[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To unveil organotypic role and vulnerability of lymphatic vessels, we generated a LYVE-1-Cre/iDTR double-transgenic mouse and ablated LYVE-1-expressing lymphatic vessels in adult mice in a diphtheria toxin-inducible manner based on selective expression of LYVE-1 in most lymphatic vessels. Strikingly, lymphatic vessels in the small intestine and lymph nodes were rapidly ablated, but lymphatic vessels in the other organs were relatively intact at 24 h after diphtheria toxin administration. Unexpectedly, LYVE-1-Cre/iDTR mice died from sepsis without visible edema at 24 and 60 h after diphtheria toxin administration. The cause of death appeared to be related to acute failure of immune surveillance systems in the small intestine and draining lymph nodes. Of note, acute loss of lymphatic lacteals in intestinal villi appeared to trigger distortion of blood capillaries and whole architecture of the villi whereas acute loss of lymphatic vessels in lymph nodes caused dysfunction of lymph drainage and abnormal distribution of dendritic cells and macrophages. Thus, intact lymphatic vessels are required for structural and functional maintenance of surrounding tissues in an organotypic manner, at least in the intestine and lymph nodes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although studies investigating the nature of Ab-secreting cells (ASCs) during acute infection with influenza or dengue virus found that the ASC response was dominated by virus-specific IgG secretion, the Ag specificity and phenotype of ASCs during primary acute viral infection were not identified. To this end, we investigated the nature of ASCs in direct ex vivo assays from patients with acute hepatitis A caused by primary infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV). We found that the frequency of CD27(high)CD38(high) ASCs was markedly increased in the peripheral blood during the acute phase of HAV infection. Moreover, substantial numbers of ASCs were non-HAV-specific and dominantly secreted IgM. We detected HAV-specific ASCs by staining with fluorochrome-tagged HAV-VP1 protein. As compared with HAV-specific ASCs, non-HAV-specific ASCs were Ki-67(low)CD138(high)CD31(high)CD38(high), demonstrating that non-HAV-specific ASCs had a bone marrow plasma cell-like phenotype whereas HAV-specific ASCs had a phenotype typical of circulating plasmablasts. These data suggest that non-HAV-specific ASCs might be mobilized plasma cells from the bone marrow or the spleen, whereas HAV-specific ASCs were newly generated plasmablasts. In this study, we provide evidence that pre-existing plasma cells are released into the circulation and contribute to Ag-nonspecific secretion of IgM during primary HAV infection.
The Journal of Immunology 05/2013; 191(1). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1203540 · 4.92 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The pathogenic role of T cells in hypertension has been documented well in recent animal studies. However, the existence of T-cell-driven inflammation in human hypertension has not been confirmed. Therefore, we undertook immunologic characterization of T cells from patients with hypertension and measured circulating levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines, which are well-known tissue-homing chemokines for T cells. We analyzed immunologic markers on T cells from patients with hypertension by multicolor flow cytometry. We then measured circulating levels of the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines, monokine induced by γ interferon (IFN), IFN γ-induced protein 10, and IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant, in patients with hypertension and in age- and sex-matched control subjects by the cytometric bead array method. In addition, we examined histological features of IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant expression from renal biopsy specimens of patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis and control subjects. The total T-cell population from patients with hypertension showed an increased fraction of immunosenescent, proinflammatory, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells. Circulating levels of C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines were significantly higher in patients with hypertension than in control subjects. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed increased expression of the T-cell chemokine, IFN-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant, in the proximal and distal tubules of patients with hypertensive nephrosclerosis. Immunosenescent CD8(+) T cells and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 chemokines are increased in human hypertension, suggesting a role for T-cell-driven inflammation in hypertension. A more detailed characterization of CD8(+) T cells may offer new opportunities for the prevention and treatment of human hypertension.