Nolan R. Walborn

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland, United States

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Publications (262)736.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Extremely broad emission wings at H$\beta$ and H$\alpha$ have been found in VFTS data for five very luminous BA supergiants in or near 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The profiles of both lines are extremely asymmetrical, which we have found to be caused by very broad diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) in the longward wing of H$\beta$ and the shortward wing of H$\alpha$. These DIBs are well known to interstellar but not to many stellar specialists, so that the asymmetries may be mistaken for intrinsic features. The broad emission wings are generally ascribed to electron scattering, although we note difficulties for that interpretation in some objects. Such profiles are known in some Galactic hyper/supergiants and are also seen in both active and quiescent Luminous Blue Variables. No prior or current LBV activity is known in these 30 Dor stars, although a generic relationship to LBVs is not excluded; subject to further observational and theoretical investigation, it is possible that these very luminous supergiants are approaching the LBV stage for the first time. Their locations in the HRD and presumed evolutionary tracks are consistent with that possibility. The available evidence for spectroscopic variations of these objects is reviewed, while recent photometric monitoring does not reveal variability. A search for circumstellar nebulae has been conducted, with an indeterminate result for one of them.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2015; 809(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/809/2/109 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Optical spectroscopic monitoring has been conducted of two O stars in the Small and one in the Large Magellanic Cloud, the spectral characteristics of which place them in the Of?p category, which has been established in the Galaxy to consist of oblique magnetic rotators. All of these Magellanic stars show systematic spectral variations typical of the Of?p class, further strengthening their magnetic candidacy to the point of virtual certainty. The spectral variations are related to photometric variations derived from OGLE data by Naze et al. (2015) in a parallel study, which yields rotational periods for two of them. Now circular spectropolarimetry is required to measure their fields, and ultraviolet spectroscopy to further characterize their low-metallicity, magnetically confined winds, in support of hydrodynamical analyses.
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    ABSTRACT: The Of?p star CPD -28 2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55% with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73d rotational period of CPD -28 2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the CIV and NV lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere).
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    ABSTRACT: Context: It appears that most (if not all) massive stars are born in multiple systems. At the same time, the most massive binaries are hard to find due to their low numbers throughout the Galaxy and the implied large distances and extinctions. AIMS: We want to study: [a] LS III +46 11, identified in this paper as a very massive binary; [b] another nearby massive system, LS III +46 12; and [c] the surrounding stellar cluster, Berkeley 90. Methods: Most of the data used in this paper are multi-epoch high-S/N optical spectra though we also use Lucky Imaging and archival photometry. The spectra are reduced with devoted pipelines and processed with our own software, such as a spectroscopic-orbit code, CHORIZOS, and MGB. Results: LS III +46 11 is identified as a new very-early-O-type spectroscopic binary [O3.5 If* + O3.5 If*] and LS III +46 12 as another early O-type system [O4.5 V((f))]. We measure a 97.2-day period for LS III +46 12 and derive minimum masses of 38.80$\pm$0.83 M_Sol and 35.60$\pm$0.77 M_Sol for its two stars. We measure the extinction to both stars, estimate the distance, search for optical companions, and study the surrounding cluster. In doing so, a variable extinction is found as well as discrepant results for the distance. We discuss possible explanations and suggest that LS III +46 12 may be a hidden binary system, where the companion is currently undetected.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526123 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massive stars burn hydrogen through the CNO cycle during most of their evolution. When mixing is efficient, or when mass transfer in binary systems happens, chemically processed material is observed at the surface of O and B stars. ON stars show stronger lines of nitrogen than morphologically normal counterparts. Whether this corresponds to the presence of material processed through the CNO cycle or not is not known. Our goal is to answer this question. We perform a spectroscopic analysis of a sample of ON stars with atmosphere models. We determine the fundamental parameters as well as the He, C, N, and O surface abundances. We also measure the projected rotational velocities. We compare the properties of the ON stars to those of normal O stars. We show that ON stars are usually helium-rich. Their CNO surface abundances are fully consistent with predictions of nucleosynthesis. ON stars are more chemically evolved and rotate - on average - faster than normal O stars. Evolutionary models including rotation cannot account for the extreme enrichment observed among ON main sequence stars. Some ON stars are members of binary systems, but others are single stars as indicated by stable radial velocities. Hence, mass transfer is not a simple explanation for the observed chemical properties. We conclude that ON stars show extreme chemical enrichment at their surface, consistent with nucleosynthesis through the CNO cycle. Its origin is not clear at present.