[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although neurotrophins elicit both acute and long-term effects, it is unclear whether the two modes of action are mediated by the same or different mechanisms. Using neuromuscular junction (NMJ) as a model system, we identified three characteristic features required for long-term, but not acute, forms of synaptic modulation by neurotrophin-3 (NT-3): endocytosis of NT-3-receptor complex, activation of the PI3 kinase substrate Akt, and new protein synthesis. Long-term effects were eliminated when NT-3 was conjugated to a bead that was too large to be endocytosed or when dominant-negative dynamin was expressed in presynaptic neurons. Presynaptic inhibition of Akt also selectively prevented NT-3-mediated long-term effects. Blockade of protein translation by the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor rapamycin prevented the long-term structural and functional changes at the NMJ, without affecting the acute potentiation of synaptic transmission by NT-3. These results reveal fundamental differences between acute and long-term modulation by neurotrophins.
Journal of Neuroscience 01/2006; 25(50):11719-29. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the CNS, and it is removed from the synaptic cleft by sodium-dependent glutamate transport activity. Glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) is expressed predominantly in astroglial cells and is responsible for the largest proportion of glutamate transport in the adult forebrain. In the present study, we demonstrate the ability of endogenous and recombinant GLT-1 to form clusters in astrocytic processes and characterize the mobility and physiological importance of these clusters in the regulation of GLT-1 activity in the presence or absence of neurons. At the distal end of C6 glioma cell processes, GLT-1 clusters undergo rapid morphological changes in both shape and size, and these changes are inhibited by cytochalasin D treatment, suggesting that the morphogenesis of GLT-1 clusters is highly dependent on the actin network. Treatment of astrocytes with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) quickly and preferentially decreases GLT-1 localization on the process membrane, leading to de novo generation of GLT-1 clusters along the process shaft. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor bisindolylmaleimide II (Bis II), with sucrose (0.4 m), or through the expression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin prevents PMA-induced GLT-1 internalization and cluster formation. In terms of glutamate transporter function, PMA treatment elicits a significant decrease in GLT-1 activity that is prevented by preexposure to either Bis II or hypertonic treatment. Together, these data indicate that GLT-1 trafficking and cluster formation in glial cell processes are dynamic events that play important roles in regulating glutamate uptake in astrocytes and glioma cells.
Journal of Neuroscience 08/2004; 24(28):6301-6. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the interactions of PKCgamma with caveolin (Cav)-1 and connexin(Cx)43 in lipid rafts and its regulation of gap junctions.
N/N1003A lens epithelial cells, bovine primary lens epithelial cells, and stably transfected N/N1003A lens epithelial cells were used. Coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis were used to detect protein expression and their interactions. Cav-1-containing lipid rafts and redistribution of Cav-1, PKCgamma, and Cx43 were analyzed by sucrose gradients and by consequent Western blot analysis. Cell surface gap junction Cx43 plaques were detected by confocal microscopy. PKCgamma activity was measured with a PKC assay kit.
Cav-1 and -2 were found in N/N1003A and bovine primary lens epithelial cells. Cx43 was associated with Cav-1 in lipid rafts. Phorbol ester (TPA) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 recruited PKCgamma into Cav-1-containing lipid rafts and stimulated the interactions of PKCgamma with Cav-1 and Cx43. TPA and IGF-1 induced redistribution of Cav-1 and Cx43 from light-density fractions to higher density fractions on sucrose gradients. PKCgamma redistributed with Cav-1- and Cx43-containing fractions on stimulation with TPA or IGF-1. Overexpression of PKCgamma-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) increased the interaction of PKCgamma-EGFP with Cav-1 and Cx43 and decreased gap junction Cx43 plaques without exogenous growth factors. Overexpression of a loss-of-function PKCgamma mutant did not decrease gap junction Cx43 plaques or cause redistribution in lipid rafts, even though the PKCgamma mutant still interacted with Cav-1 and Cx43.
Activation of PKCgamma by TPA or IGF-1 stimulated the interaction of PKCgamma with Cav-1 and Cx43 in lipid rafts, causing Cx43, Cav-1, and PKCgamma to redistribute within the lipid rafts, and this resulted in a decrease in gap junction plaques.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (12(S)HETE) is a bioactive metabolite of arachidonic acid synthesized by 12-lipoxygenase. The 12-lipoxygenase blocker, baicalein, prevents epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of protein kinase C (PKC) alpha and beta in lens epithelial cells, whereas supplementation with 12(S)HETE reverses this effect, suggesting that EGF and 12(S)HETE may work together to activate PKC. This study investigates the mechanism of PKCbeta activation by EGF and 12(S)HETE. 12(S)HETE alone directed translocation of PKCbeta through the C1 rather than the C2 domain, without activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or MAPK signaling or increasing intracellular calcium concentration. In the presence of baicalein, EGF triggered an asymmetric phosphorylation of the EGF receptor initiating signaling through PI3K and MAPK, but not PLCgamma. Together, 12(S)HETE and EGF synergistically increased phosphorylation of PKCbeta in the activation loop and C terminus as well as PKCbeta-specific activity. PI3K inhibitors blocked phosphorylation, but MEK1 inhibitors did not. Microvesicles containing phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate mimicked the action of EGF on PKCbeta activity in the presence of 12(S)HETE. Kinase-inactive PKCbeta mutations in either activation loop or C terminus were effectively translocated by 12(S)HETE, as was PKCbeta in the presence of chelerythrine or Gö-6983. These findings indicate that unphosphorylated PKCbeta is translocated to the membrane by 12(S)HETE and phosphorylated by EGF-dependent PI3K signaling, to generate catalytically competent PKCbeta.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/2003; 278(7):5388-98. · 4.65 Impact Factor