R. Neri

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (280)1211.85 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We combine molecular gas masses inferred from CO emission in 500 star forming galaxies (SFGs) between z=0 and 3, from the IRAM-COLDGASS, PHIBSS1/2 and other surveys, with gas masses derived from Herschel far-IR dust measurements in 512 galaxy stacks over the same stellar mass/redshift range. We constrain the scaling relations of molecular gas depletion time scale (tdepl) and gas fraction (Mmolgas/M*) with redshift, specific star formation rate (sSFR) and stellar mass (M*) in SFGs. The CO- and dust-based scaling relations agree remarkably well. This suggests that the CO-H2 mass conversion factor varies little within +-0.6 dex of the main sequence line, and less than a factor of 2 throughout this redshift range. We find that tdepl scales as (1+z)^-0.3 *(sSFR)^-0.5, with no M* dependence. The resulting steep redshift dependence of Mmolgas/M* ~ (1+z)^3 mirrors that of the sSFR and probably reflects the gas supply rate. The decreasing gas fractions at high M* are driven by the flattening of the SFR-M* relation. At constant M*, a larger sSFR is due to a combination of an increasing gas fraction and a decreasing depletion time scale. As a result galaxy integrated samples of the Mmolgas-SFR rate relation exhibit a super-linear slope, which increases with the range of sSFR. With these new relations it is now possible to determine Mmolgas with an accuracy of +-0.1 dex in relative terms, and +-0.2 dex including systematic uncertainties.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA observations of the [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z=6.96 Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of sigma_line = 240 micro-Jy/beam (40 km/s channel) and sigma_cont = 21 micro-Jy/beam, we found the galaxy undetected in both [CII] and continuum. Comparison of UV - FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3 sigma FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M_dust < 6.4 x 10^7 M_sun, FIR luminosity L_FIR < 3.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (42.5 - 122.5 micron), total IR luminosity L_IR < 5.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (8 - 1000 micron) and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M_sun/yr, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that < 29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3 sigma [CII] flux limit translates into [CII] luminosity, L_[CII] < 3.4 x 10^7 L_sun. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L_[CII] vs. SFR and L_[CII]/L_FIR vs. L_FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.
    05/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present ALMA observations of the [CII] line and far-infrared (FIR) continuum of a normally star-forming galaxy in the reionization epoch, the z=6.96 Ly-alpha emitter (LAE) IOK-1. Probing to sensitivities of sigma_line = 240 micro-Jy/beam (40 km/s channel) and sigma_cont = 21 micro-Jy/beam, we found the galaxy undetected in both [CII] and continuum. Comparison of UV - FIR spectral energy distribution (SED) of IOK-1, including our ALMA limit, with those of several types of local galaxies (including the effects of the cosmic microwave background, CMB, on the FIR continuum) suggests that IOK-1 is similar to local dwarf/irregular galaxies in SED shape rather than highly dusty/obscured galaxies. Moreover, our 3 sigma FIR continuum limit, corrected for CMB effects, implies intrinsic dust mass M_dust < 6.4 x 10^7 M_sun, FIR luminosity L_FIR < 3.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (42.5 - 122.5 micron), total IR luminosity L_IR < 5.7 x 10^{10} L_sun (8 - 1000 micron) and dust-obscured star formation rate (SFR) < 10 M_sun/yr, if we assume that IOK-1 has a dust temperature and emissivity index typical of local dwarf galaxies. This SFR is 2.4 times lower than one estimated from the UV continuum, suggesting that < 29% of the star formation is obscured by dust. Meanwhile, our 3 sigma [CII] flux limit translates into [CII] luminosity, L_[CII] < 3.4 x 10^7 L_sun. Locations of IOK-1 and previously observed LAEs on the L_[CII] vs. SFR and L_[CII]/L_FIR vs. L_FIR diagrams imply that LAEs in the reionization epoch have significantly lower gas and dust enrichment than AGN-powered systems and starbursts at similar/lower redshifts, as well as local star-forming galaxies.
