Beth A. Biller

The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom

Are you Beth A. Biller?

Claim your profile

Publications (67)237.56 Total impact

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of a faint pointlike feature possibly related to ongoing planet-formation in the disk of the transition disk star HD 169142. The pointlike feature has a $\Delta$mag(L)$\sim$6.4, at a separation of $\sim$0.11" and PA$\sim$0$^{\circ}$. Given its lack of an H or K$_{S}$ counterpart despite its relative brightness, this candidate cannot be explained by purely photospheric emission and must be a disk feature heated by an as yet unknown source. Its extremely red colors make it highly unlikely to be a background object, but future multi-wavelength followup is necessary for confirmation and characterization of this feature.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2014; 792(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In Spring 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its $\sim$130-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) atop Mt Graham, Arizona. This survey benefits from the many technological achievements of the LBT, including two 8.4-meter mirrors on a single fixed mount, dual adaptive secondary mirrors for high Strehl performance, and a cold beam combiner to dramatically reduce the telescope's overall background emissivity. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars at L' (3.8 $\mu$m), as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.4 $\mu$m) of other surveys. This portion of the spectrum offers deep mass sensitivity, especially around nearby adolescent ($\sim$0.1-1 Gyr) stars. LEECH's contrast is competitive with other extreme adaptive optics systems, while providing an alternative survey strategy. Additionally, LEECH is characterizing known exoplanetary systems with observations from 3-5$\mu$m in preparation for JWST.
    07/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In anticipation of the VLT/SPHERE planet imager guaranteed time programs, we have conducted a preparatory survey of 86 stars between 2009 and 2013 in order to identify new faint comoving companions to ultimately carry out a comprehensive analysis of the occurence of giant planets and brown dwarf companions at wide (10-2000 AU) orbits around young, solar-type stars. We used NaCo at VLT to explore the occurrence rate of giant planets and brown dwarfs between typically 0.1 and 8''. Diffraction-limited observations in H-band combined with angular differential imaging enabled us to reach primary star-companion brightness ratios as small as 10-6 at 1.5''. 12 systems were resolved as new binaries, including the discovery of a new white dwarf companion to the star HD8049. Around 34 stars, at least one companion candidate was detected in the observed field of view. More than 400 faint sources were detected, 90% of them in 4 crowded fields. With the exception of HD8049B, we did not identify any new comoving companions. The survey also led to spatially resolved images of the thin debris disk around HD\,61005 that have been published earlier. Finally, considering the survey detection limits, we derive a preliminary upper limit on the frequency of giant planets for semi-major axes of [10,2000] AU: typically less than 15% between 100 and 500 AU, and less than 10% between 50 and 500 AU for exoplanets more massive than 5 MJup and 10 MJup respectively, considering a uniform input distribution and with a confidence level of 95%.
    05/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present J, H, CH_4 short (1.578 micron), CH_4 long (1.652 micron) and K_s-band images of the dust ring around the 10 Myr old star HR 4796 A obtained using the Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager (NICI) on the Gemini-South 8.1 meter Telescope. Our images clearly show for the first time the position of the star relative to its circumstellar ring thanks to NICI's translucent focal plane occulting mask. We employ a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the offset vector between the two. The resulting probability distribution shows that the ring center is offset from the star by 16.7+/-1.3 milliarcseconds along a position angle of 26+/-3 degrees, along the PA of the ring, 26.47+/-0.04 degrees. We find that the size of this offset is not large enough to explain the brightness asymmetry of the ring. The ring is measured to have mostly red reflectivity across the JHK_s filters, which seems to indicate micron-sized grains. Just like Neptune's 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances delineate the inner and outer edges of the classical Kuiper Belt, we find that the radial extent of the HR 4796 A and Fomalhaut rings could correspond to the 3:2 and 2:1 mean-motion resonances of hypothetical planets at 54.7 AU and 97.7 AU in the two systems, respectively. A planet orbiting HR 4796 A at 54.7 AU would have to be less massive than 1.6 Mjup so as not to widen the ring too much by stirring.
