[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tolerance to dsDNA is achieved through editing of Ig receptors that react with dsDNA. Nevertheless, some B cells with anti-dsDNA receptors escape editing and migrate to the spleen. Certain anti-dsDNA B cells that are recovered as hybridomas from the spleens of anti-dsDNA H chain transgenic mice also bind an additional, Golgi-associated antigen. B cells that bind this antigen accumulate intracellular IgM. The intracellular accumulation of IgM is incomplete, because IgM clusters are observed at the cell surface. In the spleen, B cells that express the heavy and light chains encoding this IgM are surface IgM-bright and acquire the CD21-high/CD23-low phenotype of marginal zone B cells. Our data imply that expression of an Ig that binds dsDNA and an additional antigen expressed in the secretory compartment renders B cells resistant to central tolerance. In the periphery, these B cells may be sequestered in the splenic marginal zone.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2008; 105(10):3861-6. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We previously reported that retrovirally mediated gene expression of Ig fusion proteins leads to specific immunologic tolerance and successful treatment of autoimmune conditions. Thus, a single dose of GAD65-IgG- or (Pro) Insulin-IgG-transduced B cells delays the onset and decreases the incidence of diabetes in young (7-12 weeks old) NOD female mice. Herein, we tested the role of regulatory T cells by in vivo treatment with anti-CD25 before B-cell gene therapy or by in vitro ablation of CD25+ cells from tolerized hosts in an adoptive transfer model. Our results demonstrate that anti-CD25 treatment, like cyclophosphamide, partially blocks the efficacy of gene therapy for tolerance. Moreover, B-cell therapy is effective at preventing diabetes transfer by female T cells (from older diabetic mice) into intact male recipients with normal islets, but failed to do so in NOD-scid recipients. This is due in part to homeostatic proliferation but also to the absence of CD25+ T cells in the latter hosts. Tolerance induced in younger NOD females can be stably transferred to NOD-scid recipients. However, physical removal of CD25+ cells abrogates the transfer of tolerance. Therefore, we conclude that CD4+, CD25+ regulatory T cells are required for the induction as well as maintenance of tolerance in this gene therapy model. The phenotype of these induced regulatory T cells is under investigation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The degree of heavy chain (H) editing, the types of Vkappa editors, and the pattern of Jkappa usage are correlated with a range of the affinity of anti-DNA. This range was determined by the number and location of arginine (R) residues in the VH. We, here, changed a key arginine residue in the VH of anti-DNA transgene to glycine, which sharply reduces the affinity for dsDNA. However, complete reversion of this anti-DNA to germline enhances the affinity for phosphatidylserine (PS). The B cells of this low-affinity anti-DNA and anti-PS transgenic mouse are tightly regulated by receptor editing. Thus, anti-PS B cells are another example of a constitutive self-antigen regulated in the bone marrow.