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is growing interest in identifying regulators of autophagy. The molecular mechanism underlying transforming growth factor-β activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-induced autophagy is poorly understood. We found that TAK1 inhibits p70 S6 kinase1 (S6K1) phosphorylation by interfering interaction of raptor with S6K1, thus inducing autophagy. The factors that determine whether autophagy is cytoprotective or cytotoxic have not been fully elucidated. In Drosophila, TAK1 overexpression leads to an impaired eye phenotype despite inhibition of apoptosis, indicating that the phenotype was mainly due to autophagy. Also, TAK1 overexpression increases lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in mammalian cells. When treated with autophagy inhibitors, the level of TAK1-induced cytotoxicity or cell death was significantly attenuated, indicating that TAK1 induces cytotoxic autophagic cell death. This study provides the first in vitro and in vivo evidence of TAK1-induced autophagy and we believe that our findings significantly contribute to the understanding of the mechanisms underlying the induction of autophagy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of cellular energy status, and is involved in cell growth and autophagy through mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial uncoupler, leads to AMPK activation and Parkin-dependent mitophagy, respectively. However, the detailed biochemical mechanism of how CCCP induces autophagy or mitophagy has not been investigated yet. Here, we showed that CCCP inhibits mTORC1 independently of AMPK, although CCCP induces AMPK activation. Using wild type (WT) and AMPKα1/α2 double knockout (DKO) MEFs, we observed that CCCP promotes endogenous LC3 lipidation and formation of RFP-LC3 puncta, indicating autophagosome or autolysosome, in an AMPK-independent manner. Finally, we also revealed that the percentage of CCCP-dependent colocalization between mitochondria and RFP-LC3 puncta is similar both in WT and AMPKα1/α2 DKO MEFs. Based on these data, we concluded that AMPK is not essential in regulation of CCCP-induced autopahgy including mitophagy.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2011; 416(3-4):343-8. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.11.038 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two vascular growth factor families, VEGF and the angiopoietins, play critical and coordinate roles in tumor progression and metastasis. A single inhibitor targeting both VEGF and angiopoietins is not available. Here, we developed a chimeric decoy receptor, namely double anti-angiogenic protein (DAAP), which can simultaneously bind VEGF-A and angiopoietins, blocking their actions. Compared to VEGF-Trap or Tie2-Fc, which block either VEGF-A or angiopoietins alone, we believe DAAP is a highly effective molecule for regressing tumor angiogenesis and metastasis in implanted and spontaneous solid tumors; it can also effectively reduce ascites formation and vascular leakage in an ovarian carcinoma model. Thus, simultaneous blockade of VEGF-A and angiopoietins with DAAP is an effective therapeutic strategy for blocking tumor angiogenesis, metastasis, and vascular leakage.
Cancer cell 08/2010; 18(2):171-84. DOI:10.1016/j.ccr.2010.07.001 · 23.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By genomic Southern hybridization using degenerate oligo probes corresponding to the conserved zinc finger of the GATA family, four and three new GATA-factor genes were detected in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, respectively. Through degenerate PCR and Southern hybridization using an internal probe between the PCR primers, a new GATA-factor gene of S. pombe, gafl, was identified. The DNA sequence analysis revealed that the partial gafl gene contains the strictly conserved zinc finger which is the hallmark of the GATA family. As judged form the codon usage of leucine in the zinc finger probe, the zinc fingers of S. pombe are more similar to those of higher fungi than those of S. cerevisiae, and this means that S. pombe is phylogenically close to higher organisms than S. cerevisiae.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2008; 44(5):897 - 906. DOI:10.1080/15216549800201952 · 3.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When whole cell extracts are subjected to proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR), metabolite profiles are generated that contain overlapping signals of the majority of compounds within the extract.