    04/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present new astrometry for the young (12-21 Myr) exoplanet beta Pictoris b taken with the Gemini/NICI, Magellan/MagAO+Clio2, and Magellan/MagAO+VisAO instruments between 2009 and 2012. The high dynamic range of our observations allows us to measure the relative position of beta Pic b with respect to its primary star with greater accuracy than previous observations. Based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, we find the planet has an orbital semi-major axis of 9.2 [+8.3, -0.5] AU and orbital eccentricity <0.15 at 68% confidence (with 95% confidence intervals of 8.2-72.3 AU and 0.00-0.88 for semi-major axis and eccentricity, respectively). We find that the planet has reached its maximum projected elongation, enabling higher precision determination of the orbital parameters than previously possible, and that the planet's projected separation is currently decreasing. With unsaturated data of the entire beta Pic system (primary star, planet, and disk) obtained thanks to NICI's semi-transparent focal plane mask, we are able to tightly constrain the relative orientation of the circumstellar components. We find the orbital plane of the planet lies between the inner and outer disks but closer to the inner (warped) disk: the position angle (PA) of nodes (211.8 +/- 0.3 degrees) is 6-sigma greater than the PA of the spine of the outer disk and 1.8-sigma less than the warped inner disk PA. Finally, for the first time we are able to dynamically constrain the mass of the primary star beta Pic to 1.7 +/- 0.3 M_sun.
    03/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the first ground-based CCD ($\lambda < 1\mu$m) image of an extrasolar planet. Using MagAO's VisAO camera we detected the extrasolar giant planet (EGP) $\beta$ Pictoris b in $Y$-short ($Y_S$, 0.985 $\mu$m), at a separation of $0.470 \pm 0.010''$ and a contrast of $(1.63 \pm 0.49) \times 10^{-5}$. This detection has a signal-to-noise ratio of 4.1, with an empirically estimated upper-limit on false alarm probability of 1.0%. We also present new photometry from the NICI instrument on the Gemini-South telescope, in $CH_{4S,1\%}$ ($1.58$ $\mu m$), $K_S$ ($2.18\mu m$), and $K_{cont}$ (2.27 $\mu m$). A thorough analysis of our photometry combined with previous measurements yields an estimated near-IR spectral type of L$2.5\pm1.5$, consistent with previous estimates. We estimate log$(L_{bol}/L_{Sun})$ = $-3.86 \pm 0.04$, which is consistent with prior estimates for $\beta$ Pic b and with field early-L brown dwarfs. This yields a hot-start mass estimate of $11.9 \pm 0.7$ $M_{Jup}$ for an age of $21\pm4$ Myr, with an upper limit below the deuterium burning mass. Our $L_{bol}$ based hot-start estimate for temperature is $T_{eff}=1643\pm32$ K (not including model dependent uncertainty). Due to the large corresponding model-derived radius of $R=1.43\pm0.02$ $R_{Jup}$, this $T_{eff}$ is $\sim$$250$ K cooler than would be expected for a field L2.5 brown dwarf. Other young, low-gravity (large radius), ultracool dwarfs and directly-imaged EGPs also have lower effective temperatures than are implied by their spectral types. However, such objects tend to be anomalously red in the near-IR compared to field brown dwarfs. In contrast, $\beta$ Pic b has near-IR colors more typical of an early-L dwarf despite its lower inferred temperature.
    03/2014; 786(1).
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Brown dwarfs--substellar bodies more massive than planets but not massive enough to initiate the sustained hydrogen fusion that powers self-luminous stars--are born hot and slowly cool as they age. As they cool below about 2,300 kelvin, liquid or crystalline particles composed of calcium aluminates, silicates and iron condense into atmospheric 'dust', which disappears at still cooler temperatures (around 1,300 kelvin). Models to explain this dust dispersal include both an abrupt sinking of the entire cloud deck into the deep, unobservable atmosphere and breakup of the cloud into scattered patches (as seen on Jupiter and Saturn). However, hitherto observations of brown dwarfs have been limited to globally integrated measurements, which can reveal surface inhomogeneities but cannot unambiguously resolve surface features. Here we report a two-dimensional map of a brown dwarf's surface that allows identification of large-scale bright and dark features, indicative of patchy clouds. Monitoring suggests that the characteristic timescale for the evolution of global weather patterns is approximately one day.
