P S Foxworthy

Eli Lilly, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States

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Publications (31)99.11 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Control of plasma cholesterol levels is a major therapeutic strategy for management of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although reducing LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreases morbidity and mortality, this therapeutic intervention only translates into a 25-40% reduction in cardiovascular events. Epidemiological studies have shown that high LDL-c level is not the only risk factor for CAD; low HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) is an independent risk factor for CAD. Apolipoprotein AI (ApoA-I) is the major protein component of HDL-c that mediates reverse cholesterol transport from tissues to the liver for excretion. Therefore, increasing ApoA-I levels is an attractive strategy for HDL-c elevation. Using genome-wide siRNA screening, targets that regulate hepatocyte ApoA-I secretion were identified through transfection of 21,789 siRNAs into hepatocytes whereby cell supernatants were assayed for ApoA-I. Approximately 800 genes were identified and triaged using a convergence of information, including genetic associations with HDL-c levels, tissue specific gene expression, druggability assessments, and pathway analysis. Fifty-nine genes were selected for reconfirmation; forty genes confirmed. Here we describe the siRNA screening strategy, assay implementation and validation, data triaging, and example genes of interest. Among the genes of interest are known and novel genes encoding secreted enzymes, proteases, GPCRs, metabolic enzymes, ion transporters and proteins of unknown function. Repression of farnesyltransferase (FNTA) by siRNA and the enzyme inhibitor, Manumycin A, caused elevation of ApoA-I secretion from hepatocytes and from transgenic mice expressing hApoA-I and cholesterol ester transfer protein transgenes. In total, this work underscores the power of functional genetic assessment to identify new therapeutic targets.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2013; 288(9). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M112.410092 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Peroxisomes are the exclusive site for the beta-oxidation of very-long-chain fatty acids of more than 20 carbons in length (VLCFAs). Although the bulk of dietary long-chain fatty acids are oxidized in the mitochondria, VLCFAs cannot be catabolized in mitochondria and must be shortened first by peroxisomal beta-oxidation. The regulation of peroxisomal, mitochondrial, and microsomal fatty acid oxidation systems in liver is mediated principally by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). In this study we provide evidence that the liver X receptor (LXR) regulates the expression of the genetic program for peroxisomal beta-oxidation in liver. The genes encoding the three enzymes of the classic peroxisomal beta-oxidation cycle, acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase/L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase, are activated by the LXR ligand, T0901317. Accordingly, administration of T0901317 in mice promoted a dose-dependent and greater than 2-fold increase in the rate of peroxisomal beta-oxidation in the liver. The LXR effect is independent of PPARalpha, because T0901317-induced peroxisomal beta-oxidation in the liver of PPARalpha-null mice. Interestingly, T0901317-induced peroxisomal beta-oxidation is dependent on the LXRalpha isoform, but not the LXRbeta isoform. We propose that induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation by LXR agonists may serve as a counterregulatory mechanism for responding to the hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis that is promoted by potent LXR agonists in vivo; however, additional studies are warranted.
    Endocrinology 01/2006; 146(12):5380-7. DOI:10.1210/en.2005-0591 · 4.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A G-protein coupled receptor to niacin (nicotinic acid) was identified recently but the physiological/pharmacological role of the receptor remains poorly defined. We present our studies to demonstrate that HM74A, but not HM74, binds niacin at high affinities and effectively mediates Gi signaling events in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells as well as in 3T3L1 adipocytes expressing HM74A. Furthermore, HM74A, but not HM74, expressed in differentiated 3T3L1 adipocytes effectively mediated inhibition of lipolysis by niacin. Our results provided direct evidence indicating that HM74A, but not HM74, was sufficient to mediate anti-lipolytic effect of niacin in adipose tissue.
    Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2005; 334(2):729-32. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.06.141 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Liver X receptors (LXRs) are master transcription factors regulating cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Treatment of C57B6 mice with a specific synthetic LXR agonist, N-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-N-[4-[2,2,2-trifluoro-1-hydroxy-1(trifluoromethyl)-ethyl]phenyl]-benzenesulfonamide (T0901317), resulted in elevated high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol as well as plasma and liver triglycerides. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonists are known to induce peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation and also mediate HDL cholesterol metabolism. We have explored the hypothesis that simultaneous activation of PPARalpha and LXR may lead to additive effects on HDL cholesterol elevation as well as attenuation of triglyceride accumulation. Coadministration of T0901317 and the specific PPARalpha agonist [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (Wy14643)] in mice led to synergistic elevation of HDL cholesterol that was primarily associated with enlarged HDL particles enriched with apoE and apoAI. Liver phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) mRNA and plasma PLTP activity were additively elevated, suggesting a role of PLTP in the observed HDL cholesterol elevation. Moderate increases in plasma triglyceride levels induced by LXR activation was reduced, whereas the accumulation of triglyceride in the liver was not altered upon coadministration of the PPARalpha agonist. Peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation in the liver was dramatically elevated upon PPARalpha activation as expected. Interestingly, activation of LXRs via T0901317 also led to a significant increase in peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c expression was dramatically up-regulated by the LXR agonist but was not changed with PPARalpha agonist treatment. Liver lipoprotein lipase expression was additively increased upon LXR agonist and PPARalpha agonist coadministration. Our studies mark the first exploration of nuclear receptor interplay on lipid homeostasis in vivo.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2004; 309(3):861-8. DOI:10.1124/jpet.103.064535 · 3.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid beta-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors alpha and beta (LXRalpha and LXRbeta). Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs. Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs. The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARalpha. Thus, these two nuclear receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical switch that determines PPARalpha versus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(4):2403-10. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M209629200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The oxysterol receptors LXR (liver X receptor)-alpha and LXRbeta are nuclear receptors that play a key role in regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. We found that LXRs also play a significant role in glucose metabolism. Treatment of diabetic rodents with the LXR agonist, T0901317, resulted in dramatic reduction of plasma glucose. In insulin-resistant Zucker (fa/fa) rats, T0901317 significantly improved insulin sensitivity. Activation of LXR did not induce robust adipogenesis but rather inhibited the expression of several genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis, including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). Hepatic glucose output was dramatically reduced as a result of this regulation. Nuclear run-on studies indicated that transcriptional repression was primarily responsible for the inhibition of PEPCK by the LXR agonist. In addition, we show that the regulation of the liver gluconeogenic pathway by LXR agonists was a direct effect on hepatocytes. These data not only suggest that LXRs are novel targets for diabetes but also reveal an unanticipated role for these receptors, further linking lipid and glucose metabolism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/2003; 278(2):1131-6. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M210208200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fenofibrate is clinically successful in treating hypertriglyceridemia and mixed hyperlipidemia presumably through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα)-dependent induction of genes that control fatty acid β-oxidation. Lipid homeostasis and cholesterol metabolism also are regulated by the nuclear oxysterol receptors, liver X receptors α and β (LXRα and LXRβ). Here we show that fenofibrate ester, but not fenofibric acid, functions as an LXR antagonist by directly binding to LXRs. Likewise, ester forms, but not carboxylic acid forms, of other members of the fibrate class of molecules antagonize the LXRs. The fibrate esters display greater affinity for LXRs than the corresponding fibric acids have for PPARα. Thus, these two nuclear receptors display a degree of conservation in their recognition of ligands; yet, the acid/ester moiety acts as a chemical switch that determines PPARαversus LXR specificity. Consistent with its LXR antagonistic activity, fenofibrate potently represses LXR agonist-induced transcription of hepatic lipogenic genes. Surprisingly, fenofibrate does not repress LXR-induced transcription of various ATP-binding cassette transporters either in liver or in macrophages, suggesting that fenofibrate manifests variable biocharacter in the context of differing gene promoters. These findings provide not only an unexpected mechanism by which fenofibrate inhibits lipogenesis but also the basis for examination of the pharmacology of an LXR ligand in humans.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2003; 278(4):2403-2410. · 4.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estrogen replacement therapy in women decreases hepatic lipase (HL) activity, which may account for the associated increase in HDL cholesterol. To investigate whether estrogen decreases HL transcription, transient cotransfection assays with HL promoter and estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) expression constructs were performed in HepG2 cells. 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) decreased transcription driven by the -1557/+41 human HL promoter by up to 50% at 10(-7) M. Mutation of ERalpha by deletion of its transactivation domains or ligand-binding domain eliminated E(2)-induced repression of the promoter, whereas deletion of the DNA-binding domain of ERalpha resulted in a 7-fold activation by E(2). The E(2)-induced repression was maintained after mutation of a potential estrogen-response element in the promoter. The region of estrogen responsiveness was localized to -1557/-1175 of the HL promoter by deletion analysis. Mutation of an AP-1 site at -1493 resulted in a partial loss of E(2)-induced repression, similar to that caused by deletion of nucleotides -1557 to -1366. Gel shift assays with nuclear extracts from E(2)-treated HepG2 cells stably expressing ERalpha demonstrated an increase in binding to an AP-1 consensus oligonucleotide. The AP-1 activator, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, inhibited the HL promoter by greater than 50%. Collectively, the data suggest that estrogen represses the transcription of the HL gene, possibly through an AP-1 pathway.
    The Journal of Lipid Research 04/2002; 43(3):383-91. · 4.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4alpha-(2-Propenyl)-5alpha-cholest-24-en-3alpha-ol (3) was shown recently in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based low-density lipoprotein receptor/luciferase (LDLR/Luc) assay to be a potent transcriptional activator of the LDL receptor promoter in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. Because of the involvement of 12alpha-hydroxylation in the metabolism of cholesterol, we are interested in investigating the effect of introducing a 12alpha-hydroxyl group to 3 on the transcriptional activity of the LDL receptor promoter. Thus 4alpha-(2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholest-24-en-3alpha,12a lpha-diol (14), a 12alpha-hydroxyl analog of 3, was synthesized from deoxycholic acid via the formation of 12alpha-[[(tertbutyl)dimethylsilyl]oxy]-4alpha-( 2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholest-24-en-3-one (11). Test results show that 14 is inactive at concentrations of up to 20 microg/ml, compared to 3 with an EC30 value of 2.6 microM, in the CHO cell-based LDLR/Luc assay. Apparently introduction of a 12alpha-hydroxyl group abolishes the capability of 3alpha-sterol 14 to activate the transcription of the LDL receptor promoter. However, in the [1-14C-acetate]cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition assay in CHO cells, 14 at 10 microg/ml (23 microM) is shown to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis by 51% relative to the control cells. Our previous studies indicated that 3 showed a 38% inhibition, but 4alpha-(2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol (1) exhibited no inhibition in the same assay at 10 microg/ml. In summary the results indicate that, in addition to the 24,25-unsaturation, the 12alpha-hydroxyl group in 14 has also conferred an inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells; however, the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by 14 does not lead to the transcriptional activation of the LDL receptor promoter.
    Steroids 11/1999; 64(10):735-41. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4Alpha-(2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol (LY295427) was previously identified from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based low density lipoprotein receptor/luciferase (LDLR/Luc) assay to be a potent transcriptional activator of the LDL receptor promoter in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. To investigate the effect of the 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain (desmosterol D-ring side chain) on antagonizing the repressing effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol, 4alpha-(2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholest-24-en-3alpha-ol (17), a 24,25-dehydro analog of LY295427, was thus synthesized from lithocholic acid via the formation of 3alpha-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)dimethylsilyl]oxy]-4alpha- (2-propenyl)-5alpha-cholan-24-al (15). Test results showed that 17 had an EC30 value of 2.6 microM, comparable to 2.9 microM of LY295427, in the CHO cell-based LDLR/Luc assay in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. Apparently, the built-in 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain of 17 had added little effect to antagonizing the repressing effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol. In the [1-14C-acetate]cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition assay, 17 at 10 microg/ml (23 microM) has been shown to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells by 38% relative to the vehicle control; whereas LY295427 showed no inhibition in the same assay in our previous studies. In contrast to LY295427, the built-in 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain of 17 has conferred an inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells. In summary, the observed LDL receptor promoter activity of 17 is related to its ability to prevent 25-hydroxycholesterol from exerting the repressing effect via an undetermined mechanism and, in part, to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis.
    Steroids 04/1999; 64(3):217-27. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4α-(2-Propenyl)-5α-cholestan-3α-ol (LY295427) was previously identified from a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based low density lipoprotein receptor/luciferase (LDLR/Luc) assay to be a potent transcriptional activator of the LDL receptor promoter in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. To investigate the effect of the 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain (desmosterol D-ring side chain) on antagonizing the repressing effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol, 4α-(2-propenyl)-5α-cholest-24-en-3α-ol (17), a 24,25-dehydro analog of LY295427, was thus synthesized from lithocholic acid via the formation of 3α-[[(1,1-dimethylethyl)dimethylsilyl]oxy]-4α-(2-propenyl)-5α-cholan-24-al (15). Test results showed that 17 had an EC30 value of 2.6 μM, comparable to 2.9 μM of LY295427, in the CHO cell-based LDLR/Luc assay in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. Apparently, the built-in 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain of 17 had added little effect to antagonizing the repressing effect of 25-hydroxycholesterol. In the [1-14C-acetate]cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition assay, 17 at 10 μg/ml (23 μM) has been shown to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells by 38% relative to the vehicle control; whereas LY295427 showed no inhibition in the same assay in our previous studies. In contrast to LY295427, the built-in 24,25-unsaturation in the D-ring side chain of 17 has conferred an inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells. In summary, the observed LDL receptor promoter activity of 17 is related to its ability to prevent 25-hydroxycholesterol from exerting the repressing effect via an undetermined mechanism and, in part, to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis.
    Steroids 03/1999; 64(3-64):217-227. DOI:10.1016/S0039-128X(98)00083-X · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 4α-(2-Propenyl)-5α-cholest-24-en-3α-ol (3) was shown recently in a Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-based low-density lipoprotein receptor/luciferase (LDLR/Luc) assay to be a potent transcriptional activator of the LDL receptor promoter in the presence of 25-hydroxycholesterol. Because of the involvement of 12α-hydroxylation in the metabolism of cholesterol, we are interested in investigating the effect of introducing a 12α-hydroxyl group to 3 on the transcriptional activity of the LDL receptor promoter. Thus 4α-(2-propenyl)-5α-cholest-24-en-3α,12α-diol (14), a 12α-hydroxyl analog of 3, was synthesized from deoxycholic acid via the formation of 12α-[[(tert-butyl)dimethylsilyl]oxy]-4α-(2-propenyl)-5α-cholest-24-en-3-one (11). Test results show that 14 is inactive at concentrations of up to 20 μg/ml, compared to 3 with an EC30 value of 2.6 μM, in the CHO cell-based LDLR/Luc assay. Apparently introduction of a 12α-hydroxyl group abolishes the capability of 3α-sterol 14 to activate the transcription of the LDL receptor promoter. However, in the [1-14C-acetate]cholesterol biosynthesis inhibition assay in CHO cells, 14 at 10 μg/ml (23 μM) is shown to inhibit the cholesterol biosynthesis by 51% relative to the control cells. Our previous studies indicated that 3 showed a 38% inhibition, but 4α-(2-propenyl)-5α-cholestan-3α-ol (1) exhibited no inhibition in the same assay at 10 μg/ml. In summary the results indicate that, in addition to the 24,25-unsaturation, the 12α-hydroxyl group in 14 has also conferred an inhibitory effect on cholesterol biosynthesis in CHO cells; however, the inhibition of cholesterol biosynthesis by 14 does not lead to the transcriptional activation of the LDL receptor promoter.
    Steroids 01/1999; 64(10):735-741. DOI:10.1016/S0039-128X(99)00053-7 · 2.72 Impact Factor
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 01/1997; 804:387-402. DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1996.tb18630.x · 4.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Induction of peroxisome proliferator responsive genes is thought to be mediated through binding of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) to specific peroxisome proliferator response elements in the upstream region of these genes. Binding of PPAR to the acyl-CoA oxidase promoter requires heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR), and subsequent transactivation is strongest when ligands for both PPAR and RXR are present. Therefore, we hypothesized that depletion of ligand for the retinoid receptor would limit the induction of peroxisome proliferation in rats. Hepatic retinol content was reduced by more than 90% by feeding weanling rats a vitamin A deficient (VAD) diet for approximately 3 months. Nafenopin treatment for 7 days induced peroxisomal beta-oxidation 18-fold in VAD rats compared with 16-fold in rats fed a vitamin A sufficient (VAS) diet. Nafenopin induced microsomal laurate hydroxylase and mitochondrial beta-oxidation to comparable rates of specific activity in both VAD and VAS rats. However, the activities in VAD controls were significantly lower than in VAS controls, so the magnitude of the nafenopin-induced increases was greater in the VAD rats. Relative liver weights were increased nearly 2-fold in both VAS and VAD rats treated with nafenopin. Ultrastructural examination of the livers demonstrated that nafenopin increased the number and size of peroxisomes in both VAD and VAS rats. These data demonstrate that rats with severely depleted vitamin A stores remained responsive to the peroxisome proliferator nafenopin. Whether critical retinoid pools that supply RXR ligand (9-cis-retinoic acid) are spared in the vitamin A deficient rats remains to be determined.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 04/1995; 49(7):915-9. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(95)00002-H · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Patricia S. Foxworthy, Patrick I. Eacho
    Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 03/1994; 31(1):21-30. DOI:10.1016/1056-8719(94)90025-6 · 2.15 Impact Factor
  • Microscopy Research and Technique 10/1993; 26(2):184-5. DOI:10.1002/jemt.1070260215 · 1.17 Impact Factor
  • P S Foxworthy, D N Perry, P I Eacho
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    ABSTRACT: Several chemical and pharmacologic agents have been identified as peroxisome proliferators in rodents. Most of these compounds contain a lipophilic backbone linked to an acid moiety, generally a carboxylate. Since ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs share these structural characteristics, their effects on peroxisomal beta-oxidation were examined. Ibuprofen, flurbiprofen, and indomethacin caused dose-related increases in peroxisomal beta-oxidation in cultured rat hepatocytes. The dose-response for ibuprofen and flurbiprofen was roughly equivalent to that of clofibric acid, whereas indomethacin was less active. Ibuprofen and flurbiprofen are arylpropionic acids, which are structurally similar to the aryloxyisobutyric acid clofibric acid. Indomethacin differs structurally in that the acid substitution is on an indole ring. This structural difference may be responsible for the difference in activity. Ibuprofen and clofibric acid were also compared in vivo following 2-week dietary administration to rats. Ibuprofen increased relative liver weight and peroxisomal beta-oxidation and reduced serum lipids. Clofibric acid was more active than ibuprofen in vivo, particularly with respect to induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation (16.8-fold vs 3-fold, respectively). The difference in activity of the two compounds in vivo was not consistent with the results in vitro. The disparity in peroxisomal activity of ibuprofen in the two test systems may be related to pharmacokinetic factors which are not present in vitro.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 03/1993; 118(2):271-4. DOI:10.1006/taap.1993.1033 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • P I Eacho, T L Lanier, P S Foxworthy, D M Hoover
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    ABSTRACT: LY171883 was shown to increase the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas and other proliferative lesions in female B6C3F1 mice. This appeared to be unrelated to the induction of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of dietary LY171883 for 7 or 94 days on hepatocellular replication using continuous 7-day infusion of bromodeoxyuridine. LY171883 caused a dose-related increase in hepatocyte replication during the first 7 days, with statistical significance in the two higher dose groups. There was no effect on hepatocyte replication after 94 days of treatment. Liver weight and peroxisomal beta-oxidation were increased in the two higher dose groups after 7 and 94 days, indicating there was not a general loss of hepatic responsiveness to LY171883. The data indicate that the hepatocarcinogenesis of LY171883 in female B6C3F1 mice is not associated with sustained replication in the general population of hepatocytes. It is possible that a mitogenic effect of LY171883 exerted on spontaneously initiated cells is involved in the development of the proliferative lesions; however, further work is needed to determine this.
    Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 06/1992; 18(4):632-4. DOI:10.1016/0272-0590(92)90125-2
  • Patricia S. Foxworthy, Patrick I. Eacho
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    ABSTRACT: LY171883 is a leukotriene D4 antagonist that induces peroxisome proliferation in the rodent liver. Like many peroxisome-proliferating agents, it causes transient lipid accumulation and several other changes in hepatic lipid metabolism. The effect of LY171883 on lipid metabolism was studied further in rats maintained on a fat-free diet. Administration of a fat-free diet for 14 days caused a 5.6-fold increase in liver triglycerides associated with a 3.3-fold increase in fatty acid synthetase. Co-administration of 0.1% LY171883 increased liver triglycerides slightly, whereas 0.3% LY171883 prevented the accumulation of triglycerides. Furthermore, treatment with 0.3% LY171883 reversed the fatty liver in rats pretreated with the fat-free diet for 14 days. Fatty acid synthetase activity increased comparably in all treatment groups, indicating that 0.3% LY171883 did not prevent the lipogenic response to a fat-free diet. In rats treated with 0.3% LY171883, peroxisomal beta-oxidation increased 9.5-fold, mitochondrial beta-oxidation 4.8-fold, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I 1.9-fold, and plasma ketones 3-fold. In the 0.1% dose group the increases in these parameters were smaller. The data indicate that 0.3% LY171883 sufficiently increased mitochondrial and peroxisomal beta-oxidation such that fatty acids generated by lipogenesis were preferentially oxidized rather than esterified to triglycerides. In the 0.1% dose group oxidation was only mildly increased, and the excess fatty acids continued to be esterified.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 10/1991; 42(7):1487-91. DOI:10.1016/0006-2952(91)90463-F · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary administration of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3% LY171883 to rats for 1 day caused a dose-related increase in hepatic triglycerides. When added to rat liver mitochondria in vitro, LY171883 caused competitive inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzyme for mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. This effect appears to be involved in the lipid accumulation. The hepatic triglycerides in rats given 0.1% LY171883 increased progressively through 3 months of treatment. In contrast, hepatic triglycerides in high-dose rats returned to control levels by Day 3 and remained there throughout the study. The regression of the lipid corresponded with increases in hepatic peroxisomal beta-oxidation, mitochondrial beta-oxidation, and CPT-1 activity of up to 13-, 7-, and 3.2-fold, respectively. The 0.1% dose increased these parameters modestly compared to those of high-dose rats (2-, 3-, and 1.6-fold, respectively). Addition of LY171883 to mitochondria from rats given dietary treatment for 2 weeks inhibited CPT-I by the same percentage as in control mitochondria. In mid-dose rats, the induction of CPT-I was largely negated by LY171883 in vitro. Even with the inhibition, CPT-I activity in mitochondria from high-dose rats remained 2-fold higher than that in untreated controls. The data suggest that the induction of CPT-I in high-dose rats was sufficient to overcome the inhibitory action of LY171883. The increased oxidative capacity in peroxisomes and mitochondria led to the regression of the lipid in high-dose rats. The more modest increases in fatty acid oxidation in rats given 0.1% LY171883 were not sufficient to reverse the lipid accumulation.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 01/1991; 106(3):375-83. DOI:10.1016/0041-008X(90)90334-Q · 3.63 Impact Factor