    The Astrophysical Journal 04/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A class of post-AGB/protoplanetary objects are characterized by their low-mass nebula and NIR excess, probably indicative of dust kept close to the central star. We performed deep systematic observations of CO line emission in them. Almost all sources have been detected and show characteristic profiles that, both from theoretical and observational grounds, are known to be very good indicators of rotating disks. We conclude that, very probably, extended rotating disks are systematically present in this class of post-AGB objects. The main properties of the disks (mass, size, dynamics) are estimated, in particular they show a moderate mass of ~ 1e-3 - 1e-2 solar mass. Our observations also show that slow outflows (~ 10 km/s) coexist with the rotating disk in many of these objects, probably in all them. In general they represent a small fraction of the nebular mass, but can be dominant in some cases. Recent high-quality ALMA maps have shown the complex structure of the best studied source, the Red Rectangle. The equatorial disk and the outflow are accurately described. In particular we suggest that the expanding gas has been pulled away from the disk, probably by interaction with the collimated and fast post-AGB jets.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. We investigate the different manifestations of AGN feedback in the evolved, powerful radio source 3C293 and their impact on the molecular gas of its host galaxy, which harbors young star-forming regions and fast outflows of HI and ionized gas. Methods. We study the distribution and kinematics of the molecular gas of 3C293 using high spatial resolution observations of the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) lines, and the 3 and 1mm continuum taken with the IRAM PdBI. We mapped the molecular gas of 3C293 and compared it with the dust and star-formation images of the host. We searched for signatures of outflow motions in the CO kinematics, and reexamined the evidence of outflowing gas in the HI spectra. We also derived the star formation rate (SFR) and efficiency (SFE) of the host with all available SFR tracers from the literature, and compared them with the SFE of young and evolved radio galaxies and normal star-forming galaxies. Results. The CO(1-0) emission line shows that the molecular gas in 3C293 is distributed along a massive (2.2E10 Msun) warped disk with diameter of 21 kpc that rotates around the AGN. Our data show that the dust and the star formation are clearly associated with the CO disk. The CO(2-1) emission is located in the inner 7 kpc (diameter) region around the AGN, coincident with the inner part of the CO(1-0) disk. Both the CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) spectra reveal the presence of an absorber against the central regions of 3C293 that is associated with the disk. We do not detect any fast (>500 km/s) outflow motions in the cold molecular gas. The host of 3C293 shows an SFE consistent with the Kennicutt-Schmidt law. The apparently low SFE of evolved radio galaxies may be caused by an underestimation of the SFR and/or an overestimation of the molecular gas densities in these sources. We find no signatures of AGN feedback in the molecular gas of 3C293.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We study the properties of the interstellar medium in the interacting system BR1202-0725 at z=4.7 via its [NII] and [CII] fine-structure line emission. This system consists of a QSO, a sub-mm galaxy (SMG), and two Ly-alpha emitters (LAEs). Such a diversity in galaxy properties makes BR1202-0725 a unique laboratory of star formation and galaxy evolution at high redshift. We present ionized nitrogen ([NII] 205 micron) observations of this system, obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We find no [NII] emission at the quasar location, but tentative [NII] line detections associated with the SMG and one of the LAEs. Together with available ionized carbon ([CII] 158 micron) ALMA observations of this system, we find the following: The [CII]/[NII] luminosity ratio is >5.5 for the QSO and the SMG, but it is as low as ~2 in the LAE, suggesting that, in this source, most of the [CII] emission is associated with the ionized medium (HII regions) rather than the neutral one (PDRs). This study demonstrates the importance of combined studies of multiple fine--structure lines in order to pin down the physical properties of the interstellar medium in distant galaxies.