    Nature 01/2014; 505(7485):654-6. · 38.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the confirmation of the binary nature of the nearby, very low-mass system NLTT 33370 with adaptive optics imaging and present resolved near-infrared photometry and integrated light optical and near-infrared spectroscopy to characterize the system. VLT-NaCo and LBTI-LMIRCam images show significant orbital motion between 2013 February and 2013 April. Optical spectra reveal weak, gravity sensitive alkali lines and strong lithium 6708 Angstrom absorption that indicate the system is younger than field age. VLT-SINFONI near-IR spectra also show weak, gravity sensitive features and spectral morphology that is consistent with other young, very low-mass dwarfs. We combine the constraints from all age diagnostics to estimate a system age of ~30-200 Myr. The 1.2-4.7 micron spectral energy distribution of the components point toward T_eff=3200 +/- 500 K and T_eff=3100 +/- 500 K for NLTT 33370 A and B, respectively. The observed spectra, derived temperatures, and estimated age combine to constrain the component spectral types to the range M6-M8. Evolutionary models predict masses of 113 +/- 8 M_Jup and 106 +/- 7 M_Jup from the estimated luminosities of the components. KPNO-Phoenix spectra allow us to estimate the systemic radial velocity of the binary. The Galactic kinematics of NLTT 33370AB are broadly consistent with other young stars in the Solar neighborhood. However, definitive membership in a young, kinematic group cannot be assigned at this time and further follow-up observations are necessary to fully constrain the system's kinematics. The proximity, age, and late-spectral type of this binary make it very novel and an ideal target for rapid, complete orbit determination. The system is one of only a few model calibration benchmarks at young ages and very low-masses.
    01/2014; 783(1).
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH nearly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1-2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.
    01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Clouds play an important role in shaping the thermal emission of cool substellar objects, including extrasolar planets and brown dwarfs. These bodies presumably host a complex combination of condensation chemistry and strong three-dimensional atmospheric circulation, but characterization of these objects' dynamic atmospheres has so far been largely limited to measurements of globally averaged thermal emission. We present the first two-dimensional map of any brown dwarf obtained using high-resolution VLT/CRIRES Doppler Imaging. Our map allows unambiguous identification of large-scale surface features. Geographic localization of such features provides the best constraints yet on brown dwarf global atmospheric circulation and represents a major step toward understanding the complex processes governing the atmospheres of cool substellar objects.
    01/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have carried out high contrast imaging of 70 young, nearby B and A stars to search for brown dwarf and planetary companions as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Our survey represents the largest, deepest survey for planets around high-mass stars (~1.5-2.5 M⊙) conducted to date and includes the planet hosts β Pic and Fomalhaut. Despite detecting two new brown dwarfs, our observations did not detect new planets around our target stars, and we present upper limits on the fraction of high-mass stars that can host giant planets that are consistent with our null result.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present two epochs of MPG/ESO 2.2m GROND simultaneous 6-band ($r'i'z'JHK$) photometric monitoring of the closest known L/T transition brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB. We report here the first resolved variability monitoring of both the T0.5 and L7.5 components. We obtained 4 hours of focused observations on the night of UT 2013-04-22, as well as 4 hours of defocused (unresolved) observations on the night of UT 2013-04-16. We note a number of robust trends in our light curves. The $r'$ and $i'$ light curves appear to be anticorrelated with $z'$ and $H$ for the T0.5 component and in the unresolved lightcurve. In the defocused dataset, $J$ appears correlated with $z'$ and $H$ and anticorrelated with $r'$ and $i'$, while in the focused dataset we measure no variability for $J$ at the level of our photometric precision, likely due to evolving weather phenomena. In our focused T0.5 component lightcurve, the $K$ band lightcurve displays a significant phase offset relative to both $H$ and $z'$. We argue that the measured phase offsets are correlated with atmospheric pressure probed at each band, as estimated from 1D atmospheric models. We also report low-amplitude variability in $i'$ and $z'$ intrinsic to the L7.5 component.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 778(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present the high-contrast image processing techniques used by the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign to detect faint companions to bright stars. NICI (Near Infrared Coronagraphic Imager) is an adaptive optics instrument installed on the 8-m Gemini South telescope, capable of angular and spectral difference imaging and specifically designed to image exoplanets. The Campaign data pipeline achieves median contrasts of 12.6 magnitudes at 0.5" and 14.4 magnitudes at 1" separation, for a sample of 45 stars (V= 4.3-13.9 mag) from the early phase of the Campaign. We also present a novel approach to calculating contrast curves for companion detection based on 95% completeness in the recovery of artificial companions injected into the raw data, while accounting for the false-positive rate. We use this technique to select the image processing algorithms that are more successful at recovering faint simulated point sources. We compare our pipeline to the performance of the LOCI algorithm for NICI data and do not find significant improvement with LOCI.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Variability attributed to cloud structure already appears to be a persistent feature for L and T type field brown dwarfs. Directly imaged planets occupy the same temperature regime as L and T type brown dwarfs and are likely to be equally variable. We propose mid-IR variability monitoring for the young free-floating planet CFHTWIR-Oph33 (<0.5 Myr, ~6 MJup). Such variability is predicted due to rotationally-modulated cloud features. These observations will probe weather conditions on a directly imaged exoplanet for the first time, providing benchmark data for ongoing development of multidimensional cloud modeling approaches. These variability monitoring observations are only possible with Spitzer and are a pilot study for future variability monitoring with JWST-MIRI of directly imaged exoplanets around young stars.
