all monochorionic diamniotic twin pregnancies of 20 weeks of gestation or longer born to Nova Scotia (Canada) residents between 1988 and 2000 was examined. The effect of gestational age adjustment and birth weight discordancy of more than 20% on mortality and 1-year survival was studied. Other outcomes studied included birth depression, respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, interventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, acute renal failure, and congestive heart failure.
Of 404 monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancies examined, 48 were identified with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Total mortality rates per pregnancy were significantly greater in the twin-twin transfusion syndrome group than in the remainder of our monochorionic diamniotic population (P < .01). However, when adjusted for gestational age, mortality failed to achieve statistical significance. Similarly, no differences were noted for 1-year survival and other outcomes of liveborn infants after gestational age adjustment. Discordance in birth weight predicted a higher incidence of morbid outcomes per pregnancy, but this effect was lost after gestational age adjustment.
Increased morbidity and mortality of twins with twin-twin transfusion syndrome is likely to be due to a higher incidence of preterm birth. Birth weight discordancy was not found to be an independent predictor of mortality after controlling for gestational age and twin-twin transfusion syndrome.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2005; 104(6):1289-97. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that the risk of cerebral palsy decreases with increasing gestational age of live born infants. However, recent studies have shown that cerebral palsy often has prenatal antecedents including congenital malformations, vascular insults and maternal infection. Cerebral palsy is therefore better viewed as occurring among fetuses, rather than among infants. We explored the epidemiologic implications of this change in perspective. METHODS: We used recently published data from Shiga Prefecture, Japan and from North-East England to examine the pattern of gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy under these alternative perspectives. We first calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy as per convention, by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of live births in that gestational age category. Under the alternative formulation, we calculated gestational age-specific rates of cerebral palsy by dividing the number of cases of cerebral palsy identified among live births within any gestational age category by the number of fetuses who were at risk of being born at that gestation and being afflicted with cerebral palsy. RESULTS: Under the conventional formulation, cerebral palsy rates decreased with increasing gestational age from 63.9 per 1,000 live births at <28 weeks gestation to 0.9 per 1,000 live births at 37 or more weeks gestation. When fetuses were viewed as potential candidates for cerebral palsy, cerebral palsy rates increased with increasing gestational age from 0.08 per 1,000 fetuses at risk at <28 weeks gestation to 0.9 per 1,000 fetuses at risk at 37 or more weeks gestation. CONCLUSIONS: The fetuses-at-risk approach is the appropriate epidemiologic formulation for calculating the gestational age-specific rate of cerebral palsy from a causal perspective. It shows that the risk of cerebral palsy increases as gestational duration increases. This compelling view of cerebral palsy risk may help refocus research aimed at understanding and preventing cerebral palsy.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 01/2004; 3(1):8. · 2.52 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine the rates and risk factors for major disability in very preterm survivors born to residents of Nova Scotia, Canada between 1992 and 1996.
A cohort study was conducted of all 355 infants born to Nova Scotia residents between 22 and 30 weeks gestation. Major disability was defined by mental development index <70, moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral visual acuity <20/200, or deafness requiring bilateral hearing aids. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which factors were significantly associated with major disability.
Of the infants who survived 1 year and had follow-up data, 21 (8.3%) developed a major disability. Cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), hypernatremia and surgery requiring general anesthesia were independently associated with the development of a major disability.
This study confirms the association between cystic PVL and major disability observed in other studies. Surgery and hypernatremia will be important to verify in future studies since preventive measures may be possible.
Journal of Perinatology 03/2003; 23(2):111-6. · 2.25 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inflammation plays an important role in the development of chronic lung disease (CLD), which has become a major cause of morbidity in surviving infants less than 1250 g at birth. The authors hypothesized that the progression of this inflammation and, therefore, the establishment of CLD would be decreased with the use of early prophylactic inhaled corticosteroids. Short, and long term respiratory and neurodevelopmental outcomes were also examined.
A double-blind, randomized placebo controlled trial.
Level-III neonatal intensive care unit.
Sixty infants less than 1250 g at birth, diagnosed with respiratory distress syndrome and requiring ventilatory support at 72 h of age were enrolled in the study.
Infants enrolled received either placebo or beclomethasone diproprionate by a metered dose inhaler, which was used in-line with the ventilator circuit while the infant was ventilated and then via a spacer until 28 days of age.
Thirty infants were given beclomethasone and 30 were given placebo. There were two deaths in each group. Among the surviving infants, the frequency of moderate-to-severe CLD was 17% in each study group. Mean time to extubation was not different for beclomethasone compared with placebo at 16.4 and 12.5 days (P=0.12), respectively. The requirement for intravenous corticosteroids was lower in the beclomethasone-treated group (RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.04), although this difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of growth failure, infection and intraventricular hemmorhage did not differ between the two groups. Long term outcomes were not different with respect to the incidence of respiratory re-admissions, cerebral palsy, developmental delay, blindness or deafness.
Early treatment with inhaled beclomethasone diproprionate did not reduce the incidence of CLD or decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation. The decrease in intravenous corticosteroid use was not statistically significant. Long term outcome was not affected.
Paediatrics & child health 01/2002; 7(1):13-9. · 1.03 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine the causes and consequences of the recent increase in preterm birth among twins.
We studied all twin births among residents of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 1997. Rates of preterm birth, preterm labor induction, preterm cesarean, small-for-gestational age (SGA), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality were compared between past and more recent years. Changes in perinatal mortality were examined using logistic regression to adjust for the effects of other determinants.