    01/2014; 782(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 1566, at a spatial resolution of 25 pc. Our aim is to investigate the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc, and to probe nuclear fueling and feedback phenomena. NGC 1566 has a nuclear bar of 1.7 kpc radius and a conspicuous grand design spiral starting from this radius. The ALMA field of view, of diameter 0.9 kpc, lies well inside the nuclear bar and reveals a molecular trailing spiral structure of \sim 100 pc in size, which is possibly fueling the nucleus. The spiral starts with a large pitch angle from the center and then winds up in a pseudo-ring at the inner Lindblad resonance (ILR) of the nuclear bar. This is the first time that a trailing spiral structure is clearly seen driving the gas inwards inside the ILR ring of the nuclear bar. This phenomenon shows that the massive central black hole has a significant dynamical influence on the gas, triggering its fueling. The gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen through extinction in HST images, and also with a spiral feature emitting 0.87mm continuum. This continuum emission must come essentially from cold dust heated by the interstellar radiation field. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were simultaneously mapped and detected in the nuclear spiral. The HCO+(4-3) line is 3 times stronger than the HCN(4-3), as expected when star formation excitation dominates over active galactic nucleus (AGN) heating. The CO(3-2)/HCO+(4-3) integrated intensity ratio is \sim 100. The molecular gas is in remarkably regular rotation, with only slight non-circular motions at the periphery of the nuclear spiral arms. These perturbations are quite small, and no outflow nor AGN feedback is detected.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the search for the [CII] emission line in three $z>6.5$ Lyman-alpha emitters (LAEs) and one J-Dropout galaxy using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). We observed three bright $z\sim6.5-7$ LAEs discovered in the SUBARU deep field (SDF) and the Multiple Imaged lensed $z\sim 11$ galaxy candidate found behind the galaxy cluster MACSJ0647.7+7015. For the LAEs IOK-1 ($z=6.965$), SDF J132415.7+273058 ($z=6.541$) and SDF J132408.3+271543 ($z=6.554$) we find upper limits for the [CII] line luminosity of $<2.05$, $<4.52$ and $<10.56\times10^{8}{\rm L}_{\odot}$ respectively. We find upper limits to the FIR luminosity of the galaxies using a spectral energy distribution template of the local galaxy NGC 6946 and taking into account the effects of the Cosmic Microwave Background on the mm observations. For IOK-1, SDF J132415.7+273058 and SDF J132408.3+271543 we find upper limits for the FIR luminosity of $<2.33$, $3.79$ and $7.72\times10^{11}{\rm L}_{\odot}$ respectively. For the lensed galaxy MACS0647-JD, one of the highest redshift galaxy candidate to date with $z_{\rm ph}=10.7^{+0.6}_{-0.4}$ we put an upper limit in the [CII] emission of $<1.36\times10^{8}\times(\mu/15)^{-1}{\rm L}_{\odot}$ and an upper limit in the FIR luminosity of $<6.1\times10^{10}\times(\mu/15)^{-1}{\rm L}_{\odot}$ (where $\mu$ is the magnification factor). We explore the different conditions relevant for the search for [CII] emission in high redshift galaxies as well as the difficulties for future observations with ALMA and CCAT.
    01/2014; 784(2).
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    ABSTRACT: New high-resolution maps with the IRAM Interferometer of the redshifted [C II] 158 micron line and the 0.98mm dust continuum of HDF850.1 at z = 5.185 show the source to have a blueshifted northern component and a redshifted southern component, with a projected separation of 0.3 arcsec, or 2 kpc. We interpret these components as primordial galaxies that are merging to form a larger galaxy. We think it is the resulting merger-driven starburst that makes HDF850.1 an ultraluminous infrared galaxy, with an L(IR) of 1E13 Lsun. The observed line and continuum brightness temperatures and the constant line-to-continuum ratio across the source imply (1) high [C II] line optical depth, (2) a [C II] excitation temperature of the same order as the dust temperature, and (3) dust continuum emission that is nearly optically thick at 158 microns. These conclusions for HDF850.1 probably also apply to other high-redshift submillimeter galaxies and quasar hosts in which the [C II] 158 micron line has been detected, as indicated by their roughly constant [C II]-to-158 micron continuum ratios, in sharp contrast to the large dispersion in their [C II]-to-FIR luminosity ratios. In brightness temperature units, the [C II] line luminosity is about the same as the predicted CO(1-0) luminosity, implying that the [C II] line can also be used to estimate the molecular gas mass, with the same assumptions as for CO.