    Spitzer Proposal. 10/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report results of a direct imaging survey for giant planets around 80 members of the Beta Pic, TW Hya, Tucana-Horologium, AB Dor, and Hercules-Lyra moving groups, observed as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. For this sample, we obtained median contrasts of \Delta H=13.9 mag at 1" in combined CH4 narrowband ADI+SDI mode and median contrasts of \Delta H=15.1 mag at 2" in H-band ADI mode. We found numerous (>70) candidate companions in our survey images. Some of these candidates were rejected as common-proper motion companions using archival data; we reobserved with NICI all other candidates that lay within 400 AU of the star and were not in dense stellar fields. The vast majority of candidate companions were confirmed as background objects from archival observations and/or dedicated NICI campaign followup. Four co-moving companions of brown dwarf or stellar mass were discovered in this moving group sample: PZ Tel B (36+-6 MJup, 16.4+-1.0 AU, Biller et al. 2010), CD -35 2722B (31+-8 MJup, 67+-4 AU, Wahhaj et al. 2011), HD 12894B (0.46+-0.08 MSun, 15.7+-1.0 AU), and BD+07 1919C (0.20+-0.03 MSun, 12.5+-1.4 AU). From a Bayesian analysis of the achieved H band ADI and ASDI contrasts, using power-law models of planet distributions and hot-start evolutionary models, we restrict the frequency of 1--20 MJup companions at semi-major axes from 10--150 AU to <18% at a 95.4% confidence level using DUSTY models and to <6% at a 95.4% using COND models.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 777(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We previously reported the direct detection of a low mass companion at a projected separation of 55+-2 AU around the B9 type star {\kappa} Andromedae. The properties of the system (mass ratio, separation) make it a benchmark for the understanding of the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and brown dwarfs on wide-orbits. We present new angular differential imaging (ADI) images of the Kappa Andromedae system at 2.146 (Ks), 3.776 (L'), 4.052 (NB 4.05) and 4.78 {\mu}m (M') obtained with Keck/NIRC2 and LBTI/LMIRCam, as well as more accurate near-infrared photometry of the star with the MIMIR instrument. We derive a more accurate J = 15.86 +- 0.21, H = 14.95 +- 0.13, Ks = 14.32 +- 0.09 mag for {\kappa} And b. We redetect the companion in all our high contrast observations. We confirm previous contrasts obtained at Ks and L' band. We derive NB 4.05 = 13.0 +- 0.2 and M' = 13.3 +- 0.3 mag and estimate Log10(L/Lsun) = -3.76 +- 0.06. We build the 1-5 microns spectral energy distribution of the companion and compare it to seven PHOENIX-based atmospheric models in order to derive Teff = 1900+100-200 K. Models do not set constrains on the surface gravity. ``Hot-start" evolutionary models predict masses of 14+25-2 MJup based on the luminosity and temperature estimates, and considering a conservative age range for the system (30+120-10 Myr). ``warm-start" evolutionary tracks constrain the mass to M >= 11 MJup. Therefore, the mass of {\kappa} Andromedae b mostly falls in the brown-dwarf regime, due to remaining uncertainties in age and mass-luminosity models. According to the formation models, disk instability in a primordial disk could account for the position and a wide range of plausible masses of {\kappa} And b.