The study included 2516 twin births (73 stillbirths and 2443 live births). The rate of preterm birth increased from 42.3% in 1988-1992 to 48.2% of twin live births in 1993-1997 (14% increase, P =.04). Twin live births born after preterm labor induction increased from 3.5% in 1988-1989 to 8.6% in 1996-1997 (P for trend =.007). Of live births between 34 and 36 weeks' gestation, the proportion born SGA decreased from 17.5% in 1988-1992 to 9.2% in 1993-1997 (P =.005). Over the same period, rates of prophylactic maternal steroid therapy increased substantially and rates of RDS declined. Perinatal mortality rates among pregnancies reaching 34 weeks decreased from 12.9 per 1000 total births in 1988-1992 to 4.2 per 1000 total births in 1993-1997 (P =.05).
Increases in preterm labor induction appear to be responsible for the recent increase in preterm birth among twins. These changes have been accompanied by decreases in perinatal morbidity and mortality among twin pregnancies that reach 34 weeks' gestation.
Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/2001; 98(1):57-64. · 4.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The prophylactic administration of indomethacin reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in very-low-birth-weight infants (those with birth weights below 1500 g). Whether prophylaxis with indomethacin confers any long-term benefits that outweigh the risks of drug-induced reductions in renal, intestinal, and cerebral blood flow is not known.
Soon after they were born, we randomly assigned 1202 infants with birth weights of 500 to 999 g (extremely low birth weight) to receive either indomethacin (0.1 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo intravenously once daily for three days. The primary outcome was a composite of death, cerebral palsy, cognitive delay, deafness, and blindness at a corrected age of 18 months. Secondary long-term outcomes were hydrocephalus necessitating the placement of a shunt, seizure disorder, and microcephaly within the same time frame. Secondary short-term outcomes were patent ductus arteriosus, pulmonary hemorrhage, chronic lung disease, ultrasonographic evidence of intracranial abnormalities, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy.
Of the 574 infants with data on the primary outcome who were assigned to prophylaxis with indomethacin, 271 (47 percent) died or survived with impairments, as compared with 261 of the 569 infants (46 percent) assigned to placebo (odds ratio, 1.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.8 to 1.4; P=0.61). Indomethacin reduced the incidence of patent ductus arteriosus (24 percent vs. 50 percent in the placebo group; odds ratio, 0.3; P<0.001) and of severe periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage (9 percent vs. 13 percent in the placebo group; odds ratio, 0.6; P=0.02). No other outcomes were altered by the prophylactic administration of indomethacin.
In extremely-low-birth-weight infants, prophylaxis with indomethacin does not improve the rate of survival without neurosensory impairment at 18 months, despite the fact that it reduces the frequency of patent ductus arteriosus and severe periventricular and intraventricular hemorrhage.
New England Journal of Medicine 06/2001; 344(26):1966-72. · 51.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Existing guidelines recommended by the Canadian Pediatric Society (CPS) and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) for routine screening for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) remain controversial.
To determine whether current guidelines for routine screening for ROP should be changed.
We examined data that were collected as part of a larger study of 14 neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Canada. We examined the effect of strategies using different birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) criteria for routine ROP screening, and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis.
The 14 NICUs (except one) are regional tertiary level referral centres serving geographic regions of Canada, and include approximately 60% of all tertiary-level NICU beds in Canada.
This large cohort included all 16 424 infants admitted to 14 Canadian NICUs from January 8, 1996, to October 31, 1997.
Treatment for ROP.
The most cost-effective strategy was to routinely screen only infants having a BW of 1200 g or less. This included all infants treated for ROP (except 1 outlier at 32 weeks GA and 1785 g BW), at a marginal cost per additional person with improved vision of $513 081 for screening patients between 28 weeks GA and 1200 g BW, compared with $1 800 039 and $2 075 874 for using the current AAP and CPS guidelines, respectively (cryotherapy outcomes). Results for laser therapy were similar, but costs were slightly lower. This strategy reduced the number of infants screened under the current CPS guidelines by 46%.
Screening only infants having a BW of 1200 g or less is the most cost-effective strategy for routine ROP screening.
Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 04/2001; 155(3):387-95. · 4.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:To examine the causes and consequences of the recent increase in preterm birth among twins.Methods:We studied all twin births among residents of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, between 1988 and 1997. Rates of preterm birth, preterm labor induction, preterm cesarean, small-for-gestational age (SGA), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), stillbirth, perinatal mortality, and infant mortality were compared between past and more recent years. Changes in perinatal mortality were examined using logistic regression to adjust for the effects of other determinants.Results:The study included 2516 twin births (73 stillbirths and 2443 live births). The rate of preterm birth increased from 42.3% in 1988–1992 to 48.2% of twin live births in 1993–1997 (14% increase, P = .04). Twin live births born after preterm labor induction increased from 3.5% in 1988–1989 to 8.6% in 1996–1997 (P for trend = .007). Of live births between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestation, the proportion born SGA decreased from 17.5% in 1988–1992 to 9.2% in 1993–1997 (P = .005). Over the same period, rates of prophylactic maternal steroid therapy increased substantially and rates of RDS declined. Perinatal mortality rates among pregnancies reaching 34 weeks decreased from 12.9 per 1000 total births in 1988–1992 to 4.2 per 1000 total births in 1993–1997 (P = .05).Conclusion:Increases in preterm labor induction appear to be responsible for the recent increase in preterm birth among twins. These changes have been accompanied by decreases in perinatal morbidity and mortality among twin pregnancies that reach 34 weeks’ gestation.
Obstetrics and Gynecology - OBSTET GYNECOL. 01/2001; 98(1):57-64.