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present direct constraints on the CO luminosity function at high redshift and the resulting cosmic evolution of the molecular gas density, $\rho_{\rm H2}$(z), based on a blind molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our line scan of the entire 3mm window (79-115 GHz) covers a cosmic volume of ~7000 Mpc$^3$, and redshift ranges z<0.45, 1.01<z<1.89 and z>2. We use the rich multiwavelength and spectroscopic database of the HDF-N to derive some of the best constraints on CO luminosities in high redshift galaxies to date. We combine the blind CO detections in our molecular line scan (presented in a companion paper) with stacked CO limits from galaxies with available spectroscopic redshifts (slit or mask spectroscopy from Keck and grism spectroscopy from HST) to give first blind constraints on high-z CO luminosity functions and the cosmic evolution of the H2 mass density $\rho_{\rm H2}$(z) out to redshifts z~3. A comparison to empirical predictions of $\rho_{\rm H2}$(z) shows that the securely detected sources in our molecular line scan already provide significant contributions to the predicted $\rho_{\rm H2}$(z) in the redshift bins ~1.5 and ~2.7. Accounting for galaxies with CO luminosities that are not probed by our observations results in cosmic molecular gas densities $\rho_{\rm H2}$(z) that are higher than current predictions. We note however that the current uncertainties (in particular the luminosity limits, number of detections, as well as cosmic volume probed) are significant, a situation that is about to change with the emerging ALMA observatory.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a molecular line scan in the Hubble Deep Field North (HDF-N) that covers the entire 3mm window (79-115 GHz) using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. Our CO redshift coverage spans z<0.45, 1<z<1.9 and all z>2. We reach a CO detection limit that is deep enough to detect essentially all z>1 CO lines reported in the literature so far. We have developed and applied different line searching algorithms, resulting in the discovery of 17 line candidates. We estimate that the rate of false positive line detections is ~2/17. We identify optical/NIR counterparts from the deep ancillary database of the HDF-N for seven of these candidates and investigate their available SEDs. Two secure CO detections in our scan are identified with star-forming galaxies at z=1.784 and at z=2.047. These galaxies have colors consistent with the `BzK' color selection and they show relatively bright CO emission compared with galaxies of similar dust continuum luminosity. We also detect two spectral lines in the submillimeter galaxy HDF850.1 at z=5.183. We consider an additional 9 line candidates as high quality. Our observations also provide a deep 3mm continuum map (1-sigma noise level = 8.6 $\mu$Jy/beam). Via a stacking approach, we find that optical/MIR bright galaxies contribute only to <50% of the SFR density at 1<z<3, unless high dust temperatures are invoked. The present study represents a first, fundamental step towards an unbiased census of molecular gas in `normal' galaxies at high-z, a crucial goal of extragalactic astronomy in the ALMA era.
    12/2013; 782(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We study the properties of massive, galactic-scale outflows of molecular gas and investigate their impact on galaxy evolution. We present new IRAM PdBI CO(1-0) observations of local ULIRGs and QSO hosts: clear signature of massive and energetic molecular outflows, extending on kpc scales, is found in the CO(1-0) kinematics of four out of seven sources, with measured outflow rates of several 100 Msun/yr. We combine these new observations with data from the literature, and explore the nature and origin of massive molecular outflows within an extended sample of 19 local galaxies. We find that starburst-dominated galaxies have an outflow rate comparable to their SFR, or even higher by a factor of ~ 2-4, implying that starbursts can indeed be effective in removing cold gas from galaxies. Nevertheless, our results suggest that the presence of an AGN can boost the outflow rate by a large factor, which is found to increase with the L_AGN/L_bol ratio. The gas depletion time-scales due to molecular outflows are anti-correlated with the presence and luminosity of an AGN in these galaxies, and range from a few hundred million years in starburst galaxies, down to just a few million years in galaxies hosting powerful AGNs. In quasar hosts the depletion time-scales due to the outflow are much shorter than the depletion time-scales due to star formation. We estimate the outflow kinetic power and find that, for galaxies hosting powerful AGNs, it corresponds to about 5% of the AGN luminosity, as expected by models of AGN feedback. Moreover, we find that momentum rates of about 20 L_AGN/c are common among the AGN-dominated sources in our sample. For "pure" starburst galaxies our data tentatively support models in which outflows are mostly momentum-driven by the radiation pressure from young stars onto dusty clouds.