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 04/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201526130 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Galactic stars belonging to the Of?p category are all strongly magnetic objects exhibiting rotationally modulated spectral and photometric changes on timescales of weeks to years. Five candidate Of?p stars in the Magellanic Clouds have been discovered, notably in the context of ongoing surveys of their massive star populations. Here we describe an investigation of their photometric behaviour, revealing significant variability in all studied objects on timescales of one week to more than four years, including clearly periodic variations for three of them. Their spectral characteristics along with these photometric changes provide further support for the hypothesis that these are strongly magnetized O stars, analogous to the Of?p stars in the Galaxy.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2015; 577. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201525875 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The stellar population of the 30 Doradus star-forming region in the Large Magellanic Cloud contains a subset of apparently single, rapidly rotating O-type stars. The physical processes leading to the formation of this cohort are currently uncertain. One member of this group, the late O-type star VFTS 399, is found to be unexpectedly X-ray bright for its bolometric luminosity - in this study we aim to determine its physical nature and the cause of this behaviour. We find VFTS 399 to be an aperiodic photometric variable with an apparent near-IR excess. Its optical spectrum demonstrates complex emission profiles in the lower Balmer series and select HeI lines - taken together these suggest an OeBe classification. The highly variable X-ray luminosity is too great to be produced by a single star, while the hard, non-thermal nature suggests the presence of an accreting relativistic companion. Finally, the detection of periodic modulation of the X-ray lightcurve is most naturally explained under the assumption that the accretor is a neutron star. VFTS 399 appears to be the first high-mass X-ray binary identified within 30 Dor. Comparison of the current properties of VFTS 399 to binary-evolution models suggests a progenitor mass in excess of 25Msun for the putative neutron star, which may host a magnetic field comparable in strength to those of magnetars. VFTS 399 is now the second member of the cohort of rapidly rotating `single' O-type stars in 30 Dor to show evidence of binary interaction resulting in spin-up, suggesting that this may be a viable evolutionary pathway for the formation of a subset of this stellar population.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 03/2015; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424427 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report magnetic and spectroscopic observations and modeling of the Of?p star CPD -28 2561. Using more than 75 new spectra, we have measured the equivalent width variations and examined the dynamic spectra of photospheric and wind-sensitive spectral lines. A period search results in an unambiguous 73.41 d variability period. High resolution spectropolarimetric data analyzed using Least-Squares Deconvolution yield a Zeeman signature detected in the mean Stokes V profile corresponding to phase 0.5 of the spectral ephemeris. Interpreting the 73.41 d period as the stellar rotational period, we have phased the equivalent widths and inferred longitudinal field measurements. The phased magnetic data exhibit a weak sinusoidal variation, with maximum of about 565 G at phase 0.5, and a minimum of about -335 G at phase 0.0, with extrema approximately in phase with the (double-wave) Halpha equivalent width variation. Modeling of the Halpha equivalent width variation assuming a quasi-3D magnetospheric model produces a unique solution for the ambiguous couplet of inclination and magnetic obliquity angles: (i, beta) or (beta, i)=(35 deg,90 deg). Adopting either geometry, the longitudinal field variation yields a dipole polar intensity Bd=2.6\pm 0.9~kG, consistent with that obtained from direct modelling of the Stokes V profiles. We derive a wind magnetic confinement parameter eta*\simeq 100, leading to an Alfv\'en radius RA\simeq 3-5~R*, and a Kepler radius RK\simeq 20~R*. This supports a physical scenario in which the Halpha emission and other line variability have their origin in an oblique, co-rotating 'dynamical magnetosphere' structure resulting from a magnetically channeled wind. Nevertheless, the details of the formation of spectral lines and their variability within this framework remain generally poorly understood.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 03/2015; 447(3):2551-2567. DOI:10.1093/mnras/stu2548 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectral classifications for 438 B-type stars observed as part of the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey (VFTS) in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud. Radial velocities are provided for 307 apparently single stars, and for 99 targets with radial-velocity variations which are consistent with them being spectroscopic binaries. We investigate the spatial distribution of the radial velocities across the 30 Dor region, and use the results to identify candidate runaway stars. Excluding potential runaways and members of two older clusters in the survey region (SL 639 and Hodge 301), we determine a systemic velocity for 30 Dor of 271.6 +/- 12.2 km/s from 273 presumed single stars. Employing a 3-sigma criterion we identify nine candidate runaway stars (2.9% of the single stars with radial-velocity estimates). The projected rotational velocities of the candidate runaways appear to be significantly different to those of the full B-type sample, with a strong preference for either large (>345 km/s) or small (<65 km/s) rotational velocities. Of the candidate runaways, VFTS 358 (classified B0.5: V) has the largest differential radial velocity (-106.9 +/- 16.2 km/s), and a preliminary atmospheric analysis finds a significantly enriched nitrogen abundance of 12+log(N/H) > ~8.5. Combined with a large rotational velocity (vsini = 345 +/- 22 km/s), this is suggestive of past binary interaction for this star.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2015; 574. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201424414 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.
