[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder that is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme alpha-L-iduronidase (IDUA). Of the 21 Czech and Slovak patients who have been diagnosed with MPS I in the last 30 years, 16 have a severe clinical presentation (Hurler syndrome), 2 less severe manifestations (Scheie syndrome), and 3 an intermediate severity (Hurler/Scheie phenotype). Mutation analysis was performed in 20 MPS I patients and 39 mutant alleles were identified. There was a high prevalence of the null mutations p.W402X (12 alleles) and p.Q70X (7 alleles) in this cohort. Four of the 13 different mutations were novel: p.V620F (3 alleles), p.W626X (1 allele), c.1727 + 2T > G (1 allele) and c.1918_1927del (2 alleles). The pathogenicity of the novel mutations was verified by transient expression studies in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Seven haplotypes were observed in the patient alleles using 13 intragenic polymorphisms. One of the two haplotypes associated with the mutation p.Q70X was not found in any of the controls. Haplotype analysis showed, that mutations p.Q70X, p.V620F, and p.D315Y probably have more than one ancestor. Missense mutations localized predominantly in the hydrophobic core of the enzyme are associated with the severe phenotype, whereas missense mutations localized to the surface of the enzyme are usually associated with the attenuated phenotypes. Mutations in the 130 C-terminal amino acids lead to clinical manifestations, which indicates a functional importance of the C-terminus of the IDUA protein.
American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 05/2009; 149A(5):965-74. DOI:10.1002/ajmg.a.32812 · 2.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This is the first neuropathology report of a male patient (born 1960-died 1975) with an extremely rare, atypical variant of CLN2 that has been diagnosed only in five families so far. The clinical history started during his preschool years with relatively mild motor and psychological difficulties, but with normal intellect and vision. Since age six there were progressive cerebellar and extrapyramidal symptomatology, amaurosis, and mental deterioration. Epileptic seizures were absent. The child died aged 15 years in extreme cachexy. Neuropathology revealed neurolysosomal storage of autofluorescent, curvilinear and subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) rich material. The neuronal storage led to laminar neuronal depopulation in the cerebral cortex and to a practically total eradication of the cerebellar cortical neurons. The other areas of the central nervous system including hippocampus, which are usually heavily affected in classical forms of CLN2, displayed either a lesser degree or absence of neuronal storage, or storage without significant neuronal loss. Transformation of the stored material to the spheroid like perikaryal inclusions was rudimentary. The follow-up, after 30 years, showed heterozygous values of TPP1 (tripeptidylpeptidase 1) activity in the white blood cells of both parents and the sister. DNA analysis of CLN2 gene identified a paternal frequent null mutation c.622C > T (p.Arg208 X) in the 6th exon and a maternal novel mutation c.1439 T > G in exon 12 (p.Val480Gly). TPP1 immunohistochemistry using a specific antibody gave negative results in the brain and other organs. Our report supports the notion that the spectrum of CLN2 phenotypes may be surprisingly broad. The study revealed variable sensitivities in neuronal subpopulations to the metabolic defect which may be responsible for the variant's serious course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Female carriers of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) deficiency have somatic cell mosaicism of HPRT activity and are healthy. We report a 50-year-old woman without gout or nephrolithiasis. She was never on allopurinol. Normal serum uric acid concentrations, increased plasma hypoxanthine, and xanthine were found. HPRT activity in erythrocytes was surprisingly low: at 8.6 nmol h(-1) mg (-1) haemoglobin. Mutation analysis revealed a heterozygous HPRT gene mutation, c.215A > G (p.Tyr72Cys). Assessment of X-inactivation ratio has shown that > 75% of the active X-chromosome bears the mutant allele and could explain these unusual, previously undescribed findings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An autopsy and microscopic analyses of a 74-year-old female with a clinical history of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertension disclosed a pronounced distension of lysosomal compartment with signs of excessive autophagocytosis, predominantly in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells of the small intestine. The histological storage pattern did not correspond to the usual changes