    11/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Massive galaxies in the distant Universe form stars at much higher rates than their local counterparts. Although direct resolution of the star forming regions of these galaxies is still a challenge, recent molecular gas observations at the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer enable us to study the star formation efficiency at sub-galactic scales around z = 1.2. We present a method to obtain the gas and star formation rate (SFR) surface densities of ensembles of clumps within galaxies at this redshift, and derive a spatially resolved Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation at a scale of about 8.5 kpc. This method is based on the identification of these structures in position-velocity diagrams corresponding to slices within the galaxies, even though the corresponding scales are not resolved. The data globally indicates an average depletion time of 1.9 Gyr, but with significant variations from point to point within the galaxies.
    SF2A 2013; 11/2013
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    ABSTRACT: We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 2 double-barred galaxy NGC1433, at the unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.5"=24 pc. Our aim is to probe AGN feeding and feedback phenomena through the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc. The CO map, which covers the whole nuclear region (nuclear bar and ring), reveals a nuclear gaseous spiral structure, inside the nuclear ring encircling the nuclear stellar bar. This gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The nuclear spiral winds up in a pseudo-ring at 200 pc radius, which might correspond to the inner ILR. Continuum emission is detected at 0.87 mm only at the very centre, and its origin is more likely thermal dust emission than non-thermal emission from the AGN. It might correspond to the molecular torus expected to exist in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were observed simultaneously, but only upper limits are derived, with a ratio to the CO(3-2) line lower than 1/60 at 3sigma, indicating a relatively low abundance of very dense gas. The kinematics of the gas over the nuclear disk reveal rather regular rotation only slightly perturbed by streaming motions due to the spiral; the primary and secondary bars are too closely aligned with the galaxy major or minor axis to leave a signature in the projected velocities. Near the nucleus, there is an intense high-velocity CO emission feature redshifted to 200 km/s (if located in the plane), with a blue-shifted counterpart, at 2" (100 pc) from the centre. While the CO spectra are quite narrow in the centre, this wide component is interpreted as an outflow involving a molecular mass of 3.6 10^6 Mo and a flow rate 7 Mo/yr. The flow could be in part driven by the central star formation, but is mainly boosted by the AGN through its radio jets.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the redshift of HATLAS J132427.0+284452 (hereafter HATLAS J132427), a gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy, the first determined 'blind' by the Herschel Space Observatory. This is achieved via the detection of [C II] consistent with z = 1.68 in a far-infrared spectrum taken with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer. We demonstrate that the [C II] redshift is secure via detections of CO J = 2 - 1 and 3 - 2 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique's Plateau de Bure Interferometer. The intrinsic properties appear typical of high-redshift starbursts despite the high lensing-amplified fluxes, proving the ability of the FTS to probe this population with the aid of lensing. The blind detection of [C II] demonstrates the potential of the SAFARI imaging spectrometer, proposed for the much more sensitive SPICA mission, to determine redshifts of multiple dusty galaxies simultaneously without the benefit of lensing.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new millimeter observations made with the IRAM interferometer and 30 m telescope of the ionized wind from the massive young stellar object LkHα 101. Several recombination lines, including higher order transitions, were detected for the first time at radio wavelengths in this source. From three α-transitions, we derive an accurate value for the stellar velocity and for the first time, an unambiguous expansion velocity of the wind that is 55 km s-1. This velocity is much slower than reported previously, and the resulting mass loss rate is 1.8 × 10-6 M⊙ yr-1. The wideband continuum spectra and the interferometer visibilities show that the density of the wind falls off more steeply than what is compatible with constant-velocity expansion. We argue that these properties indicate that the wind is launched from a radially narrow region of the circumstellar disk, and we propose that slow speed and a steep density gradient are characteristic properties of the evolutionary phase, where young stars of intermediate and high mass clear away the gaseous component of their accretion disks. The recombination lines are emitted close to local thermal equilibrium, but the higher order transitions appear systematically broader and weaker than expected, probably because of impact broadening. Finally, we show that LkHα 101 shares many properties with MWC 349, the only other stellar wind source where radio recombination lines have been detected, with some of them masing. We argue that LkHα 101 evades masing at millimeter wavelengths because of the disk's smaller size and unfavorable orientation. Some amplification may however be detectable at shorter wavelengths.