C. David Garner

University of Nottingham, Nottigham, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (359)873.93 Total impact

  • Article: Editorial.
    C David Garner
    Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society A Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences 01/2013; 371(1982):20120457. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The first example of a Donor-spacer-Acceptor tryad, based upon a molybdenum-ene-1,2-dithiolate unit as the Donor and a naphthalene-diimide as the Acceptor, has been synthesized and its photophysical properties investigated. Synthesis required the preparation of a new pro-ligand containing a protected ene-1,2-dithiolate bound through a phenyl linkage to a naphthalenetetracarboxylicdiimide (NDI) group. Deprotection of this pro-ligand by base hydrolysis, followed by reaction with [Cp(2)MoCl(2)], produced the new dyad [Cp(2)Mo(SC(H)C(C(6)H(4)-NDI)S)] (2). Electrochemical studies showed that 2 can be reversibly oxidized to [2](+) and reduced to [2](-), [2](2-), and [2](3-). These studies, augmented by UV/vis, IR, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of electrochemically generated [2](+) and [2](-), show that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of 2 is ene-1,2-dithiolate-based and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) is NDI-based; these conclusions are supported by density functional theory (DFT) calculations for the electronic ground state on a model of 2 which also showed that these two parts of the molecule are electronically distinct. The dynamics of the excited states of 2 in CH(2)Cl(2) solution were investigated by picosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy following irradiation by a 400 nm ∼120 fs laser pulse. These investigations were complemented by an ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopic study from 420 to 760 nm of the nature of the excited states of 2 in CH(2)Cl(2) solution following irradiation by a 383 nm ∼120 fs laser pulse. These studies showed that irradiation of 2 at both 400 and 383 nm leads to the formation of the [(Cp)(2){Mo(dt)}(+)-Ph-{NDI}(-)] charge-separated state as a result of a cascade electron transfer initiated by the formation of an (1)NDI* excited state. (1)NDI* rapidly (ca. 0.2 ps) forms the local charge transfer state [Cp(2)Mo(dt)-{Ph}(+)-{NDI}(-)] which has a lifetime of about 1.7 ps and decays to produce the ground state and the charge-separated state [(Cp)(2){Mo(dt)}(+·)-Ph-{NDI}(-)]; the latter has an appreciable lifetime, about 15 ns in CH(2)Cl(2) at room temperature.
    Inorganic Chemistry 09/2012; · 4.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The compounds [Cp(2)M(S(2)C(2)(H)R)] (M = Mo or W; R = phenyl, pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, pyridin-4-yl or quinoxalin-2-yl) and [Cp(2)Mo(S(2)C(2)(Me)(pyridin-2-yl)] have been prepared by a facile and general route for the synthesis of dithiolene complexes, viz. the reaction of [Cp(2)MCl(2)] (M = Mo or W) with the dithiolene pro-ligand generated by reacting the corresponding 4-(R)-1,3-dithiol-2-one with CsOH. These Mo compounds were reported previously (Hsu et al., Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 4743); however, the preparative method employed herein is more versatile and generates the compounds in good yield and all of the W compounds are new. Electrochemical investigations have shown that each compound undergoes a diffusion controlled one-electron oxidation (OX(I)) and a one-electron reduction (RED(I)) process; each redox change occurs at a more positive potential for a Mo compound than for its W counterpart. The mono-cations generated by chemical or electrochemical oxidation are stable and the structures of both components of the [Cp(2)Mo(S(2)C(2)(H)R)](+)/[Cp(2)Mo(S(2)C(2)(H)R)] (R = Ph or pyridin-3-yl) redox couples have been determined by X-ray crystallography. For each redox related pair, the changes in the Mo-S, S-C and C-C bond lengths of the {MoSCCS} moiety are generally consistent with OX(I) involving the loss of an electron from a π-orbital that is Mo-S and C-S antibonding and C-C bonding in character. These results have been interpreted successfully within the framework provided by DFT calculations accomplished for [Cp(2)M(S(2)C(2)(H)Ph)](n) (M = Mo or W; n = +1, 0 or -1). The HOMO of the neutral compounds is derived mainly from the dithiolene π(3) orbital (65%); therefore, OX(I) is essentially a dithiolene-based process. The similarity of the potentials for OX(I) (ca. 30 mV) for analogous Mo and W compounds is consistent with this interpretation and the EPR spectra of each of the Mo cations show that the unpaired electron is coupled to the dithiolene proton but relatively weakly to (95,97)Mo. The DFT calculations indicate that the unpaired electron is more localised on the metal in the mono-anions than in the mono-cations. In agreement with this, the EPR spectrum of each of the Mo-containing mono-anions manifests a larger (95,97)Mo coupling (A(iso)) than observed for the corresponding mono-cation and RED(I) for a W compound is significantly (ca. 300 mV) more negative than that of its Mo counterpart. [Cp(2)W(S(2)C(2)(H)(quinoxalin-2-yl))] is anomalous; RED(I) occurs at a potential ca. 230 mV more positive than expected from that of its Mo counterpart and the EPR spectrum of the mono-anion is typical of an organic radical. DFT calculations indicate that these properties arise because the electron is added to a quinoxalin-2-yl π-orbital.