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    ABSTRACT: TLUSTY non-LTE model atmosphere calculations have been used to determine atmospheric parameters and nitrogen (N) abundances for 34 single and 18 binary B-type supergiants (BSGs). The effects of flux contribution from an unseen secondary were considered for the binary sample. We present the first systematic study of the incidence of binarity for a sample of BSGs across the theoretical terminal age main sequence (TAMS). To account for the distribution of effective temperatures of the BSGs it may be necessary to extend the TAMS to lower temperatures. This is consistent with the derived distribution of mass discrepancies, projected rotational velocities (vsini) and N abundances, provided that stars cooler than this temperature are post RSG objects. For the BSGs in the Tarantula and previous FLAMES surveys, most have small vsini. About 10% have larger vsini (>100 km/s) but surprisingly these show little or no N enhancement. All the cooler BSGs have low vsini of <70km/s and high N abundance estimates, implying that either bi-stability braking or evolution on a blue loop may be important. A lack of cool binaries, possibly reflects the small sample size. Single star evolutionary models, which include rotation, can account for the N enhancement in both the single and binary samples. The detailed distribution of N abundances in the single and binary samples may be different, possibly reflecting differences in their evolutionary history. The first comparative study of single and binary BSGs has revealed that the main sequence may be significantly wider than previously assumed, extending to Teff=20000K. Some marginal differences in single and binary atmospheric parameters and abundances have been identified, possibly implying non-standard evolution for some of the sample. This sample as a whole has implications for several aspects of our understanding of the evolution of BSGs. Full abstract in paper
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    ABSTRACT: In this poster we present three developments related to the Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS). First, we are making public the first version of MGB, an IDL code that allows the user to compare oberved spectra to a grid of spectroscopic standards to measure spectral types, luminosity classes, rotation indexes, and spectral qualifiers. Second, we present the associated grid of standard stars for the spectral types O2 to O9.7, with several improvements over the original GOSSS grid of Sota et al. (2011). Third, we present a list of egregious classification errors in SIMBAD: stars that are or have been listed there as being of O type but that in reality are late-type stars.
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    ABSTRACT: Determining the distance to the open cluster M29 (NGC 6913) has proven difficult, with distances determined by various authors differing by a factor of two or more. To solve this problem, we have initiated a new photometric investigation of the cluster in the Vilnius seven-color photometric system supplementing it with available data in the BV and JHK_s photometric systems, and spectra of the nine brightest stars of spectral classes O and B. Photometric spectral classes and luminosities of 260 stars in a 15 arcmin x 15 arcmin area down to V = 19 mag are used to investigate the interstellar extinction run with distance and to estimate the distance of the Great Cygnus Rift, 800 pc. The interstellar reddening law in the optical and near-infrared regions is found to be close to normal, with the ratio of extinction to color excess R(BV) = 2.87. The extinction A(V) of cluster members is between 2.5 to 3.8 mag, with a mean value of 2.97 mag or E(B-V) = 1.03. The average distance of eight stars of spectral types O9-B2 is 1.54 +- 0.15 kpc. Two stars from the seven brightest ones are field stars: HDE 229238 is a background B0.5 supergiant and HD 194378 is a foreground F star. In the intrinsic color-magnitude diagram, seven fainter stars of spectral classes B3-B8 are identified as possible members of the cluster. The 15 selected members of the cluster of spectral classes O9--B8 plotted on the log L/L(sun) vs. log T(eff) diagram, together with the isochrones from the Padova database, give the age of the cluster as 5 +- 1 Myr.
