P.P.M. Kooij

Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (54)318.71 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Cholecystokinin 2 (CCK-2) receptor overexpression has been demonstrated in a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC). Analogous to somatostatin receptors, CCK-2 receptors might be viable targets for radionuclide scintigraphy and/or radionuclide therapy. Several CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides have been developed, and some have been carried through into clinical studies. However, these studies are mostly limited and difficult to compare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of three promising CCK-2 receptor-binding radiopeptides in patients with MTC. (111)In-DOTA-(D: )Asp-Tyr-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-Phe-NH(2) ((111)In-DOTA-CCK), a CCK analogue, and the gastrin-based ligands (99m)Tc-N(4)-Gly-(D: )Glu-(Glu)(5)-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) ((99m)Tc-demogastrin 2) and (111)In-DOTA-(D: )Glu-Ala-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Met-Asp-Phe-NH(2) ((111)In-DOTA-MG11) were each administered to the same group of six patients. Planar images made at 3-5, 7 and 24 h p.i. were used for comparison of tumour visualisation and renal uptake. (99m)Tc-demogastrin 2 scintigraphy visualised all known lesions and new lesions in four of six patients. (111)In-DOTA-CCK and (111)In-DOTA-MG11 on the other hand missed several lesions; tumour uptake of these two radiopharmaceuticals was quite low. Comparison of retention of renal activity showed no major differences between the three radiopeptides. (99m)Tc-demogastrin 2 scintigraphy appeared most promising as a diagnostic tool in patients with MTC. Further studies are required to evaluate its value in patient management. Direct comparisons of the compounds studied strongly suggests that (111)In-DOTA-CCK and (111)In-DOTA-MG11 have less potential as imaging agents than (99m)Tc-demogastrin 2. These DOTA-linked compounds are considered unlikely to be useful for radionuclide therapy because of low tumour uptake.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 04/2009; 36(8):1265-72. DOI:10.1007/s00259-009-1098-9 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adequate dosimetry is mandatory for effective and safe peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Besides the kidneys, the bone marrow is a potentially dose-limiting organ. The radiation dose to the bone marrow is usually calculated according to the MIRD scheme, where the accumulated activity in the bone marrow is calculated from the accumulated radioactivity of the radiopharmaceutical in the blood. This may underestimate the absorbed dose since stem cells express somatostatin receptors. We verified the blood-based method by comparing the activity in the blood with the radioactivity in bone marrow aspirates. Also, we evaluated the absorbed cross-dose from the source organs (liver, spleen, kidneys and blood), tumours and the so-called "remainder of the body" to the bone marrow. Bone marrow aspirates were drawn in 15 patients after treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Radioactivity in the bone marrow was compared with radioactivity in the blood drawn simultaneously. The nucleated cell fraction was isolated from the bone marrow aspirate and radioactivity was measured. The absorbed dose to the bone marrow was calculated. The results were correlated to the change in platelet counts 6 weeks after treatment. A strong linear correlation and high agreement between the measured radioactivities in the bone marrow aspirates and in the blood was found (r=0.914, p<0.001). No correlation between the calculated absorbed dose in the bone marrow and the change in platelets was found. There was a considerable contribution from other organs and the remainder of the body to the bone marrow absorbed dose. (1) After PRRT with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate, the radioactivity concentration in the bone marrow is identical to that in the blood; (2) There is no significant binding of the radiopharmaceutical to bone marrow precursor stem cells; (3) The contribution of the cross dose from source organs and tumours to the bone marrow dose is significant; and (4) There is considerable variation in bone marrow absorbed dose between patients. These findings imply that for individual dose optimization, individual calculation of the bone marrow absorbed dose is necessary.