In order to determine whether pattern recognition based on the metabolite profiles of higher plants is able to genetically
discriminate between plants, we analyzed leaf samples of eight cultivars ofCatharanthus roseus by1H NMR. Hierarchical dendrograms, based on the principal component analysis of the1H NMR total, aliphatic carbohydrate and aromatic region data, revealed possible relationships between the cultivars. The dendrogram
based on the aromatic region data was in general agreement with the genetic relationships determined by conventional DNA fingerprinting
methods. Secologanin and polyphenols were assigned to the signals of the1H NMR spectra, and contributed most profoundly to the discrimination between cultivars. The overall results indicate that
the genetic relationships betweenC. roseus cultivars are reflected in the differences of the aromatic compounds in the leaves.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: TLR4 and MD-2 form a heterodimer that recognizes LPS (lipopolysaccharide) from Gram-negative bacteria. Eritoran is an analog of LPS that antagonizes its activity by binding to the TLR4-MD-2 complex. We determined the structure of the full-length ectodomain of the mouse TLR4 and MD-2 complex. We also produced a series of hybrids of human TLR4 and hagfish VLR and determined their structures with and without bound MD-2 and Eritoran. TLR4 is an atypical member of the LRR family and is composed of N-terminal, central, and C-terminal domains. The beta sheet of the central domain shows unusually small radii and large twist angles. MD-2 binds to the concave surface of the N-terminal and central domains. The interaction with Eritoran is mediated by a hydrophobic internal pocket in MD-2. Based on structural analysis and mutagenesis experiments on MD-2 and TLR4, we propose a model of TLR4-MD-2 dimerization induced by LPS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) are recently discovered leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family proteins that mediate adaptive immune responses in jawless fish. Phylogenetically it is the oldest adaptive immune receptor and the first one with a non-immunoglobulin fold. We present the crystal structures of one VLR-A and two VLR-B clones from the inshore hagfish. The hagfish VLRs have the characteristic horseshoe-shaped structure of LRR family proteins. The backbone structures of their LRR modules are highly homologous, and the sequence variation is concentrated on the concave surface of the protein. The conservation of key residues suggests that our structures are likely to represent the LRR structures of the entire repertoire of jawless fish VLRs. The analysis of sequence variability, prediction of protein interaction surfaces, amino acid composition analysis, and structural comparison with other LRR proteins suggest that the hypervariable concave surface is the most probable antigen binding site of the VLR.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS) is a rapid, simple, high-resolution analytical method based on thermal degradation of complex
material in a vacuum, and has been widely applied to the discrimination of closely related microbial strains. Minimally prepared
samples of embryogenic and non-embryogenic calluses derived from various higher plants (sweet potato, morning glory, Korean
ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and balloon flower) were subjected to PyMS for spectral fingerprinting. A dendrogram based on the
unweighted pair group method, with arithmetic mean of pyrolysis mass spectra, divided the calluses into Siberian ginseng embryogenic
callus and the others, which were subsequently divided into embryogenic and non-embryogenic callus groups, regardless of plant
species from which the calluses were derived. In the non-embryogenic callus group, the dendrogram was in agreement with the
known taxonomy of the plants. These results indicate that PyMS analysis could be applied for discriminating plant calluses
based on embryogenic capacity and taxonomic classification.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) protein has been described as a transcriptional repressor of the BTB-domain/zinc-finger family, and shown to regulate the expression of Hox genes during embryogenesis and the expression of cyclin A in the cell cycle progression. Here, a 45-kDa isoform of PLZF without a BTB domain was identified via yeast two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal region of ATP7B as bait in our determination of the biological roles of the Wilson disease protein outside of its copper-binding domain. Our immunoprecipitation experiments showed that the hepatocytic isoform of PLZF could specifically interact with the C-terminal region of ATP7B. The immunostaining of HepG2 cells revealed that the ATP7B and PLZF proteins were apparently colocalized into the trans-Golgi complexes. It was also determined that disruption of PLZF expression in the HepG2 cells affected an attenuation of ERK activity in a dose-dependent manner. The hepatocytic activities of ERK kinase were found to be enhanced as the result of PLZF or ATP7B expression, but this enhancement was abrogated by the deletion of the C-terminal region of ATP7B. Furthermore, a transgenic Drosophila strain that ectopically expressed the hepatocytic deltaBTB-PLZF exhibited phenotypic changes in eye and wing development, and these alterations were fully recovered as the result of ATP7B