    The Astronomical Journal 07/2014; 148(5). DOI:10.1088/0004-6256/148/5/89 · 4.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution and fate of very massive stars (VMS) is tightly connected to their mass-loss properties. Their initial and final masses differ significantly as a result of mass loss. VMS have strong stellar winds and extremely high ionising fluxes, which are thought to be critical sources of both mechanical and radiative feedback in giant Hii regions. However, how VMS mass-loss properties change during stellar evolution is poorly understood. In the framework of the VLT-Flames Tarantula Survey (VFTS), we explore the mass-loss transition region from optically thin O to denser WNh star winds, thereby testing theoretical predictions. To this purpose we select 62 O, Of, Of/WN, and WNh stars, an unprecedented sample of stars with the highest masses and luminosities known. We perform a spectral analysis of optical VFTS as well as near-infrared VLT/SINFONI data using the non-LTE radiative transfer code CMFGEN to obtain stellar and wind parameters. For the first time, we observationally resolve the transition between optically thin O and optically thick WNh star winds. Our results suggest the existence of a kink between both mass-loss regimes, in agreement with recent MC simulations. For the optically thick regime, we confirm the steep dependence on the Eddington factor from previous theoretical and observational studies. The transition occurs on the MS near a luminosity of 10^6.1Lsun, or a mass of 80...90Msun. Above this limit, we find that - even when accounting for moderate wind clumping (with f = 0.1) - wind mass-loss rates are enhanced with respect to standard prescriptions currently adopted in stellar evolution calculations. We also show that this results in substantial helium surface enrichment. Based on our spectroscopic analyses, we are able to provide the most accurate ionising fluxes for VMS known to date, confirming the pivotal role of VMS in ionising and shaping their environments.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2014; 570. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423643 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present follow-up optical imaging and spectroscopy of one of the light echoes of $\eta$ Carinae's 19th-century Great Eruption discovered by Rest et al. (2012). By obtaining images and spectra at the same light echo position between 2011 and 2014, we follow the evolution of the Great Eruption on a three-year timescale. We find remarkable changes in the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the echo light. The $i$-band light curve shows a decline of $\sim 0.9$ mag in $\sim 1$ year after the peak observed in early 2011 and a flattening at later times. The spectra show a pure-absorption early G-type stellar spectrum at peak, but a few months after peak the lines of the [Ca II] triplet develop strong P-Cygni profiles and we see the appearance of [Ca II] 7291,7324 doublet in emission. These emission features and their evolution in time resemble the spectra of some Type IIn supernovae and supernova impostors. Most surprisingly, starting $\sim 300$ days after peak brightness, the spectra show strong molecular transitions of CN at $\gtrsim 6800$ \AA. The appearance of these CN features can be explained if the ejecta are strongly Nitrogen enhanced, as it is observed in modern spectroscopic studies of the bipolar Homunculus nebula. Given the spectroscopic evolution of the light echo, velocities of the main features, and detection of strong CN, we are likely seeing ejecta that contributes directly to the Homunculus nebula.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 03/2014; 787(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/787/1/L8 · 5.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ~ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of delta = -20 degrees, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M_Sol are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2014; 211(1):10-93. DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/211/1/10 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Detailed spectral classifications are presented for 352 O-B0 stars in the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey, of which 213 O-type are of sufficient quality for further morphological analysis. Among them, six subcategories of special interest are distinguished. (1) Several new examples of the earliest spectral types O2-O3 have been found. (2) A group of extremely rapidly rotating main-sequence objects has been isolated, including the largest $v\sin i$ values known, the spatial and radial-velocity distributions of which suggest ejection from the two principal ionizing clusters. (3) Several new examples of the evolved, rapidly rotating Onfp class show similar evidence. (4) No fewer than 48 members of the Vz category, hypothesized to be on or near the ZAMS, are found in this sample; in contrast to the rapid rotators, they are strongly concentrated to the ionizing clusters, supporting their interpretation as very young objects, as do their relatively faint absolute magnitudes. (5) A surprisingly large fraction of the main-sequence spectra belong to the recently recognized V((fc)) class, with C III emission lines of similar strength to the usual N III in V((f)) spectra; there are also six objects with very high-quality data but no trace of either mission feature, presenting new challenges to physical interpretations. (6) Five spectra with morphologically enhanced nitrogen lines have been detected. Absolute visual magnitudes have been derived for each star with individual extinction laws, and composite HRDs provide evidence of the multiple generations present in this field. Associations with X-ray sources are noted. Further analyses of this unique dataset underway will provide new insights into the evolution of massive stars and starburst clusters.