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2009; 36(7):1138-46. DOI:10.1007/s00259-009-1072-6 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the fact that most gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEPNETs) are slow-growing, median overall survival (OS) in patients with liver metastases is 2 to 4 years. In metastatic disease, cytoreductive therapeutic options are limited. A relatively new therapy is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with the radiolabeled somatostatin analog [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Here we report on the toxicity and efficacy of this treatment, performed in over 500 patients. Patients were treated up to a cumulative dose of 750 to 800 mCi (27.8-29.6 GBq), usually in four treatment cycles, with treatment intervals of 6 to 10 weeks. Toxicity analysis was done in 504 patients, and efficacy analysis in 310 patients. Any hematologic toxicity grade 3 or 4 occurred after 3.6% of administrations. Serious adverse events that were likely attributable to the treatment were myelodysplastic syndrome in three patients, and temporary, nonfatal, liver toxicity in two patients. Complete and partial tumor remissions occurred in 2% and 28% of 310 GEPNET patients, respectively. Minor tumor response (decrease in size > 25% and < 50%) occurred in 16%. Median time to progression was 40 months. Median OS from start of treatment was 46 months, median OS from diagnosis was 128 months. Compared with historical controls, there was a survival benefit of 40 to 72 months from diagnosis. Treatment with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate has few adverse effects. Tumor response rates and progression-free survival compare favorably to the limited number of alternative treatment modalities. Compared with historical controls, there is a benefit in OS from time of diagnosis of several years.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 06/2008; 26(13):2124-30. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2007.15.2553 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal irradiation is a dose-limiting factor in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. This irradiation is mainly caused by reabsorption of radiolabelled peptides in the proximal tubule. In the human kidney, somatostatin receptors are expressed in the vasa recta, tubuli and glomeruli. It is not clear to what extent these receptors contribute to the total kidney radioactivity uptake. Retrospectively, [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide scans of ten selected patients with carcinoids (well-differentiated gastrointestinal endocrine tumour) with liver metastases were evaluated. For each patient, two scans were obtained: one scan was performed without (control) and one during treatment with unlabelled octreotide. Kidney, tumour, spleen and liver uptake was measured in both scans. The interval between the two scans per patient varied from 50 to 397 days. Octreotide treatment substantially lowered kidney [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide uptake in eight out of ten patients. Kidney uptake in all patients was reduced to 82%+/-15% of control, (p < 0.01). A correlation between kidney uptake and spleen uptake was found (r=0.67, p < 0.05). Serum creatinine was unchanged. Surprisingly, tumour and liver [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide uptake was not significantly influenced by unlabelled octreotide therapy, but spleen uptake was significantly lowered by treatment (30.6% of control, p < 0.002). We conclude that the somatostatin receptor plays a role in the total renal uptake of radiolabelled somatostatin analogues. The long interval between scans might explain the finding that tumour and liver metastasis uptake of [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide was unchanged. Further studies are needed to confirm and eludicate the results of this study.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 12/2007; 34(11):1854-60. DOI:10.1007/s00259-007-0457-7 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with somatostatin receptor subtype 2-positive metastasised neuroendocrine tumours can be treated with [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate. Some use octreotide as the peptide for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). We compared in seven patients [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide ((177)Lu-DOTATOC) and [(177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate ((177)Lu-DOTATATE), to see which peptide should be preferred for PRRT with (177)Lu. In the same patients, 3,700 MBq (177)Lu-DOTATOC and 3,700 MBq (177)Lu-DOTATATE was administered in separate therapy sessions. Amino acids were co-administered. Whole-body scanning was performed on days 1, 4 and 7 post therapy. Blood and urine samples were collected. We calculated residence times for tumours, spleen and kidneys. All patients had longer residence times in spleen, kidneys and tumours after use of (177)Lu-DOTATATE (p=0.016 in each case). Comparing (177)Lu-DOTATATE with (177)Lu-DOTATOC, the mean residence time ratio was 2.1 for tumour, 1.5 for spleen and 1.4 for kidneys. Dose-limiting factors for PRRT are bone marrow and/or kidney dose. Although the residence time for kidneys was longer when using (177)Lu-DOTATATE, the mean administered dose to tumours would still be advantageous by a factor of 1.5, assuming a fixed maximum kidney dose is reached. Plasma radioactivity after (177)Lu-DOTATATE was comparable to that after (177)Lu-DOTATOC. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was comparable during the first 6 h; thereafter there was a significant advantage for (177)Lu-DOTATOC. (177)Lu-DOTATATE had a longer tumour residence time than (177)Lu-DOTATOC. Despite a longer residence time in kidneys after (177)Lu-DOTATATE, tumour dose will always be higher. Therefore, we conclude that the better peptide for PRRT is octreotate.