    Dalton Transactions 07/2011; 40(40):10457-72. · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A new method has been developed to synthesise bis η(5)-cyclopentadienyl dithiolene complexes of molybdenum and tungsten. This procedure involves the in situ thermolysis of the azo compounds, 2,2'-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) or 1,1'-azobiscyclohexanecarbonitrile (ACCN) (R'(2)N(2), R' = CMe(2)CN or C(6)H(10)CN, respectively), which initiates a reaction between [Cp(2)M(S(4))] (M = Mo or W) and an alkyne (HC(2)R, R = Ph, 2-pyridyl or 2-quinoxalinyl) and produce the corresponding [Cp(2)M(S(2)C(2)RR')] compound.
    Chemical Communications 11/2010; 47(3):953-4. · 6.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vanadium K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectra have been recorded for the native and peroxo-forms of vanadium chloroperoxidase from Curvularia inaequalis at pH 6.0. The Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) regions provide a refinement of previously reported crystallographic data; one short V=O bond (1.54A) is present in both forms. For the native enzyme, the vanadium is coordinated to two other oxygen atoms at 1.69A, another oxygen atom at 1.93A and the nitrogen of an imidazole group at 2.02A. In the peroxo-form, the vanadium is coordinated to two other oxygen atoms at 1.67A, another oxygen atom at 1.88A and the nitrogen of an imidazole group at 1.93A. When combined with the available crystallographic and kinetic data, a likely interpretation of the EXAFS distances is a side-on bound peroxide involving V-O bonds of 1.67 and 1.88A; thus, the latter oxygen would be 'activated' for transfer. The shorter V-N bond observed in the peroxo-form is in line with the previously reported stronger binding of the cofactor in this form of the enzyme. Reduction of the enzyme with dithionite has a clear influence on the spectrum, showing a change from vanadium(V) to vanadium(IV).
    Journal of inorganic biochemistry 03/2010; 104(6):657-64. · 3.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two cobalt complexes, 5 and 7, both containing 11,11a-dihydropyrano[2,3-b]quinoxaline nuclei, were synthesised as model substances for the molybdenum cofactor of the oxomolybdoenzymes. The organic proligands for the ene-1,2-dithiolates, from which these complexes were formed, were 1,3-dithiol-2-ones, the dianionic ligands being liberated by reaction with caesium hydroxide. The pyran ring in the tetracyclic 1,3-dithiol-2-one proligands, 4b and 6, was formed by ring closure of the side-chain alcohol in a 4-(1-hydroxyalkyl)-5-(quinoxalin-2-yl)-1,3-dithiol-2-one onto an aromatic quinoxaline via reaction with a chloroformate, generating 6-alkyloxycarbonyl-2-oxo-5a,6-dihydro-4H-[1,3]dithiolo[4′,5′:4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]quinoxalines which were then reduced with cyanoborohydride to give 6-alkyloxycarbonyl-5a,6,11,11a-tetrahydro-2-oxo-4H-[1,3]dithiolo[4′,5′:4,5]pyrano[2,3-b]quinoxalines – the proligands.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 33(14).