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; 564. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201323082 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Context: The commonly used extinction laws of Cardelli et al. (1989) have limitations that, among other issues, hamper the determination of the effective temperatures of O and early B stars from optical+NIR photometry. Aims: We aim to develop a new family of extinction laws for 30 Doradus, check their general applicability within that region and elsewhere, and apply them to test the feasibility of using optical+NIR photometry to determine the effective temperature of OB stars. Methods: We use spectroscopy and NIR photometry from the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey and optical photometry from HST/WFC3 of 30 Doradus and we analyze them with the software code CHORIZOS using different assumptions such as the family of extinction laws. Results: We derive a new family of optical+NIR extinction laws for 30 Doradus and confirm its applicability to extinguished Galactic O-type systems. We conclude that by using the new extinction laws it is possible to measure the effective temperatures of OB stars with moderate uncertainties and only a small bias, at least up to E(4405-5495) ~ 1.5 mag.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 02/2014; DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201423439 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analyze spatially resolved, long-slit ultraviolet (UV) and optical stellar spectra of the compact starburst cluster R136 at the core of 30 Doradus. R136 is young and massive, making it an ideal place to study the upper end of the initial mass function. These spectra, taken with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, cover over 100 stars in the inner 4 arcseconds (1 parsec) of R136, a region which cannot be resolved with ground-based spectroscopy. In this poster we present both the UV and optical of over 20 of the brightest stars in R136, extracted with MULTISPEC, a tool written specifically for multiple objects in crowded fields. For each star we present an optical spectral type and a terminal wind velocity derived from the UV data
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS. We test the hypothesis of O Vz stars (characterized by having HeII4686 stronger in absorption than other He lines in their blue-violet spectra) being at a younger evolutionary stage than are normal O-type dwarfs. METHODS. We have performed a quantitative spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 38 O Vz and 46 O V stars, identified by the VLT-FLAMES Tarantula Survey in the 30 Doradus region of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We obtained the stellar and wind parameters of both samples using the FASTWIND stellar atmosphere code and the IACOB-GBAT grid-based automatic tool. In the framework of a differential study, we compared the physical and evolutionary properties of both samples, regarding Teff, logg, logQ and logL. We also investigated the predictions of the FASTWIND code about the O Vz phenomenon. RESULTS. We find a differential distribution of objects in terms of effective temperature, with O Vz stars dominant at intermediate values. The O Vz stars in 30 Doradus tend to be younger and less luminous, and they have weaker winds than the O V stars, but we also find examples with ages of 2-4 Myr and with luminosities and winds that are similar to those of normal O dwarfs. Moreover, the O Vz stars do not appear to have higher gravities than the O V stars. In addition to effective temperature and wind strength, our FASTWIND predictions indicate how important it is to take other stellar parameters (gravity and projected rotational velocity) into account for correctly interpreting the O Vz phenomenon. CONCLUSIONS. In general, the O Vz stars appear to be on or very close to the ZAMS, but there are some examples where the Vz classification does not necessarily imply extreme youth. In particular, the presence of O Vz stars in our sample at more evolved phases than expected is likely a consequence of modest O-star winds owing to the low-metallicity environment of the LMC.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 12/2013; 564. DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/201322798 · 4.48 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
736.88 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1987–2015
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2012
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Leeds
      • School of Physics and Astronomy
      Leeds, England, United Kingdom
    • Université du Québec à Montréal
      • Department of Music
      Montréal, Quebec, Canada
  • 2010
    • The Royal Observatory, Edinburgh
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 1995
    • NASA
      • Goddard Space Flight Centre
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States