    08/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800--1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly-imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160 [+350, -60] Myr, GJ 504 b has an estimated mass of 4 [+4.5, -1.0] Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of ~30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504 b is also significantly cooler (510 [+30, -20] K) and has a bluer color (J-H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets, as well as their atmospheric properties.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We have carried out high contrast imaging of 70 young, nearby B and A stars to search for brown dwarf and planetary companions as part of the Gemini NICI Planet-Finding Campaign. Our survey represents the largest, deepest survey for planets around high-mass stars (~1.5-2.5 M_sun) conducted to date and includes the planet hosts beta Pic and Fomalhaut. We obtained follow-up astrometry of all candidate companions within 400 AU projected separation for stars in uncrowded fields and identified new low-mass companions to HD 1160 and HIP 79797. We have found that the previously known young brown dwarf companion to HIP 79797 is itself a tight (3 AU) binary, composed of brown dwarfs with masses 58 (+21, -20) M_Jup and 55 (+20, -19) M_Jup, making this system one of the rare substellar binaries in orbit around a star. Considering the contrast limits of our NICI data and the fact that we did not detect any planets, we use high-fidelity Monte Carlo simulations to show that fewer than 20% of 2 M_sun stars can have giant planets greater than 4 M_Jup between 59 and 460 AU at 95% confidence, and fewer than 10% of these stars can have a planet more massive than 10 M_Jup between 38 and 650 AU. Overall, we find that large-separation giant planets are not common around B and A stars: fewer than 10% of B and A stars can have an analog to the HR 8799 b (7 M_Jup, 68 AU) planet at 95% confidence. We also describe a new Bayesian technique for determining the ages of field B and A stars from photometry and theoretical isochrones. Our method produces more plausible ages for high-mass stars than previous age-dating techniques, which tend to underestimate stellar ages and their uncertainties.
    06/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present results from the first three years of observations of moving group targets in the SEEDS high-contrast imaging survey of exoplanets and disks using the Subaru telescope. We achieve typical contrasts of ~10^5 at 1'' and ~10^6 beyond 2'' around 63 proposed members of nearby kinematic moving groups. We review each of the kinematic associations to which our targets belong, concluding that six, \beta Pictoris (~12 Myr), AB Doradus (~100 Myr), Columba (~30 Myr), Tucana-Horogium (~30 Myr), TW Hydrae (~10 Myr), and Ursa Majoris (~500 Myr), are sufficiently well-defined to constrain the ages of individual targets. Somewhat less than half of our targets are high-probability members of one of these moving groups. For all of our targets, we combine proposed moving group membership with other age indicators where available, including Ca II HK emission, X-ray activity, and rotation period, to produce a posterior probability distribution of age. SEEDS observations discovered a substellar companion to one of our targets, \kappa And, a late B star. We do not detect any other substellar companions, but do find seven new close binary systems, of which one still needs to be confirmed. A detailed analysis of the statistics of this sample, and of the companion mass constraints given our age probability distributions and exoplanet cooling models, will be presented in a forthcoming paper.
    05/2013;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Multiple systems have long been used to probe the origin and evolution of stars of all masses. Only in the past 10-15 years have such studies been extended to brown dwarfs and the lowest mass stars through binary surveys of both young star forming regions and the older field population. In addition, a groundswell of interest in M dwarfs in recent years has resulted in large, modern datasets for these most common stars in the Galaxy, thereby enabling renewed perspectives on their multiplicity properties. These latest observational results have in turn fueled the many theories competing to explain the formation of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs. This Cool Stars 17 splinter session examined the current state of this field by reviewing results from the numerous observational techniques - radial velocities, astrometry, direct imaging, and synoptic surveys - that have been used to study multiplicity from the earliest embedded protostars to objects in young star forming regions, old and intermediate-age clusters, as well as the more heterogeneous field population.
    Astronomische Nachrichten 02/2013; · 1.40 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

724 Citations
237.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • Institute for Astronomy (IfA)
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2013
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
    • College of Charleston
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Charleston, South Carolina, United States
  • 2012
    • Osaka University
      • Department of Earth and Space Science
      Suika, Ōsaka, Japan
  • 2007–2012
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
  • 2011
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2008–2011
    • Honolulu University
      Honolulu, Hawaii, United States
  • 2003–2008
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States