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 30(20).
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 33(14).
  • Freya J. Hine, Adam J. Taylor, C. David Garner
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    ABSTRACT: The development of the coordination chemistry of dithiolene ligands is summarised, together with a consideration of the electronic structure of complexes of these ‘non-innocent’ ligands. This information provides a context for a consideration of the role of dithiolenes in natural systems, i.e. as the ligand that binds molybdenum (or tungsten) at the catalytic centre of an extensive series of enzymes. These enzymes catalyse the transfer of an oxygen atom to or from the substrate: e.g. the sulfite oxidases catalyse the conversion of sulfite to sulfate and the nitrate reductases catalyse the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nature of the catalytic centres of several of these enzymes has been determined and each involves one or two ‘molybdopterin’ (MPT) cofactors bound to a mononuclear metal centre via their dithiolene group. The biosynthesis of MPT is described and, given its nature, possible roles for this moiety in the function of the oxotransferase enzymes are discussed. The review concludes with a consideration of the coordination chemistry that has been stimulated by the present knowledge of the nature and function of the catalytic centres of these enzymes.
    Coordination Chemistry Reviews - COORD CHEM REV. 01/2010; 254(13):1570-1579.
  • ChemInform 01/2010; 33(28).
  • A. DINSMORE, C. D. GARNER, J. A. JOULE
    ChemInform 01/2010; 29(27).
  • D. COLLISON, C. D. GARNER, J. A. JOULE
    ChemInform 01/2010; 27(42).
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    ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.
    ChemInform 01/2010; 28(50).
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    ABSTRACT: The synthesis and structure of an o-methylthio-phenol-imidazole, 2-(2'-(4'-tert-butyl-6'-methylsulfanyl)-hydroxyphenyl))-4,5-diphenyl-imidazole ((MeS)LH), is reported; X-ray crystallographic studies have shown that (MeS)LH involves an O-H...N(+) hydrogen bond between the phenol and an imidazole nitrogen. (MeS)LH undergoes a reversible, one-electron, oxidation to form the radical cation [(MeS)LH](*)(+) the EPR spectrum of which is remarkably similar to that of (*)Tyr(272) in Cu-free, oxidized, apo-GO. Density Functional Theory calculations, have shown that the proton-transferred (R-O(*)...H-N(+)) form of [(MeS)LH](*)(+) has a spin density distribution--with a substantial delocalization of the unpaired electron spin density onto the ortho sulfur atom--and EPR properties that are in good agreement with those of (*)Tyr(272) in Cu-free, oxidized, apo-GO whereas the non-proton-transferred (R-O(*)(+)-H...N) form does not. The results reported herein are a further demonstration of the influence of hydrogen bonding on the nature and properties of phenoxyl radicals and strongly suggest that the phenoxyl oxygen of (*)Tyr(272) in Cu-free, oxidized, apo-GO is involved in a O(*)...H-O/N hydrogen bond.
    Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 12/2007; 101(11-12):1859-64. · 3.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: As Jørgensen pointed out in 1966 (Coord. Chem. Rev., 1966, 1, 164), a ligand is to be regarded as 'innocent' if it allows the oxidation state of a metal in a complex to be defined. In this respect, the vast majority of ligands are 'innocent' and, therefore, ligands that are 'non-innocent' have received special attention. Dithiolenes have been regarded as 'non-innocent' ligands since it is possible to consider a ligand of this type to be present in a complex as either: (i) an ene-1,2-dithiolate dianion or (ii) a neutral dithioketone. On this basis, the electronic structure of a dithiolene complex can be described by a set of resonance structures, each of which involves the dithiolene in one of the two forms with the oxidation state of the metal centre being adjusted accordingly. The relative importance of these structures is expected to be reflected in the corresponding molecular structure and spectroscopic properties. In this paper we present a theoretical study of the pair of related 5-cyclopentadienyl cobalt dithiolene complexes, [CpCo(S2C2(H)Ph)] and [CpCo(S2C2(H)Ph)(PMe3)]. Density functional theory calculations successfully predict their different structures and NMR chemical shifts, which we have measured. These wavefunctions have been analysed, particularly in terms of Natural Bond Orbitals and Nucleus Independent Chemical Shifts in an attempt to understand how "innocence" or otherwise is reflected in the experimental data. To this end, a similar analysis is applied to the gold complexes [Au(S2C2(H)Ph)2] and [Au(S2C2(H)Ph)2].
    Faraday Discussions 02/2007; 135:469-88; discussion 489-506. · 3.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two pro-ligands ((R)LH) comprised of an o,p-di-tert-butyl-substituted phenol covalently bonded to a benzimidazole ((Bz)LH) or a 4,5-di-p-methoxyphenyl substituted imidazole ((PhOMe)LH), have been structurally characterised. Each possesses an intramolecular O-H[dot dot dot]N hydrogen bond between the phenolic O-H group and an imidazole nitrogen atom and (1)H NMR studies show that this bond is retained in solution. Each (R)LH undergoes an electrochemically reversible, one-electron, oxidation to form the [(R)LH] (+) radical cation that is considered to be stabilised by an intramolecular O...H-N hydrogen bond. The (R)LH pro-ligands react with M(BF(4))(2).H(2)O (M = Cu or Zn) in the presence of Et(3)N to form the corresponding [M((R)L)(2)] compound. [Cu((Bz)L)(2)] (), [Cu((PhOMe)L)(2)] (), [Zn((Bz)L)(2)] and [Zn((PhOMe)L)(2)] have been isolated and the structures of .4MeCN, .2MeOH, .2MeCN and .2MeCN determined by X-ray crystallography. In each compound the metal possesses an N(2)O(2)-coordination sphere: in .4MeCN and .2MeOH the {CuN(2)O(2)} centre has a distorted square planar geometry; in .2MeCN and .2MeCN the {ZnN(2)O(2)} centre has a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The X-band EPR spectra of both and , in CH(2)Cl(2)-DMF (9 : 1) solution at 77 K, are consistent with the presence of a Cu(ii) complex having the structure identified by X-ray crystallography. Electrochemical studies have shown that each undergo two, one-electron, oxidations; the potentials of these processes and the UV/vis and EPR properties of the products indicate that each oxidation is ligand-based. The first oxidation produces [M(II)((R)L)((R)L )](+), comprising a M(ii) centre bound to a phenoxide ((R)L) and a phenoxyl radical ((R)L ) ligand; these cations have been generated electrochemically and, for R = PhOMe, chemically by oxidation with Ag[BF(4)]. The second oxidation produces [M(II)((R)L )(2)](2+). The information obtained from these investigations shows that a suitable pro-ligand design allows a relatively inert phenoxyl radical to be generated, stabilised by either a hydrogen bond, as in [(R)LH] (+) (R = Bz or PhOMe), or by coordination to a metal, as in [M(II)((R)L)((R)L )](+) (M = Cu or Zn; R = Bz or PhOMe). Coordination to a metal is more effective than hydrogen bonding in stabilising a phenoxyl radical and Cu(ii) is slightly more effective than Zn(II) in this respect.