expression, indicating the obvious in vivo interaction between the two proteins. Those PLZF-induced abnormalities were attributed to the enhancement of ERK signaling, as was shown by phenotypic reversions with loss-of-function mutations in ERK signal transduction in Drosophila. These data suggest the existence of a mechanism that regulates ERK signaling via the C-terminus of ATP7B and the ATP7B-interacting hepatocytic PLZF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Erythropoietin, or Epo, is a hematopoietic cytokine that promotes erythropoiesis, and recombinant human Epo has been used in the treatment of anemia in various chronic diseases. Here, we have constructed novel Epo derivatives with prolonged half-lives by adding peptides to the carboxy terminus of Epo without using linkers. The fused peptides were selected from the carboxy terminal region of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) or human thrombopoietin (hTpo), which promote the proper folding, secretion, and stabilization of bioactive glycoproteins. Addition of these peptides did not interfere with secretion or receptor binding, and significantly increased the in vivo half-life of human Epo, as measured by intravenous administration in rats. The plasma half-life of the Epo constructs was longest when the carboxy terminal 28 aa of the beta subunit of hCG was added (Epo-CGC), a half-life that was slightly longer than NESP (Aranesp), which is the most effective Epo product in current clinical use. The transformation of four Ser glycosylation sites to Ala on the CGC sequence also lengthened the plasma half-life of Epo, indicating that the in vivo stabilizing effect of the hCG peptide was due to both structures within the peptide itself and its O-glycosylations. The application of the carboxy terminal half of hTpo also resulted in remarkably reduced elimination of the Epo chimera (Epo-TpC), possibly due to protection by the TpC sequence. The in vivo hematopoietic activity of Epo derivatives in mice was consistent with their pharmacokinetic profiles. Therefore, these derivatives with prolonged half-lives may provide opportunities for developing new Epo therapeutics with less frequent administration.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 02/2006; 339(1):380-5. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.11.034 · 2.30 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When whole cells are subjected to pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) analysis, it provides biochemical
profiles containing overlapping signals of the majority of compounds. To determine marker compounds that discriminate embryogenic
calluses from nonembryogenic calluses, samples of embryogenic and nonembryogenic calluses of five higher plant species were
subjected to Py-GC/MS. Genetic programming of Py-GC/MS data was able to discriminate embryogenic calluses from nonembryogenic
calluses. The content ratio of 5-meyhyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furancarboxaldehyde was greater in nonembryogenic
calluses than in embryogenic calluses. However, the content ratio of phenol, p-cresol, and1H-indole in embryogenic calluses was 1.2 to 2.4 times greater than the ratio in nonembryogenic calluses. These pyrolysates
seem to be derived from the components of the cell walls, which suggests that differences in cell wall components or changes
in the architecture of the cell wall play a crucial role in determining the embryogenic competence of calluses.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: MOTIVATION: Microarrays have been used to identify differential expression of individual genes or cluster genes that are coexpressed over various conditions. However, alteration in coexpression relationships has not been studied. Here we introduce a model for finding differential coexpression from microarrays and test its biological validity with respect to cancer. RESULTS: We collected 10 published gene expression datasets from cancers of 13 different tissues and constructed 2 distinct coexpression networks: a tumor network and normal network. Comparison of the two networks showed that cancer affected many coexpression relationships. Functional changes such as alteration in energy metabolism, promotion of cell growth and enhanced immune activity were accompanied with coexpression changes. Coregulation of collagen genes that may control invasion and metastatic spread of tumor cells was also found. Cluster analysis in the tumor network identified groups of highly interconnected genes related to ribosomal protein synthesis, the cell cycle and antigen presentation. Metallothionein expression was also found to be clustered, which may play a role in apoptosis control in tumor cells. Our results show that this model would serve as a novel method for analyzing microarrays beyond the specific implications for cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mouse Period2 (mPer2) locus is an essential negative-feedback element of the mammalian circadian-clock mechanism. Recent work has shown that mPer2 circadian gene expression persists in both central and peripheral tissues. Here, we analyze the mouse mPer2 promoter and identify a circadian enhancer (E2) with a noncanonical 5'-CACGTT-3' E-box located 20 bp upstream of the mPer2 transcription start site. The E2 enhancer accounts for most circadian transcriptional drive of the mPer2 locus by CLOCK:BMAL1, is a major site of DNaseI hypersensitivity in this region, and is constitutively bound by a transcriptional complex containing the CLOCK protein. Importantly, the E2 enhancer is sufficient to drive self-sustained circadian rhythms of luciferase activity in central and peripheral tissues from mPer2-E2::Luciferase transgenic mice with tissue-specific phase and period characteristics. Last, genetic analysis with mutations in Clock and Bmal1 shows that the E2 enhancer is a target of CLOCK and BMAL1 in vivo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2005; 102(7):2608-13. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0409763102 · 9.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) provides biochemical profiles containing overlapping signals from a majority of the compounds that are present when whole cells are analyzed. Leaf samples of seven higher plant species and varieties were subjected to FTIR to determine whether plants can be discriminated phylogenetically on the basis of biochemical profiles. A hierarchical dendrogram based on principal component analysis (PCA) of FTIR data showed relationships between plants that were in agreement with known plant taxonomy. Genetic programming (GP) analysis determined the top three to five biomarkers from FTIR data that discriminated plants at each hierarchical level of the dendrogram. Most biomarkers determined by GP analysis at each hierarchical level were specific to the carbohydrate fingerprint region (1,200-800 cm(-1)) of the FTIR spectrum. Our results indicate that differences in cell-wall composition and structure can provide the basis for chemotaxonomy of flowering plants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ferritin is the major iron storage protein regulating cytosolic concentration of iron by storing excess iron. Vertebrate ferritins are heteropolymeric proteins composed of heavy chain and light chain subunits. We have characterized two Caenorhabditis elegans genes (ftn-1 and ftn-2), which encode ferritin homologs showing high degree of similarity to mammalian ferritin heavy chains. Even though these two ferritins are more than 78% identical in amino acid sequence, our data show that expression patterns and responses to iron are quite different. Cytosolic aconitase (aco-1), iron regulatory protein, is known to regulate cellular iron concentration by modulating translation of the ferritin mRNA in addition to its enzymatic activity that converts citrate into iso-citrate. We have shown that the expression levels of aco-1 and ftn-1 genes are both regulated by iron treatment but in opposite ways. Interestingly, mutant animals lacking ACO-1 and FTN-1 show significantly reduced life-span upon iron stress, while N2 and ftn-2 animals show no difference. Our results suggest that ftn-1 and aco-1 are transcriptionally regulated by iron and are important for iron homeostasis affecting life-span upon iron stress conditions in C.elegans.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A statistical method for combining multiple microarray studies has been previously developed by the authors. Here, we present the application of the method to our hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) data and report new findings on gene expression changes accompanying HCC. From the cross-verification result of our studies and that of published studies, we found that single microarray analysis might lead to false findings. To avoid those pitfalls of single-set analyses, we employed our effect size method to integrate multiple datasets. Of 9982 genes analyzed, 477 significant genes were identified with a false discovery rate of 10%. Gene ontology (GO) terms associated with these genes were explored to validate our method in the biological context with respect to HCC. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the data integration process increases the sensitivity of analysis and allows small but consistent expression changes to be detected. These integration-driven discoveries contained meaningful and interesting genes not reported in previous expression profiling studies, such as growth hormone receptor, erythropoietin receptor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2, etc. Our findings support the use of meta-analysis for a variety of microarray data beyond the scope of this specific application.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and current dogma holds that the SCN is required for the expression of circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues. Using a PERIOD2::LUCIFERASE fusion protein as a real-time reporter of circadian dynamics in mice, we report that, contrary to previous work, peripheral tissues are capable of self-sustained circadian oscillations for >20 cycles in isolation. In addition, peripheral organs expressed tissue-specific differences in circadian period and phase. Surprisingly, lesions of the SCN in mPer2(Luciferase) knockin mice did not abolish circadian rhythms in peripheral tissues, but instead caused phase desynchrony among the tissues of individual animals and from animal to animal. These results demonstrate that peripheral tissues express self-sustained, rather than damped, circadian oscillations and suggest the existence of organ-specific synchronizers of circadian rhythms at the cell and tissue level.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 05/2004; 101(15):5339-46. DOI:10.1073/pnas.0308709101 · 9.67 Impact Factor