[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Classical cadherins play distinct roles in axon growth and guidance in the visual system, however, the signaling pathways they activate remain unclear. Growth cones on each cadherin substrate have a unique morphology suggesting that distinct signals are activated by neurite outgrowth on E-, N-, and R-cadherin. We previously demonstrated that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-mu (PTPmu) is required for E- and N-cadherin-dependent neurite outgrowth. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that PTPmu regulates R-cadherin-mediated neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, we evaluated whether known PTPmu-associated signaling proteins, Rac1, Cdc42, IQGAP1 and PKCdelta, regulate neurite outgrowth mediated by these cadherins. While Rac1 activity is required for neurite outgrowth on all three cadherins Cdc42/IQGAP1 are required only for N- and R-cadherin-mediated neurite outgrowth. In addition, we determined that PKC activity is required for E- and R-cadherin-mediated, but not N-cadherin-mediated neurite outgrowth. In summary, distinct PTPmicro-associated signaling proteins are required to promote neurite outgrowth on cadherins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, stabilizes cell-cell junctions and promotes cellular migration during tissue morphogenesis in development. N-cadherin is also implicated in mediating tumor progression and metastasis in cancer. Therefore, developing antagonists of N-cadherin adhesion may be of therapeutic value in cancer treatment. The amino acid sequence HAV in the extracellular domain of N-cadherin is required for N-cadherin-mediated adhesion and migration. A cyclic peptide, ADH-1, derived from the N-cadherin HAV site is an effective antagonist of N-cadherin-mediated processes and is now in clinical trials for cancer chemotherapy. Because it is a peptide, ADH-1 has certain limitations as a drug, namely its metabolic instability and lack of oral delivery. Adherex set out to identify small molecule antagonists of N-cadherin, which would be more amenable to therapeutic use. Using three-dimensional computational screening, Adherex identified a set of small molecules as potential antagonists with sufficient structural similarity to the HAV region of N-cadherin. We tested the ability of these small molecules to interfere with two N-cadherin-dependent processes: neurite outgrowth (axonal migration) and N-cadherin-dependent cell adhesion. We identified 21 N-cadherin antagonists of varying potency. More importantly, our studies demonstrate that these compounds are significantly more potent than ADH-1 at perturbing N-cadherin-mediated processes. The IC(50) of ADH-1 is 2.33 mM while the IC(50) of the small molecules ranges from 4.5 to 30 microM. Given the efficacy of ADH-1 for treating cancer, these small molecule antagonists will be highly effective in treatment of cancer metastasis and conditions of aberrant neurite outgrowth, such as neuropathic pain.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 'vanishing bone' or inherited osteolysis/arthritis syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of skeletal disorders characterized by mineralization defects of affected bones and joints. Differing in anatomical distribution, severity and associated syndromic features, gene identification in each 'vanishing bone' disorder should provide unique insights into genetic/molecular pathways contributing to the overall control of skeletal growth and development. We previously described and then demonstrated that the novel autosomal recessive osteolysis/arthritis syndrome, multicentric osteolysis with arthritis (MOA) (MIM #605156), was caused by inactivating mutations in the MMP2 gene [Al Aqeel, A., Al Sewairi, W., Edress, B., Gorlin, R.J., Desnick, R.J. and Martignetti, J.A. (2000) Inherited multicentric osteolysis with arthritis: A variant resembling Torg syndrome in a Saudi family. Am. J. Med. Genet., 93, 11-18.]. These in vivo results were counterintuitive and unexpected since previous in vitro studies suggested that MMP-2 overexpression and increased activity, not deficiency, would result in the bone and joint features of MOA. The apparent lack of a murine model [Itoh, T., Ikeda, T., Gomi, H., Nakao, S., Suzuki, T. and Itohara, S. (1997) Unaltered secretion of beta-amyloid precursor protein in gelatinase A (matrix metalloproteinase 2)-deficient mice. J. Biol. Chem., 272, 22389-22392.] has hindered studies on disease pathogenesis and, more fundamentally, in addressing the paradox of how functional loss of a single proteolytic enzyme results in an apparent increase in bone loss. Here, we report that Mmp2-/- mice display attenuated features of human MOA including progressive loss of bone mineral density, articular cartilage destruction and abnormal long bone and craniofacial development. Moreover, these changes are associated with markedly and developmentally restricted decreases in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in vivo. Mmp2-/- mice have approximately 50% fewer osteoblasts and osteoclasts than control littermates at 4 days of life but these differences have nearly resolved by 4 weeks of age. In addition, despite normal cell numbers in vivo at 8 weeks of life, Mmp2-/- bone marrow cells are unable to effectively support osteoblast and osteoclast growth and differentiation in culture. Targeted inhibition of MMP-2 using siRNA in human SaOS2 and murine MC3T3 osteoblast cell lines resulted in decreased cell proliferation rates. Taken together, our findings suggest that MMP-2 plays a direct role in early skeletal development and bone cell growth and proliferation. Thus, Mmp2-/- mice provide a valuable biological resource for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the human disease and defining the in vivo physiological role of MMP-2.
Human Molecular Genetics 05/2007; 16(9):1113-23. DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddm060 · 6.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During development of the visual system, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) require cell-cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix proteins for axon growth. In this study, we demonstrate that the classical cadherin, E-cadherin, is expressed in RGCs from E6 to E12 and promotes neurite outgrowth from all regions of the chick retina at E6, E8 and E10. E-cadherin is also expressed in the optic tectum. E-cadherin adhesion blocking antibodies specifically inhibit neurite outgrowth on an E-cadherin substrate. The receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTPmu, associates with E-cadherin. In this manuscript, we demonstrate that antisense-mediated down-regulation of PTPmu, overexpression of catalytically inactive PTPmu and perturbation of endogenous PTPmu using a specific PTPmu inhibitor peptide results in a substantial reduction in neurite outgrowth on E-cadherin. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that E-cadherin is an important adhesion molecule for chick RGC neurite outgrowth and suggest that PTPmu expression and catalytic activity are required for outgrowth on an E-cadherin substrate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Membrane type 1-matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP or MMP-14) is a major activator of pro-MMP-2 and is essential for skeletal development. We show here that it is required for branching morphogenesis of the submandibular gland but not the lung. Instead, in the lung, it is essential for postnatal development of alveolar septae. Lung development in Mmp14-/- mice is arrested at the prealveolar stage with compensatory hyperinflation of immature saccules. Mmp2-/- mice lacked comparable defects in the lung and submandibular gland, suggesting that MT1-MMP acts via mechanisms independent of pro-MMP-2 activation. Since the developmental defects in the lung are first manifest around the time of initial vascularization (E16.5), we investigated the behavior of pulmonary endothelial cells from Mmp14+/+ and Mmp14-/- mice. Endothelial cells from lungs of 1-week-old Mmp14-/- mice show reduced migration and formation of three-dimensional structures on Matrigel. Since pulmonary septal development requires capillary growth, the underlying mechanism of pulmonary hypoplasia in Mmp14-/- mice may be defective angiogenesis, supporting a model in which angiogenesis is a critical rate-limiting step for acquisition of pulmonary parenchymal mass.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have investigated the putative role and regulation of membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) in angiogenesis induced by inflammatory factors of the chemokine family. The absence of MT1-MMP from null mice or derived mouse lung endothelial cells or the blockade of its activity with inhibitory antibodies resulted in the specific decrease of in vivo and in vitro angiogenesis induced by CCL2 but not CXCL12. Similarly, CCL2- and CXCL8-induced tube formation by human endothelial cells (ECs) was highly dependent on MT1-MMP activity. CCL2 and CXCL8 significantly increased MT1-MMP surface expression, clustering, activity, and function in human ECs. Investigation of the signaling pathways involved in chemokine-induced MT1-MMP activity in ECs revealed that CCL2 and CXCL8 induced cortical actin polymerization and sustained activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and the small GTPase Rac. Inhibition of PI3K or actin polymerization impaired CCL2-induced MT1-MMP activity. Finally, dimerization of MT1-MMP was found to be enhanced by CCL2 in ECs in a PI3K- and actin polymerization-dependent manner. In summary, we identify MT1-MMP as a molecular target preferentially involved in angiogenesis mediated by CCL2 and CXCL8, but not CXCL12, and suggest that MT1-MMP dimerization might be an important mechanism of its regulation during angiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: Because the extracellular matrix is essential for the function of all the major tissues in the musculoskeletal system, the processes that regulate its removal during normal remodeling and pathologic destruction are relevant to the orthopaedic clinician and scientist. In this review, we comment on developments in this rapidly evolving field over the past year. Recent findings: A variety of enzymes mediate the proteolytic cleavage of the extracellular matrix, of which the metalloproteases are perhaps the most important. In addition to the now well known matrix metalloproteases, there is also an emerging role in the musculoskeletal system for proteases belonging to two other related families: ADAM (A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease domain) and ADAMTS (A disintegrin-like and metalloprotease domain with thrombospondin type I motifs). ADAMs are involved in the shedding of cell surface molecules and are of relevance to inflammation through the shedding of tumor necrosis factor alpha, whereas ADAMTS have a role in posttranslational modification of procollagen as well as in the pathologic destruction of cartilage. New findings in the past year suggest a novel role for matrix metalloproteases in the release of active transforming growth factor beta, with a potentially significant impact on bone biology. Summary: The discovery of new enzymes and functions has expanded the role of proteolysis beyond effects on structural integrity. It is now clear that in addition to their known effect on the extracellular matrix, metalloproteases can modify cell surface and soluble molecules with profound biologic effects. These new developments are exciting, not just for musculoskeletal biology but also for osteoarticular disease.
Current Opinion in Orthopaedics 10/2003; 14(5):322-328. DOI:10.1097/00001433-200310000-00004
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The matrix metalloproteinase family in humans comprises 23 enzymes, which are involved in many biological processes and diseases. It was previously thought that these enzymes acted only to degrade components of the extracellular matrix, but this view has changed with the discovery that non-extracellular-matrix molecules are also substrates.