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 08/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report matched resolution imaging spectroscopy of the CO 3-2 line (with the IRAM Plateau de Bure millimeter interferometer) and of the Hα line (with LUCI at the Large Binocular Telescope) in the massive z = 1.53 main-sequence galaxy EGS 13011166, as part of the "Plateau de Bure high-z, blue-sequence survey" (PHIBSS: Tacconi et al.). We combine these data with Hubble Space Telescope V-I-J-H-band maps to derive spatially resolved distributions of stellar surface density, star formation rate, molecular gas surface density, optical extinction, and gas kinematics. The spatial distribution and kinematics of the ionized and molecular gas are remarkably similar and are well modeled by a turbulent, globally Toomre unstable, rotating disk. The stellar surface density distribution is smoother than the clumpy rest-frame UV/optical light distribution and peaks in an obscured, star-forming massive bulge near the dynamical center. The molecular gas surface density and the effective optical screen extinction track each other and are well modeled by a "mixed" extinction model. The inferred slope of the spatially resolved molecular gas to star formation rate relation, N = dlogΣstar form/dlogΣmol gas, depends strongly on the adopted extinction model, and can vary from 0.8 to 1.7. For the preferred mixed dust-gas model, we find N = 1.14 ± 0.1.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 773(1):68. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We aim to study equatorial disks in rotation and axial outflows in post-AGB objects, as to disclose the formation and shaping mechanisms in planetary nebulae. So far, both disks and outflows had not been observed simultaneously. We have obtained high-quality ALMA observations of 12CO and 13CO J=3-2 and 12CO J=6-5 line emission in the Red Rectangle, the only post-AGB/protoplanetary object in which a disk in rotation has been mapped up to date. These observations provide an unprecedented description of the complex structure of this source. Together with an equatorial disk in rotation, we find a low-velocity outflow that occupies more or less the region placed between the disk and the optical X-shaped nebula. From our observations and preliminary modeling of the data, we confirm the previously known properties of the disk and obtain a first description of the structure, dynamics, and physical conditions of the outflow.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5 × 10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2 × 10(11) solar masses at z ≈ 2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19 kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4 × 10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z ≈ 1.5.
    Nature 05/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new millimeter observations of the ionized wind from the massive young stellar object LkHalpha101, made with the IRAM interferometer and 30m telescope. Several recombination lines, including higher order transitions, were detected for the first time at radio wavelengths in this source. From three alpha-transitions we derive an accurate value for the stellar velocity and, for the first time, an unambiguous expansion velocity of the wind which is 55 km/s, much slower than reported previously, and the mass loss rate is 1.8e-6 solar masses per year. The wide band continuum spectra and the interferometer visibilities show that the density of the wind falls off more steeply than compatible with constant-velocity expansion. We argue that these properties indicate that the wind is launched from a radially narrow region of the circumstellar disk, and we propose that slow speed and a steep density gradient are characteristic properties of the evolutionary phase where young stars of intermediate and high mass clear away the gaseous component of their accretion disks. The recombination lines are emitted close to local thermal equilibrium, but the higher order transitions appear systematically broader and weaker than expected, probably due to impact broadening. Finally, we show that LkHalpha101 shares many properties with MWC349, the only other stellar wind source where radio recombination lines have been detected, some of them masing. We argue that LkHalpha101 evades masing at millimeter wavelengths because of the disk's smaller size and unfavorable orientation. Some amplification may however be detectable at shorter wavelengths.
    05/2013;

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,211.85 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 1990–2014
    • Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique
      Grenoble, Rhône-Alpes, France
  • 2013
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States
    • Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
      Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • Cornell University
      • Department of Astronomy
      Ithaca, New York, United States
  • 2012
    • Imperial College London
      • Department of Physics
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • University of Portsmouth
      • Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation ICG
      Portsmouth, England, United Kingdom
    • University of Padova
      Padua, Veneto, Italy
  • 2010
    • Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics
      Arching, Bavaria, Germany
    • The Open University (UK)
      • Department of Physical Sciences
      Milton Keynes, England, United Kingdom
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2009
    • National Radio Astronomy Observatory
      Charlottesville, Virginia, United States
  • 2008
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2007
    • Instituto de Estructura de la Materia
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 2006
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2002
    • Spanish National Research Council
      • Department of Molecular Physics
      Madrid, Madrid, Spain
  • 1988
    • University of Tuebingen
      Tübingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany