Tristan S Maurer

Pfizer Inc., New York City, New York, United States

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Publications (40)116.34 Total impact

  • Rui Li, Avijit Ghosh, Tristan Scott Maurer, Emi Kimoto, Hugh A Barton
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    ABSTRACT: A previously developed physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for hepatic transporter substrates was extended to an organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) substrate, telmisartan. Predictions utilized in vitro data from sandwich culture human hepatocyte (SCHH) and human liver microsome (HLM) assays. We have developed a novel method to calibrate partition coefficients (Kps) between non-liver tissues and plasma based on published human positron emission tomography (PET) data in order to decrease the uncertainty in tissue distribution introduced by in silico predicted Kps. With in vitro data-predicted hepatic clearances, published empirical scaling factors (SFs), and PET-calibrated Kps, the model could accurately recapitulate telmisartan PK behavior before 2.5 hours. Reasonable predictions also depend on having a model structure that can adequately describe the drug disposition pathways. We showed that the elimination phase (2.5 to 12 hours) of telmisartan PK could be more accurately recapitulated when enterohepatic recirculation of parent compound derived from intestinal deconjugation of glucuronide metabolite was incorporated into the model. This study demonstrated the usefulness of the previously proposed PBPK modeling approach for purely predictive IV PK simulation and identified additional biological processes that can be important in prediction.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 08/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we leverage a mathematical model of the underlying physiochemical properties of tissues and physicochemical properties of molecules in order to support the development of hepatoselective glucokinase activators. Passive distribution is modeled via a Fick-Nernst-Planck approach, using in vitro experimental data to estimate the permeability of both ionized and neutral species. The model accounts for pH and electrochemical potential across cellular membranes, ionization according to Henderson-Hasselbalch, passive permeation of the neutral species using Fick's law, and passive permeation of the ionized species using the Nernst-Planck equation. The mathematical model of the physiochemical system allows derivation of a single set of parameters governing the distribution of drug molecules across multiple conditions both in vitro and in vivo. A case study using this approach in the development of hepatoselective glucokinase activators (GKA) via Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (OATP) mediated hepatic uptake and impaired passive distribution to the pancreas is described. The results for these molecules indicate the permeability penalty of the ionized form is offset by its relative abundance, leading to passive pancreatic exclusion according to the Nernst-Planck extension of Fickian passive permeation. Generally, this model serves as a useful construct for drug discovery scientists to understand subcellular exposure of acids or bases using specific physiochemical properties.
    Drug metabolism and disposition: the biological fate of chemicals 07/2014; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models provide a framework useful for generating credible human pharmacokinetic predictions from data available at the earliest, preclinical stages of pharmaceutical research. With this approach, the pharmacokinetic implications of in vitro data are contextualized via scaling according to independent physiological information. However, in many cases these models also require model-based estimation of additional empirical scaling factors (SFs) in order to accurately recapitulate known human pharmacokinetic behavior. While this practice clearly improves data characterization, the introduction of empirically derived SFs may belie the extrapolative power commonly attributed to PBPK. This is particularly true when such SFs are compound dependent and/or when there are issues with regard to identifiability. As such, when empirically-derived SFs are necessary, a critical evaluation of parameter estimation and model structure are prudent. In this study, we applied a global optimization method to support model-based estimation of a single set of empirical SFs from intravenous clinical data on seven OATP substrates within the context of a previously published PBPK model as well as a revised PBPK model. The revised model with experimentally measured unbound fraction in liver, permeability between liver compartments, and permeability limited distribution to selected tissues improved data characterization. We utilized large-sample approximation and resampling approaches to estimate confidence intervals for the revised model in support of forward predictions that reflect the derived uncertainty. This work illustrates an objective approach to estimating empirically-derived SFs, systematically refining PBPK model performance and conveying the associated confidence in subsequent forward predictions.
    Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 04/2014; · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Avijit Ghosh, Dennis O Scott, Tristan S Maurer
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    ABSTRACT: In this work, we provide a unified theoretical framework describing how drug molecules can permeate across membranes in neutral and ionized forms for unstirred in vitro systems. The analysis provides a self-consistent basis for the origin of the unstirred water layer (UWL) within the Nernst-Planck framework in the fully unstirred limit and further provides an accounting mechanism based simply on the bulk aqueous solvent diffusion constant of the drug molecule. Our framework makes no new assumptions about the underlying physics of molecular permeation. We hold simply that Nernst-Planck is a reasonable approximation at low concentrations and all physical systems must conserve mass. The applicability of the derived framework has been examined both with respect to the effect of stirring and externally applied voltages to measured permeability. The analysis contains data for 9 compounds extracted from the literature representing a range of permeabilities and aqueous diffusion coefficients. Applicability with respect to ionized permeation is examined using literature data for the permanently charged cation, crystal violet, providing a basis for the underlying mechanism for ionized drug permeation for this molecule as being due to mobile counter-current flow.
    European journal of pharmaceutical sciences: official journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences 11/2013; · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists PF-03882845 and eplerenone were evaluated for renal protection against aldosterone-mediated renal disease in uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats maintained on a high salt diet and receiving aldosterone by osmotic mini-pump for 27 days. Serum K(+) and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) were assessed following 14 and 27 days of treatment. Aldosterone induced renal fibrosis as evidenced by increases in UACR, collagen IV staining in kidney cortex, and expression of pro-fibrotic genes relative to sham-operated controls not receiving aldosterone. While both PF-03882845 and eplerenone elevated serum K(+) levels with similar potencies, PF-03882845 was more potent than eplerenone in suppressing the rise in UACR. PF-03882845 prevented the increase in collagen IV staining at 5, 15 and 50 mg/kg BID while eplerenone was effective only at the highest dose tested (450 mg/kg BID). All doses of PF-03882845 suppressed aldosterone-induced increases in collagen IV, transforming growth factor-β 1 (Tgf-β 1), interleukin-6 (Il-6), intermolecular adhesion molecule-1 (Icam-1) and osteopontin gene expression in kidney while eplerenone was only effective at the highest dose. The therapeutic index (TI), calculated as the ratio of the EC50 for increasing serum K(+) to the EC50 for UACR lowering, was 83.8 for PF-03882845 and 1.47 for eplerenone. Thus, the TI of PF-03882845 against hyperkalemia was 57-fold superior to that of eplerenone indicating that PF-03882845 may present significantly less risk for hyperkalemia compared to eplerenone.
    Frontiers in Pharmacology 01/2013; 4:115.
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of antidiabetic agent ertugliflozin is described. The compound belongs to a new class of SGLT2 inhibitors bearing a dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane motif. This article describes the critical role that organic synthesis played in both influencing our medicinal chemistry strategy and speeding up the progression of our program.
    Medicinal Chemistry Communication 12/2012; 4(1):101-111. · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • Li Di, John P Umland, Patrick E Trapa, Tristan S Maurer
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    ABSTRACT: Historically, recovery had been used to evaluate the data quality of plasma protein binding or tissue binding obtained from equilibrium dialysis assays. Low recovery was often indicative of high nonspecific binding, instability, or low solubility. This study showed that, when equilibrium was fully established in the dialysis assay, low recovery due to nonspecific binding had no impact on the determination of fraction unbound. The conclusion was supported by the principles of the equilibrium dialysis assay, experimental data, and mathematic simulations. The results suggested that the use of recovery as an acceptance criterion for the equilibrium dialysis assay in drug discovery was too restrictive, and introduced the additional burden of repeating studies unnecessarily.
    Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 12/2011; 101(3):1327-35. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are an emerging class of agents for use in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Inhibition of SGLT2 leads to improved glycemic control through increased urinary glucose excretion (UGE). In this study, a biologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model of SGLT2 inhibitor-mediated UGE was developed. The derived model was used to characterize the acute PK/PD relationship of the SGLT2 inhibitor, dapagliflozin, in rats. The quantitative translational pharmacology of dapagliflozin was examined through both prospective simulation and direct modeling of mean literature data obtained for dapagliflozin in healthy subjects. Prospective simulations provided time courses of UGE that were of consistent shape to clinical observations, but were modestly biased toward under prediction. Direct modeling provided an improved characterization of the data and precise parameter estimates which were reasonably consistent with those predicted from preclinical data. Overall, these results indicate that the acute clinical pharmacology of SGLT2 inhibitors in healthy subjects can be reasonably well predicted from preclinical data through rational accounting of species differences in pharmacokinetics, physiology, and SGLT2 pharmacology. Because these data can be generated at the earliest stages of drug discovery, the proposed model is useful in the design and development of novel SGLT2 inhibitors. In addition, this model is expected to serve as a useful foundation for future efforts to understand and predict the effects of SGLT2 inhibition under chronic administration and in other patient populations.
    The AAPS Journal 08/2011; 13(4):576-84. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling greatly enables quantitative implementation of the "learn and confirm" paradigm across different stages of drug discovery and development. This work describes the successful prospective application of this concept in the discovery and early development of a novel κ-opioid receptor (KOR) antagonist, PF-04455242, where PK-PD understanding from preclinical biomarker responses enabled successful prediction of the clinical response in a proof of mechanism study. Preclinical data obtained in rats included time course measures of the KOR antagonist (PF-04455242), a KOR agonist (spiradoline), and a KOR-mediated biomarker response (prolactin secretion) in plasma. Clinical data included time course measures of PF-04455242 and prolactin in 24 healthy volunteers following a spiradoline challenge and single oral doses of PF-04455242 (18 and 30 mg). In both species, PF-04455242 successfully reversed spiradoline-induced prolactin response. A competitive antagonism model was developed and implemented within NONMEM to describe the effect of PF-04455242 on spiradoline-induced prolactin elevation in rats and humans. The PK-PD model-based estimate of K(i) for PF-04455242 in rats was 414 ng/mL. Accounting for species differences in unbound fraction, in vitro K(i) and brain penetration provided a predicted human K(i) of 44.4 ng/mL. This prediction was in good agreement with that estimated via the application of the proposed PK-PD model to the clinical data (i.e., 39.2 ng/mL). These results illustrate the utility of the proposed PK-PD model in supporting the quantitative translation of preclinical studies into an accurate clinical expectation. As such, the proposed PK-PD model is useful for supporting the design, selection, and early development of novel KOR antagonists.
    The AAPS Journal 08/2011; 13(4):565-75. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a pharmacodynamic model is developed, based on calcium-parathyroid hormone (PTH) homeostasis, which describes the concentration-effect relationship of a negative allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) in rats. Plasma concentrations of drug and PTH were determined from plasma samples obtained via serial jugular vein sampling following single subcutaneous doses of 1, 5, 45, and 150 mg/kg to male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5/dose). Drug pharmacokinetics was described by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption and linear elimination. Concentration-time profiles of PTH were characterized using a model in which the compound allosterically modulates Ca(+2) binding to the CaR that, in turn, modulates PTH through a precursor-pool indirect response model. Additionally, negative feedback was incorporated to account for tolerance observed at higher dose levels. Model fitting and parameter estimation were conducted using the maximum likelihood algorithm. The proposed model well characterized the data and provided compound specific estimates of the K(i) and cooperativity constant (α) of 1.47 ng/mL and 0.406, respectively. In addition, the estimated model parameters for PTH turnover were comparable to that previously reported. The final generalized model is capable of characterizing both PTH-Ca(+2) homeostasis and the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics associated with the negative allosteric CaR modulator. As such, the model provides a simple platform for analysis of drugs targeting the PTH-Ca(+2) system.
    The AAPS Journal 03/2011; 13(2):265-73. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Compound 4 (PF-04971729) belongs to a new class of potent and selective sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors incorporating a unique dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (bridged ketal) ring system. In this paper we present the design, synthesis, preclinical evaluation, and human dose predictions related to 4. This compound demonstrated robust urinary glucose excretion in rats and an excellent preclinical safety profile. It is currently in phase 2 clinical trials and is being evaluated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
    Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 03/2011; 54(8):2952-60. · 5.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel series of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives was synthesized and evaluated as NPY Y1R antagonists. High binding affinity and selectivity were achieved with C3 trisubstituted aryl groups and C7 substituted 2-(tetrahydro-2H-pyran-4-ylamino)ethylamine moieties. Efforts to find close analogs with low plasma clearance in the rat and minimal p-glycoprotein efflux in the mouse were unsuccessful. Compound 2f (CP-671906) inhibited NPY-induced increases in blood pressure and food intake after iv and icv administration, respectively, in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat models. Oral administration of compound 2f resulted in a modest, but statistically significant, reduction in food intake in a Wistar rat model of feeding behavior. Small inhibitions of food intake were also observed in an overnight fasting/refeeding model in SD rats. These data suggest a potential role for Y1R in the regulation of food intake in rodents.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 01/2011; 21(9):2641-5. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of triazolobenzodiazepinone CCK1 receptor agonists. Analogs in this series demonstrate potent agonist activity as measured by in vitro and in vivo assays for CCK1 agonism. Our efforts resulted in the identification of compound 4a which significantly reduced food intake with minimal systemic exposure in rodents.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 11/2010; 20(22):6797-801. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As part of a strategy to deliver short-acting calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) antagonists, the metabolically labile thiomethyl functionality was incorporated into the zwitterionic amino alcohol derivative 3 with the hope of increasing human clearance through oxidative metabolism, while delivering a pharmacologically inactive sulfoxide metabolite. The effort led to the identification of thioanisoles 22 and 23 as potent and orally active CaSR antagonists with a rapid onset of action and short pharmacokinetic half-lives, which led to a rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone in a dose-dependent fashion following oral administration to rats. On the basis of the balance between target pharmacology, safety, and human disposition profiles, 22 and 23 were advanced as clinical candidates for the treatment of osteoporosis.Keywords (keywords): Calcium; CaSR antagonists; PTH; cytochrome P450; metabolite; oxidation
    Acs Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 05/2010; 1(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Modifications to the sugar portion of C-aryl glycoside sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were explored, including systematic deletion and modification of each of the glycoside hydroxyl groups. Based on results showing activity to be quite tolerant of structural change at the C-5 position, a series of novel C-5 spiro analogues was prepared. Some of these analogues exhibit low nanomolar potency versus SGLT2 and promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in rats. However, due to sub-optimal pharmacokinetic parameters (in particular half-life), predicted human doses did not meet criteria for further advancement.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 01/2010; 20(5):1569-72. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Based on our original pyrazine hit, CP-0809101, novel conformationally-restricted 5HT2c receptor agonists with 2-piperazin-azaindane scaffold were designed. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies are described with emphasis on optimization of the selectivity against 5HT2a and 5HT2b receptors with excellent 2c potency. Orally-active and selective compounds were identified with dose-responsive in vivo efficacy in our pre-clinical food intake model.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 10/2009; 20(1):266-71. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies on 5-trifluoromethylpyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-4(3H)-ones, a novel class of calcium receptor antagonists is described with particular emphasis on optimization of the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters required for a short duration of action compound. Orally-active compounds were identified which displayed the desired animal pharmacology (rapid and transient stimulation of parathyroid hormone) essential for bone anabolic effects.
    Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2009; 19(16):4555-9. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 5-{2-[4-(3,4-Difluorophenoxy)-phenyl]-ethylsulfamoyl}-2-methyl-benzoic acid (1) is a novel, potent, and selective agonist of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha). In preclinical species, compound 1 demonstrated generally favourable pharmacokinetic properties. Systemic plasma clearance (CLp) after intravenous administration was low in Sprague-Dawley rats (3.2 +/- 1.4 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) and cynomolgus monkeys (6.1 +/- 1.6 ml min(-1) kg(-1)) resulting in plasma half-lives of 7.1 +/- 0.7 h and 9.4 +/- 0.8 h, respectively. Moderate bioavailability in rats (64%) and monkeys (55%) was observed after oral dosing. In rats, oral pharmacokinetics were dose-dependent over the dose range examined (10 and 50 mg kg(-1)). In vitro metabolism studies on 1 in cryopreserved rat, monkey, and human hepatocytes revealed that 1 was metabolized via oxidation and phase II glucuronidation pathways. In rats, a percentage of the dose (approximately 19%) was eliminated via biliary excretion in the unchanged form. Studies using recombinant human CYP isozymes established that the rate-limiting step in the oxidative metabolism of 1 to the major primary alcohol metabolite M1 was catalysed by CYP3A4. Compound 1 was greater than 99% bound to plasma proteins in rat, monkey, mouse, and human. No competitive inhibition of the five major cytochrome P450 enzymes, namely CYP1A2, P4502C9, P4502C19, P4502D6 and P4503A4 (IC50's > 30 microM) was discerned with 1. Because of insignificant turnover of 1 in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes, human clearance was predicted using rat single-species allometric scaling from in vivo data. The steady-state volume was also scaled from rat volume after normalization for protein-binding differences. As such, these estimates were used to predict an efficacious human dose required for 30% lowering of triglycerides. In order to aid human dose projections, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships for triglyceride lowering by 1 were first established in mice, which allowed an insight into the efficacious concentrations required for maximal triglyceride lowering. Assuming that the pharmacology translated in a quantitative fashion from mouse to human, dose projections were made for humans using mouse pharmacodynamic parameters and the predicted human pharmacokinetic estimates. First-in-human clinical studies on 1 following oral administration suggested that the human pharmacokinetics/dose predictions were in the range that yielded a favourable pharmacodynamic response.
    Xenobiotica 08/2009; 39(10):766-81. · 1.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model that describes the regulation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH)-Ca(2+) system in rats and humans. Temporal concentration data for endogenous PTH and Ca(2+) were extracted from literature for rats (normal adult males) and humans. In addition, exogenous PTH was administered subcutaneously to male Sprague-Dawley rats with jugular vein catheters, and plasma concentrations were measured over time. A mathematical model was developed and fitted simultaneously to endogenous PTH, Ca(2+), and exogenous PTH concentrations in rats. Ca(2+) concentrations were described using a turnover model, with its depletion being induced by a chelating agent, and PTH concentrations were characterized using a precursor-dependent indirect response model. The same structural model was used for fitting data obtained in humans. PTH stimulation was driven by occupancy of the Ca(2+) sensing receptor, and lowering of physiological Ca(2+) concentrations increased PTH secretion, with PTH profiles being adequately described by the model. PTH stimulatory capacity was baseline-dependent in rats [S(max_rats) = 34.8 x PTH(0)] and humans [S(max_humans) = 392/PTH(0)]. Modeling results suggest that normal rats are twice as sensitive to Ca(2+)-induced PTH stimulation compared with humans. In conclusion, the developed model adequately characterizes the PTH-Ca(2+) regulation across species and may be useful in the development of therapeutic drugs targeting this system.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 05/2009; 330(1):169-78. · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Quantitative prediction of human pharmacokinetics is critical in assessing the viability of drug candidates and in determining first-in-human dosing. Numerous prediction methodologies, incorporating both in vitro and preclinical in vivo data, have been developed in recent years, each with advantages and disadvantages. However, the lack of a comprehensive data set, both preclinical and clinical, has limited efforts to evaluate the optimal strategy (or strategies) that results in quantitative predictions of human pharmacokinetics. To address this issue, the authors conducted a retrospective analysis using 50 proprietary compounds for which in vitro, preclinical pharmacokinetic data and oral single-dose human pharmacokinetic data were available. Five predictive strategies, involving either allometry or use of unbound intrinsic clearance from microsomes or hepatocytes, were then compared for their ability to predict human oral clearance, half-life through predictions of systemic clearance, volume of distribution, and bioavailability. Use of a single-species scaling approach with rat, dog, or monkey was as accurate as or more accurate than using multiple-species allometry. For those compounds cleared almost exclusively by P450-mediated pathways, scaling from human liver microsomes was as predictive as single-species scaling of clearance based on data from rat, dog, or monkey. These data suggest that use of predictive methods involving either single-species in vivo data or in vitro human liver microsomes can quantitatively predict human in vivo pharmacokinetics and suggest the possibility of streamlining the predictive methodology through use of a single species or use only of human in vitro microsomal preparations.
    The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 04/2009; 49(5):513-33. · 2.84 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

499 Citations
116.34 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2005–2014
    • Pfizer Inc.
      • Pfizer Global Research & Development
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 2013
    • Drexel University
      Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States
  • 2009
    • Pfizer Animal Health
      Fort Dodge, Iowa, United States
  • 2000–2009
    • State University of New York
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1999–2000
    • University at Buffalo, The State University of New York
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Buffalo, New York, United States