    Dalton Transactions 02/2006; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Four new [Au(dithiolene)2]− complexes, each involving two asymmetrically substituted dithiolene ligands (SC(H)C(R)S; R=phenyl, pyridin-2-yl, pyridin-3-yl, or pyridin-4-yl), have been synthesized by reacting K[AuCl4] with the corresponding dithiolene, generated by base hydrolysis of the thione-protected 1,3-dithiolate. Each complex has been isolated as its [PPh4]+ salt and the structures of these [PPh4][Au(dithiolene)2] compounds have been determined by X-ray crystallography; each anion possesses a square planar {AuS4} core with a cis-arrangement of the R groups for R=phenyl and pyridin-2-yl complexes, but a trans-arrangement for R=pyridin-3-yl and pyridin-4-yl. In each compound, the lengths of the C–C (1.34±0.01Å) and C–S (1.75 0.03Å) bonds of the metallocycle are consistent with the ene-1,2-dithiolate form of the dithiolene, i.e., these are [Au(III)bis(ene-1,2-dithiolate)]− complexes. Each compound is diamagnetic and 1H NMR studies indicate that, in solution in d6-acetone, both the cis and trans isomers of the [Au(SC(H)C(R)S)2]− anion are present and do not interconvert at room temperature. Each [Au(dithiolene)2]− complex undergoes an oxidation (80Epa230mV) and a reduction (-1880Epc(red)-2020mV; versus [Fc]+/[Fc]); the particular potentials observed correlate with the electron withdrawing ability of the dithiolene substituent (R), as expressed by the Hammett σp-parameter. Comparison of the information obtained in these studies with that determined for related systems leads to the conclusion that the oxidation is a ligand-based process and that reduction involves addition of an electron to an orbital that possesses both metal and ligand character.
    Polyhedron 01/2006; 25(2):591-598. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Density functional theory calculations have been performed to probe aspects of the function of the reaction centres of the DMSO reductase enzymes, in respect of catalysis of oxygen atom transfer (OAT). The first comparison between Mo and W at the active site of these enzymes has been accomplished by a consideration of the reaction profile for OAT from DMSO to [MoIV(OMe)(S2C2H2)2]1- versus that for the corresponding reaction with [WIV(OMe)(S2C2H2)2]1-. Both reaction profiles involve two transition states separated by a well-defined intermediate; however, whilst the second transition state (TS2) is clearly rate-limiting for the Mo system, the two transition states have a similar energy for the W system. The activation energy for OAT from DMSO to [WIV(OMe)(S2C2H2)2]1- is ca. 23 kJ mol-1 lower for the corresponding reaction with Mo, consistent with the significantly faster rate of reduction of DMSO by Rhodobacter capsulatus W-DMSO reductase than by its Mo counterpart. Consistent with the principle of the entatic state, the geometrical constraints imposed by the protein on the metal centre of the Mo- and W-DMSO reductases facilitate OAT by favouring a trigonal prismatic geometry for the transition state TS2 that is close to that observed for the metal in the oxidised form of each of these enzymes. The effects of different tautomers of a simplified form of the pyran ring-opened, dihydropterin state of the molybdopterin cofactor on the reaction profile for OAT have been considered. The major effect, a significant lowering of the activation barrier associated with TS2, is observed for a protonated form of a tautomer that involves conjugation between the pyrazine and metallodithiolene rings.
    Dalton Transactions 12/2005; · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    Angewandte Chemie International Edition 09/2005; 44(33):5314-7. · 11.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Density functional theory calculations suggest that bicyclic structures of the "molybdopterin" in DMSO reductases may have an important catalytic role in oxygen atom transfer reactions.
    Chemical Communications 02/2005; · 6.38 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

1k Citations
873.93 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2000–2013
    • University of Nottingham
      • School of Chemistry
      Nottigham, England, United Kingdom
  • 2010
    • Universiti Brunei Darussalam
      Brunei Town, Brunei and Muara, Brunei
    • University of Amsterdam
      • Van 't Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences
      Amsterdam, North Holland, Netherlands
  • 1974–2010
    • The University of Manchester
      • School of Chemistry
      Manchester, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004
    • Delft University of Technology
      Delft, South Holland, Netherlands
    • Johns Hopkins University
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1978–2001
    • Newcastle University
      • School of Chemistry
      Béal Feirste, N Ireland, United Kingdom
  • 1996–1999
    • University of East Anglia
      • School of Biological Sciences
      Norwich, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1998
    • University of Zurich
      • Biochemisches Institut
      Zürich, ZH, Switzerland
  • 1986
    • The University of Arizona
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1976
    • University of Oxford
      • Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory
      Oxford, ENG, United Kingdom