seen in defined lysosomal storage disorders. The amount of age-related lipopigment was low in all tissues. Confocal microscopy of liver tissue samples documented a progressive loss of mitochondrial epitopes in the distended lysosomal compartment along the porto-central axis of hepatic lobules. The possibility to detect subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase (SCMAS) indicated extensive intra-lysosomal degradation of mitochondria, both in hepatocytes and smooth muscle cells. The SCMAS epitope can thus be considered a valuable immunohistochemical marker of autophagocytic mitochondrial degradation. The distended lysosomes also displayed tissue specific ubiquitination. Absence of immuno-detectable p62 protein excluded aggresome formation. An inherent dysfunction of the late endosomal/lysosomal LAMP2 protein (Danon disease), was excluded on the basis of LAMP2 gene sequence analysis and LAMP2 protein levels. Whether the observed process reflects a primary dysregulation of the constitution of the autophagosomal membrane or was induced by defects in other cellular components, remains unanswered. Whatever mechanism involved, the findings should be considered relevant in differential diagnostics, despite their low clinical penetrance, should be registered and thus rendered available for future definition.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify mutations in the gene encoding for lysosomal beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA; gene symbol, GBA) in Hungarian patients with Gaucher disease (GD), and to study genotype-phenotype relationships. Genotypes and allele variations in 27 patients with type I GD of 25 unrelated families were studied. Of the 54 mutant alleles, we detected 38 frequent (N370S, 22/54; RecNciI, 8/54; L444P, 8/54) and 9 rare (N188S, R257Q, R285C, G377S, R120W, T323I, 84GG, 1263-1317del and 1263-1317del/RecTL) mutations. In addition, we identified two novel mutations. The N370S/RecNciI genotype found in 8 patients and the N370S/L444P genotype found in 5 patients were the most frequent genotypes in this cohort. In 22 patients the mutations occurred in heterozygosity with the N370S sequence variant, and one patient was homozygous for the L444P mutation. These data suggest that N370S, RecNciI, and L444P are the most prevalent mutations in Hungarian patients with GD. This mutation profile is characteristic for a Caucasian (non-Jewish) population. The c.260G>A and c.999G>A missense mutations are described here for the first time in GD patients contributing to the panel of reported GBA mutations.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the third case of Niemann-Pick disease type C without neurological symptoms. The patient was a 53-year-old woman without significant prior health problems who died of acute pulmonary embolism. Autopsy findings of hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and ceroid-rich foam cells raised the suspicion of the visceral form of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (Niemann-Pick disease type B; NPB) or a much rarer disorder, variant adult visceral form of Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC). To verify the histopathological findings, SMPD1, NPC1 and NPC2 genes were analysed. Two novel sequence variants, c.1997G>A (S666N) and c.2882A>G (N961S) were detected in the NPC1 gene. No pathogenic sequence variants were found either in the SMPD1 gene mutated in NPB or in NPC2 gene. The pathogenicity of both NPC1 variants was supported by their location in regions important for the protein function. Both variations were not found in more than 300 control alleles. Identified sequence variations confirm the diagnosis of the extremely rare adult visceral form of Niemann-Pick disease type C, which is otherwise dominated by neurovisceral symptoms. Although only three patients have been reported, this (most probably underdiagnosed) form of NPC should be considered in differential diagnosis of isolated hepatosplenomegaly with foam cells in adulthood.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency, transmitted as an X-linked trait, is the most common disorder of the urea cycle. At least 3.5% out of more than 230 mutations consist of large gene deletions, involving one or more exons. Only in 78% of OTC patients the diagnosis was confirmed on DNA level. We analysed OTC intragenic polymorphisms and haplotypes, in an attempt to contribute to the clarification of unresolved cases, in three populations (Czech, Portuguese, and Mozambican) and identified six novel nucleotide changes, all of them occurring with frequency higher than 12.5% in Europeans. Five of these polymorphisms occur with a significant frequency also in Africans. The number and frequency of haplotypes defined with the newly reported markers differ in individual populations.