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 12/2006; 33(11):1346-51. DOI:10.1007/s00259-006-0172-9 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Therapy using the radiolabeled somatostatin analog [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) (DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid) has been used primarily in gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Here we present the effects of this therapy in a small number of patients with metastasized or inoperable paragangliomas, meningiomas, small cell lung carcinomas (SCLCs), and melanomas. Twelve patients with paraganglioma, 5 with meningioma, 3 with SCLC, and 2 with eye melanoma were treated. Three meningiomas were very large and exophytic and all standard treatments had failed. Patients with melanoma had rapidly progressive disease (PD). The intended cumulative dose of 177Lu-octreotate was 22.2-29.6 GBq. Effects of the treatment on tumor size were evaluated using the Southwest Oncology Group criteria. Two of 4 patients with progressive paraganglioma had tumor regression and 1 had stable disease (SD). Of 5 patients with stable paraganglioma, 2 had SD, 2 had PD, and in 1 patient treatment outcome could not be determined. Paraganglioma was stable in 3 patients in whom the disease status at the beginning of therapy was unknown. One of 4 patients with progressive meningioma had SD and 3 patients had PD. One patient with stable meningioma at the beginning of therapy had SD. All patients with SCLC or melanoma died within 5 mo after starting therapy because of tumor progression. Although not statistically significant, a positive trend was found between high uptake on pretherapy somatostatin receptor scintigraphy and treatment outcome. 177Lu-octreotate can be effective in patients with paraganglioma and meningioma. Response rates are lower than those in patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Most meningiomas were very large. Further studies are needed to confirm the treatment outcome because of the limited number of patients. 177Lu-octreotate did not have antitumor effects in patients with small lung carcinoma and melanoma.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 11/2006; 47(10):1599-606. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are few treatment options for patients with metastasized or inoperable endocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors. Chemotherapy can be effective, but the response is usually less than 1 year. Here, we present the results of treatment with a radiolabeled somatostatin analog, [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate). One hundred thirty-one patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors were treated with up to a cumulative dose of 600 to 800 mCi (22.2 to 29.6 GBq) of 177Lu-octreotate. One patient developed renal insufficiency, and another patient developed hepatorenal syndrome. Creatinine clearance did not change significantly in the other patients. WHO hematologic toxicity grade 3 or 4 occurred after less than 2% of the administrations. We observed complete remission in three patients (2%), partial remission in 32 patients (26%), minor response (tumor diameter decrease of 25% to 50%) in 24 patients (19%), stable disease (SD) in 44 patients (35%), and progressive disease (PD) in 22 patients (18%). Higher remission rates were positively correlated with high uptake on pretherapy somatostatin receptor imaging and a limited number of liver metastases, whereas PD was significantly more frequent in patients with a low performance score and extensive disease. Median time to progression in 103 patients who either had SD or tumor regression was more than 36 months. Treatment with 177Lu-octreotate results in tumor remission in a high percentage of patients with GEP tumors. Serious side effects are rare. The median time to progression compares favorably with chemotherapy. Results are better in patients with a limited tumor load. Therefore, early treatment, even in patients who have no PD, may be better.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 05/2005; 23(12):2754-62. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2005.08.066 · 18.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In patients with progressive metastatic (or recurrent) differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) who do not respond to radioiodine therapy or do not show uptake on radioiodine scintigraphy, treatment options are few. Because these tumors may express somatostatin receptors, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy might be effective. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the radiolabeled somatostatin analog (177)Lu-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid(0) (DOTA), Tyr(3)-octreotate ((177)Lu-DOTATATE) in patients with DTC. The uptake of radioactivity in tumors was also studied in relation to treatment outcome. Five patients with DTC (3 with Hurthle cell thyroid carcinoma [HCTC], 1 with papillary thyroid carcinoma [PTC], and 1 with follicular thyroid carcinoma [FTC]) were treated with 22.4-30.1 GBq of (177)Lu-DOTATATE. Response to therapy was evaluated with CT. Uptake on (177)Lu-DOTATATE scintigraphy (24 h after treatment), expressed as percentage of injected dose, was compared with uptake on pretherapy (111)In-octreotide scintigraphy (24 h after injection). After the last treatment with (177)Lu-DOTATATE, 1 patient with HCTC had stable disease as a maximum response, 1 patient with HCTC had minor remission (tumor shrinkage between 25% and 50%), and 1 patient with HCTC had partial remission (shrinkage > or =50%). The responses in PTC and FTC were stable disease and progressive disease, respectively. A decrease in serum thyroglobulin level was found in patients with HCTC. Patients with minor and partial remissions had the highest (177)Lu-DOTATATE-to-(111)In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid(0)-octreotide ((111)In-octreotide) uptake ratios (3.2 and 2.4, respectively) whereas the other patients had uptake ratios smaller than 1.5. (177)Lu-DOTATATE therapy can be effective in patients with progressive DTC who have no therapeutic options and sufficient uptake of (111)In-octreotide in tumor lesions as shown on (111)In-octreotide scintigraphy. This finding is especially important in patients with HCTC, because they cannot benefit from radioiodine therapy because of non-iodine-avid lesions at diagnosis.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2005; 46 Suppl 1:107S-14S. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The kidneys are critical organs in peptide receptor radiation therapy (PRRT). Renal function loss may become apparent many years after PRRT. We analyzed the time course of decline in creatinine clearance (CLR) in patients during a follow-up of at least 18 mo after the start of PRRT with (90)Y-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA),Tyr(3)-octreotide ((90)Y-DOTATOC) or (177)Lu-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)-octreotate ((177)Lu-DOTATATE). Twenty-eight patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors received 1-5 cycles of (90)Y-DOTATOC, leading to renal radiation doses of 5.9-26.9 Gy per cycle and a total of 18.3-38.7 Gy. Median follow-up was 2.9 y (range, 1.5-5.4 y), with a median of 16 measurements (range, 5-53) per patient. Thirty-seven patients with metastasized neuroendocrine tumors received 3-7 cycles of (177)Lu-DOTATATE, leading to renal radiation doses of 1.8-7.8 Gy per cycle and a total of 7.3-26.7 Gy. Median follow-up was 2.4 y (range, 1.7-4.0 y), with a median of 10 (range, 6-27) measurements per patient. All renal dose estimates were calculated with the MIRDOSE3 model. All patients were infused with renoprotective amino acids during the administration of the radioactive peptides. The time trend of CLR was determined by fitting a monoexponential function through the data of individual patients, yielding the decline in CLR in terms of percentage change per year. The median decline in CLR was 7.3% per y in patients treated with (90)Y-DOTATOC and 3.8% per y in patients treated with (177)Lu-DOTATATE (P = 0.06). The time trend of decline in CLR was sustained during the follow-up period. Eleven patients had a >15% per y decline in CLR. Cumulative renal radiation dose, per-cycle renal radiation dose, age, hypertension, and diabetes are probable contributing factors to the rate of decline in CLR after PRRT. This study showed that the time course of CLR after PRRT was compatible with the pattern of sustained CLR loss in progressive chronic kidney disease.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2005; 46 Suppl 1:83S-91S. · 5.56 Impact Factor
  • Journal of Nuclear Medicine 01/2005; 46(1 suppl). · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical treatment and chemotherapy are seldom successful in achieving objective tumour reduction in patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumours. Treatment with the radiolabelled somatostatin analogue [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide may result in partial remissions in 10-25% of patients. The newer analogue [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotate (octreotate) has a ninefold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide (177)Lu, it has proved very successful in achieving tumour regression in animal models. The effects of (177)Lu-octreotate therapy were studied in 35 patients with neuroendocrine gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tumours who underwent follow-up for 3-6 months after receiving their final dose. Patients were treated with doses of 100, 150 or 200 mCi (177)Lu-octreotate, to a final cumulative dose of 600-800 mCi, with treatment intervals of 6-9 weeks. Nausea and vomiting within the first 24 h after administration were present in 30% and 14% of the administrations, respectively. WHO toxicity grade 3 anaemia, leucocytopenia and thrombocytopenia occurred after 0%, 1% and 1% of the administrations, respectively. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance did not change significantly. The effects of the therapy on tumour size were evaluable in 34 patients. Three months after the final administration, complete remission was found in one patient (3%), partial remission in 12 (35%), stable disease in 14 (41%) and progressive disease in seven (21%), including three patients who died during the treatment period. Tumour response was positively correlated with a high uptake on the octreoscan, limited hepatic tumour mass and a high Karnofsky Performance Score. Because of the limited efficacy of alternative therapies, many physicians currently adopt an expectant attitude when dealing with patients with metastatic GEP tumours. However, in view of the high success rate of therapy with (177)Lu-octreotate and the absence of serious side-effects, we advocate its use in patients with GEP tumours without waiting for tumour progression.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 04/2003; 30(3):417-22. DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-1050-8 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As scintigraphy with [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide has become a standard technique in analysing somatostatin receptor-receptor positive lesions such as neuroendocrine tumours, a logical next step is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Initial studies on PRRT were performed with high doses of [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide, and recently other radionuclides coupled to other somatostatin analogues have been used for this purpose. However, the dose delivered to the kidney is a major dose-limiting factor. Amino acid solutions have previously been used to reduce renal uptake of radioactivity, but these solutions have some disadvantages, i.e. their hyperosmolarity and their propensity to cause vomiting and metabolic changes. In this study we tested various amino acid solutions in patients receiving [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide PRRT in order to assess their safety and their capacity to inhibit the renal uptake of radioactivity. Patients served as their own non-infused control. Renal radioactivity at 24 h following the injection of [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide was inhibited by (1) a commercially available amino acid solution (AA) (21%+/-14%, P<0.02), (2) by 25 g (17%+/-9%, P<0.04), 50 g (15%+/-13%, P<0.04) or 75 g of lysine (44%+/-11%, P<0.001) and (3) by a combination of 25 g of lysine plus 25 g of arginine (LysArg) (33%+/-23%, P<0.01). Fluid infusion alone (500, 1,000 or 2,000 ml of saline/glucose) did not change renal uptake of radioactivity. In patients studied with 75 g of lysine (Lys75) and LysArg, serum potassium levels rose significantly. Maximal potassium levels were within the toxic range (6.3, 6.7 and 6.8 mmol/l) in three out of six patients infused with Lys75, whereas with LysArg the highest concentration measured was 6.0 mmol/l. Electrocardiographic analysis did not reveal significant changes in any of the patients. Vomiting occurred in 50% of patients infused with AA, but in only 6% of patients receiving no amino acid infusion (controls) and 9% of patients receiving LysArg. We conclude that co-infusion of Lys75 or LysArg results in a significant inhibition of renal radioactivity in PRRT, allowing higher treatment doses and thus resulting in higher tumour radiation doses. Because Lys75 produced serious hyperkalaemia, it is not suitable for clinical use. LysArg, however, is effective in offering renal protection in PRRT and is safe.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 01/2003; 30(1):9-15. DOI:10.1007/s00259-002-0982-3 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fifty patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumors were treated with multiple doses of [(111)In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid(0)]octreotide. Forty patients were evaluable after cumulative doses of at least 20 GBq up to 160 GBq. Therapeutic effects were seen in 21 patients: partial remission in 1 patient, minor remissions in 6 patients, and stabilization of previously progressive tumors in 14 patients. Our results thus underscore the therapeutic potential of Auger-emitting radiolabelled peptides. The toxicity was generally mild bone marrow toxicity, but 3 of the 6 patients who received more than 100 GBq developed a myelodysplastic syndrome or leukemia. Therefore, we consider 100 GBq as the maximal tolerable dose. With a renal radiation dose of 0.45 mGy/MBq (based on previous studies) a cumulative dose of 100 GBq [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide will lead to 45Gy on the kidneys, twice the accepted limit for external beam radiation. However, no development of hypertension, proteinuria, or significant changes in serum creatinine or creatinine clearance were observed in our patients including 2 patients who received 106 and 113 GBq [(111)In-DTPA(0)]octreotide without protection with amino acids, over a follow-up period of respectively 3 and 2 years. These findings show that the radiation of the short-range (maximal 10 microns) Auger electrons originating from the cells of the proximal tubules is not harmful for the renal function. The decrease in serum inhibin B and concomitant increase of serum FSH levels in men indicate that the spermatogenesis was impaired.
    Seminars in Nuclear Medicine 05/2002; 32(2):110-22. DOI:10.1053/snuc/2002.31025 · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A promising application of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs is peptide receptor-targeted radionuclide therapy of somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. A suitable radionuclide is (90)Y, which emits high-energy beta-particles with a pathlength of several millimeters in tissue, making it especially promising for treatment of large tumors. We investigated the radiotherapeutic effect of different activities (111 and 370 MBq) of [(90)Y-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N",N"'-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide in Lewis rats bearing somatostatin receptor-positive rat pancreatic CA20948 tumors of different size (0.08-15 cm(2)) in their flank. Dose-dependent radiotherapeutic effects of (90)Y-labeled octreotide in this rat tumor model were found. Tumor control (100% complete response) was found in animals bearing tumors of 3-9 cm(2) (mean, 7.8 cm(2)) after intravenous injection of the highest activity (370 MBq [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide). In rats bearing tumors of < or =1 cm(2) or > or =14 cm(2), the effects were less pronounced (50% and 0% complete response, respectively). In tumors of < or =1 cm(2) the (90)Y radiation energy will not be absorbed completely in the tumor, whereas in tumors of > or =14 cm(2) the increased number of clonogenic and probably hypoxic tumor cells may explain the failure to reach a cure. This study shows the ability of [(90)Y-DOTA(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide to control tumor growth, especially in medium-sized tumors. The effect of radionuclide therapy appeared to be dependent on tumor size at the onset of therapy.
    Journal of Nuclear Medicine 12/2001; 42(12):1841-6. · 5.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate has a nine-fold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA0, Tyr3]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide lutetium-177, this compound has been shown to have a very favourable impact on tumour regression and animal survival in a rat model. Because of these reported advantages over the analogues currently used for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, we decided to compare [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) with [111In-DTPA0]octreotide (111In-octreotide) in six patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Plasma radioactivity after 177Lu-octreotate expressed as a percentage of the injected dose was comparable with that after 111In-octreotide. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly lower than after 111In-octreotide, averaging 64% after 24 h. The uptake after 24 h, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose of 177Lu-octreotate, was comparable to that after 111In-octreotide for kidneys, spleen and liver, but was three- to fourfold higher for four of five tumours. The spleen and kidneys received the highest absorbed doses. The doses to the kidneys were reduced by a mean of 47% after co-infusion of amino acids. It is concluded that in comparison with the radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogues that are currently available for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, 177Lu-octreotate potentially represents an important improvement. Higher absorbed doses can be achieved to most tumours, with about equal doses to potentially dose-limiting organs; furthermore, the lower tissue penetration range of 177Lu as compared with 90Y may be especially important for small tumours.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2001; 28(9):1319-25. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, "new" radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2001; 28(9):1421-9. · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In vivo somatostatin receptor-mediated scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable method for the visualisation of neuroendocrine tumours and their metastases. A new application is the use of radiolabelled analogues for somatostatin receptor-mediated therapy. This paper presents a review on the basic science, historical background and current knowledge of somatostatin receptor subtypes and their expression in neuroendocrine tumours. New somatostatin analogues, new chelators, "new" radionuclides and combinations thereof are also discussed. Due attention is given to limitations and future perspectives of somatostatin receptor-mediated imaging and therapy.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 08/2001; 28(9):1421-1429. DOI:10.1007/s002590100502 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The somatostatin analogue [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate has a nine-fold higher affinity for the somatostatin receptor subtype 2 as compared with [DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotide. Also, labelled with the beta- and gamma-emitting radionuclide lutetium-177, this compound has been shown to have a very favourable impact on tumour regression and animal survival in a rat model. Because of these reported advantages over the analogues currently used for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, we decided to compare [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-octreotate) with [111In-DTPA0]octreotide (111In-octreotide) in six patients with somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Plasma radioactivity after 177Lu-octreotate expressed as a percentage of the injected dose was comparable with that after 111In-octreotide. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was significantly lower than after 111In-octreotide, averaging 64% after 24 h. The uptake after 24 h, expressed as a percentage of the injected dose of 177Lu-octreotate, was comparable to that after 111In-octreotide for kidneys, spleen and liver, but was three- to fourfold higher for four of five tumours. The spleen and kidneys received the highest absorbed doses. The doses to the kidneys were reduced by a mean of 47% after co-infusion of amino acids. It is concluded that in comparison with the radionuclide-coupled somatostatin analogues that are currently available for somatostatin receptor-mediated radiotherapy, 177Lu-octreotate potentially represents an important improvement. Higher absorbed doses can be achieved to most tumours, with about equal doses to potentially dose-limiting organs; furthermore, the lower tissue penetration range of 177Lu as compared with 90Y may be especially important for small tumours.
    European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging 01/2001; 28(9):1319-1325. DOI:10.1007/s002590100574 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cholecystokinin (CCK)-B receptors have been demonstrated on a high percentage of medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) in vitro. After encouraging results both in vitro and in animal studies, we studied the efficacy of an octapeptide [111In-DTPA]-CCK analogue in seven patients with MTC. In four of five patients in whom serum calcitonin levels were monitored, a significant rise was found following the injection, indicating retained biological activity of the radiopeptide. In all patients there was visualization of the CCK-B receptor-positive stomach. In one of two patients with known MTC lesions, some of the lesions were visualized; in addition some lesions were visualized in one of the five other patients who had elevated serum tumour markers but negative localizing studies. Radioactivity in the presumed tumour sites was still present at 48 h p.i. The uptake in the presumed tumour sites and stomach was low. Background radioactivity dropped rapidly owing to urinary excretion. After 1 h, breakdown products of the labelled analogue predominated both in urine and in serum, and virtually no intact peptide was present. In conclusion: (1) the CCK-B receptor-positive gastric mucosa and presumed MTC lesions could be visualized in patients using an octapeptide [111In-DTPA]-CCK analogue that is probably internalized, proving the feasibility of CCK-B receptor imaging in vivo; (2) there was a relatively low uptake of the CCK analogue in the strongly CCK receptor positive stomach, and rapid degradation of the peptide in serum.
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine 10/2000; 27(9):1312-7. DOI:10.1007/s002590000296 · 5.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peptide receptor scintigraphy with the radioactive somatostatin analogue [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]octreotide is a sensitive and specific technique to show in vivo the presence and abundance of somatostatin receptors on various tumors. With this technique primary tumors and metastases of neuroendocrine cancers as well as of many other cancer types can be localized. This technique is currently used to assess the possibility of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with repeated administration of high doses of [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]octreotide. 111In emits Auger and conversion electrons, having a tissue penetration of 0.02-10 microns and 200-500 microns, respectively. Thirty end-stage patients with mostly neuroendocrine progressing tumors were treated with [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]octreotide, up to a maximal cumulative patient dose of about 74 GBq, in a phase-I trial. There were no major clinical side effects after up to 2 years of treatment, except that in a few patients a transient decline in platelet counts and lymphocyte subsets occurred. Promising beneficial effects on clinical symptoms, hormone production, and tumor proliferation were found. Of the 21 patients who received a cumulative dose of more than 20 GBq, eight showed stabilization of disease and six others a reduction in tumor size. There is a tendency towards better results in patients whose tumors have a higher accumulation of the radioligand. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy is also feasible with 111In as the radionuclide. Theoretically, depending on the homogeneity of distribution of tumor cells expressing peptide receptors and the size of the tumor, beta-emitting radionuclides, e.g., 90Y, labeled to DOTA-chelated peptides may be more effective than 111In for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. The first peptide receptor radionuclide therapy trials with [90Y-DOTA-Tyr3]octreotide started recently.
    Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer 02/2000; 153:1-13.

Publication Stats

5k Citations
318.71 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1999–2009
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1989–2009
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • • Department of Nuclear Medicine
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1991–2000
    • Het Oogziekenhuis Rotterdam
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands