Makoto Hirano

National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (7)13.82 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recently studies have reported the possibility that an indigenous hepatitis E virus (HEV) exists in Japan, but the epidemiological features of HEV in Japan are inadequate to make a judgment. In order to search the present state of HEV infection in Japan, we used ELISA to test 1033 sera from residents living in Tokyo and the Tokyo suburbs, for the presence of the antibody against HEV. The positive rate of anti-HEV IgG was 15.4% in all liver disease patients (68 of 440), 3% (6/200) in healthy individuals and 0.4% in infants (1/246), respectively (P<0.01). Anti-HEV IgG was seen in 17.6% (35/199) of liver disease patients of unknown etiology; 29.4% (5/17) of fulminant hepatitis, 17% of acute hepatitis (15/88) and 16% of chronic hepatitis (15/94). Anti-HEV IgG co-existed with hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus in 23.6% (21/89) and 7.9% (12/152), respectively. Furthermore, the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was significantly higher in hemodialysis patients (18/60: 30%) and hospital workers (8/87: 9.2%) than in the healthy population (P<0.01). Anti-HEV IgM was detected in 0.1% of all samples tested (1/1033). The prevalence of anti-HEV IgG increased with age. No individuals with HEV antibody had a recent history of visiting countries where hepatitis E is endemic. These results indicate that generally 15.4% of Japanese patients with liver diseases had a history of HEV infection in the past. The routes of transmission of HEV require clarification in Japan.
    Hepatology Research 12/2003; 27(3):169-173. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sporadic cases of hepatitis E have been reported in industrialized countries, including Japan. The source of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in these patients is unknown, although zoonotic transmission has been suggested. To investigate whether or not rodents might be a reservoir of HEV, we conducted an epidemiological survey for the antibody to a recombinant capsid protein of HEV using serum samples from wild rodents in Japan. One hundred and fourteen of 362 (31.5%) Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) and 12 of 90 (13.3%) black rats (Rattus rattus) were positive for anti-HEV IgG. In contrast, all of the sera from 55 mice were negative for anti-HEV IgG. The rate of antibody positivity increased with weight among Norway rats. Seropositive rats were found in all five districts surveyed in this study, but the prevalence of anti-HEV IgG in wild rats differed among these prefectures. Despite the fact that Japan is a non-endemic country of hepatitis E, widespread infection of HEV was observed among wild rats in Japan. Our results suggested that HEV or a closely related virus is circulating among wild rats in Japan.
    Hepatology Research 10/2003; 27(1):1-5. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We screened 495 serum samples from 20 species of non-human primates for the antibody against hepatitis E virus (HEV). Anti-HEV IgG was detected in 84 of 232 (36.2%) Japanese monkeys, 2 of 19 (10.5%) cynomolgus monkeys, 3 of 83 (3.6%) rhesus monkeys, and 1 of 1 (100%) Taiwanese monkey, respectively. These results suggest that HEV is circulating among monkeys belonging to the genus macaca. A high prevalence of anti-HEV IgG was observed in Japanese macaques (M. fuscata) despite the fact that Japan is non-endemic for hepatitis E. It is possible that HEV can be transmitted from Japanese macaques to humans. Further, the rate of antibody positivity was found to increase with age in Japanese macaques. Seropositive macaques were found throughout Japan, but the seroprevalence rate differed among geographic regions.
    Japanese journal of infectious diseases 03/2003; 56(1):8-11. · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Materno-fetal transfer of intravenously administered liposome-plasmid DNA complexes has been demonstrated only in mice. Studies on its materno-fetal transfer in the pregnant monkey model is needed because of critical differences in placental structure between primates including humans and rodents. The reporter plasmid pEGFP-C1 was formulated in cationic lipid containing polybrene and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein. The fusogenic liposome-plasmid DNA complexes were intradermally injected into pregnant common marmosets (N=2), a New World monkey, near term. DNA extracted from fetal tissues was subjected to PCR for detection of the egfp gene. Confocal microscopy and immunostaining were performed to determine the sites of transgene expression in the fetal organs. The egfp gene was detected in fetal blood and major organs (heart, liver, lung). The encoded protein was mainly produced in the endothelial cells of blood vessels in the fetal lungs. This is the first report on materno-fetal transfer of intradermally administered fusogenic liposome-plasmid DNA complexes and fetal expression of a transgene in primates.
    The Journal of Gene Medicine 09/2002; 4(5):560-6. · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is desirable to prevent dissemination of B virus (BV) in macaque colonies because transmission of BV to humans causes deadly encephalomyelitis. Vaccination of monkeys is one method that could confine spread of BV within macaque colonies. Availability of a BV DNA vaccine for use in macaques would eliminate the risk of working with infectious BV. Toward this end, we constructed a plasmid expressing the BV glycoprotein D (gD). Immunogenicity of this construct as a DNA vaccine was assessed in adult Japanese macaques by four intracutaneous injections at a dose of 500 microg per head. Results of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) gD, a homologue of BV gD, showed that significant levels of antibody was induced in all vaccinated animals following each booster injection. Western blot of sera from vaccinated macaques confirmed the specific recognition of authentic BV gD. Immune sera were also demonstrated to contain neutralizing activity against infectious BV. Weak lymphoproliferative responses were also observed in vaccinated macaques using recombinant HSV1 gD as a stimulating antigen and flow cytometry analysis of one individual revealed the presence of HSV1 gD-responsive effector T cells. Thus, the BV gD DNA vaccine was demonstrated to induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in macaques which recognized BV gD.
    Vaccine 07/2002; 20(19-20):2523-32. · 3.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: By adding betaine to the PCR mixture, we previously established a PCR method to amplify a DNA segment of the glycoprotein G gene of B virus (BV) derived from a rhesus macaque. We have found that DNA of other BV strains derived from cynomolgus, pigtail, and lion-tailed macaques can also serve as the template in our PCR assay. Under the same conditions no product was obtained with DNA of simian agent 8 of green monkeys and Herpesvirus papio 2 of baboons, or the human herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2. Thus, this PCR method is useful to discriminate BV from other closely related primate alphaherpesviruses.
    Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology 06/2002; 9(3):716-9. · 2.51 Impact Factor
  • Nature Biotechnology - NAT BIOTECHNOL. 01/1999; 17:39-39.

Publication Stats

82 Citations
13.82 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2003
    • National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2002
    • Kyoto University
      • Primate Research Institute
      Kyoto, Kyoto-fu, Japan