M E Wohl

Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, United States

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Publications (53)318.05 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To characterize the rate of decline of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis and to identify and compare risk factors associated with FEV(1) decline. The rate of decline in FEV(1)% predicted over 3 to 6 years in 3 different age groups was determined. Risk factors for decline were identified and compared among and within age groups as a function of disease severity with repeated-measures, mixed-model regression. Mean (+/-SD) baseline FEV(1)% predicted was 88.4% +/- 20.5% for 6- to 8-year-olds (n = 1811), 85.3% +/- 20.8% for 9- to 12-year-olds (n = 1696), and 78.4% +/- 22.0% for 13- to 17-year-olds (n = 1359). Decline in FEV(1)% predicted/year was -1.12, -2.39, and -2.34, respectively. High baseline FEV(1) and persistent crackles were significant independent risk factors for decline across all age groups. Female sex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, low weight-for-age, sputum, wheezing, sinusitis, pulmonary exacerbations treated with intravenous antibiotics, elevated liver test results, and pancreatic insufficiency were also identified as independent risk factors in some age groups. This study identifies risk factors for FEV(1) decline in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis. Clinicians should not be reassured by high lung function, particularly in young children, because this factor, among others, is independently associated with steeper decline in FEV(1).
    The Journal of pediatrics 09/2007; 151(2):134-9, 139.e1. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) are known to be at risk for early osteoporosis, and the mechanisms that mediate bone loss are still being delineated. The aim of the present investigation was to investigate if a correlation exists in these patients between skeletal measurements by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and two anabolic factors, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), and proresorptive factors such as the cytokines interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-6. We studied 32 outpatients (18 females; mean age: 26.2+/-7.9 years) at a tertiary care medical center. The subjects had venous samples obtained, underwent anthropometric and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements, and completed a health survey. Serum IGF-I concentrations were below the age-adjusted mean in 78% of the participants, and DHEA sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations were low in 72%. Serum concentrations of all cytokines were on the low side of normal; nonetheless, there was a modest inverse correlation between IL-1beta and BMD at all sites. In univariate analyses, IGF-I and DHEAS were significant correlates of BMD or bone mineral content. In final multivariate models controlling for anthropometric and other variables of relevance to bone density, only IGF-I was identified as a significant independent skeletal predictor. While alterations in DHEAS, IGF-I, and specific cytokines may contribute to skeletal deficits in patients with CF, of these factors a low IGF-I concentration appears to be most strongly correlated with BMD. These findings may have therapeutic implications for enhancing bone density in these patients.
    Osteoporosis International 02/2006; 17(5):783-90. · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis causes exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, leading to malabsorption. Supplemental pancreatic enzyme therapy alleviates the concomitant malnutrition experienced by cystic fibrosis patients. It is recognized that patients experience variations in clinical response to different brands of enzymes. This has prompted the US Food and Drug Administration to require that enzyme supplements be subjected to New Drug Applications. To investigate the safety and efficacy of supplemental pancreatic enzyme therapy in cystic fibrosis subjects. We compared two doses of one formulation of enteric-coated pancreatic enzymes: Ultrase MT12 (12,000 lipase units per capsule) and Ultrase MT20 (20,000 lipase units per capsule), to placebo in two separate safety and efficacy studies. Mean total fat, protein and carbohydrate intake did not differ significantly between the groups. A significant difference in both fat and protein absorption occurred with the enzyme therapy groups. The Ultrase MT12 and Ultrase MT20 groups experienced a mean fat and protein absorption 79.4% and 83.8%, and 87.3% and 88.6%, respectively. No adverse events related to study drug were reported. This study further supports the use of enzymes to treat pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis. Excellent fat and protein absorption was achieved with minimal adverse events and safe doses.
    Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 01/2005; 20(11-12):1365-71. · 5.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical characteristics most relevant to the decision to treat for a pulmonary exacerbation with antibiotics in cystic fibrosis patients were determined. Variables including age, increased cough frequency and sputum production, new crackles and wheezing, asthma, symptomatic sinusitis, hemoptysis, decreased lung function, weight loss, and new acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were collected in a large prospective multicenter database (Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis). During a 12-month baseline period, data from 11692 patients were compared with data collected during the subsequent 6-month study period. Because pulmonary function assessments were unavailable for patients <6 years of age, separate analyses were done for those <6 and >or=6 years of age. The outcome of interest was any antibiotic treatment in the 6-month study period reported as indicated for an exacerbation. Characteristics with the most discriminatory power were determined using stepwise multiple logistic regression. For patients <6 years of age, the strongest independent associations with treatment for a pulmonary exacerbation were new crackles, increased cough frequency, decline in weight, and increased sputum production. For those patients >or=6 years of age, the strongest independent associations were a relative decrease in percent predicted forced expired volume in 1 sec, increased cough frequency, new crackles, and hemoptysis. The presence of three or more of these key characteristics was strongly associated with the occurrence of a treated exacerbation. The reproducibility of the model over time was confirmed by application to a subsequent set of data. This model has potential for use as an outcome measure in clinical trials, and to assist in treatment decisions for individual patients.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 05/2004; 37(5):400-6. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared three methods of reporting maximal expiratory flow (V′maxFRC) measured in partial expiratory flow-volume curves (PEFVCs) at the point of functional residual capacity (FRC). PEFVCs were obtained with the rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique (RTC) on a total of 446 occasions in 281 HIV-negative, asymptomatic infants (4.8–28.1 months old). Three different expressions of V′maxFRC were recorded: 1) the highest measured flow (maxV′FRC), 2) the mean of the three highest flows (mean3V′FRC), and 3) the flow at FRC in a composite curve (compV′FRC) consisting of PEFVCs, obtained at different jacket pressures and superimposed at their distal limb. The numerical value of maxV′FRC was 7.4% (±5.6%) higher than the mean3V′FRC, and 11.9% (±17.7%) higher than the compV′FRC; the mean3V′FRC was 5% (±18.3%) higher than the compV′FRC. Bland-Altman analysis was used to evaluate the agreement between the three indices. The mean difference and 95% limits of agreement were: maxV′FRC −mean3V′FRC, 14 ± 18 ml/sec; maxV′FRC − compV′FRC, 23 ± 58 ml/sec; and mean3V′FRC − compV′FRC, 10 ± 52 ml/sec. The differences between the slopes of the three indices (regressed against height) were statistically significant, although clinically unimportant. We conclude that despite their high correlation, the mean3V′FRC and maxV′FRC should not be used interchangeably, and that the composite analysis, although useful, does not improve the reproducibility of V′maxFRC, and thus it cannot be recommended for routine use in its current form. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2004; 37:318–323. © 2004 Wiely-Liss, Inc.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 03/2004; 37(4):318 - 323. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the relation of growth and nutritional status to pulmonary function in young children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The relation of weight-for-age (WFA), height-for-age (HFA), percent ideal body weight (%IBW), and signs of lung disease at age 3 years with pulmonary function at age 6 years was assessed in 931 patients with CF. Associations of changes in WFA from age 3 to 6 on pulmonary function were also assessed. WFA, HFA, and %IBW were poorly associated with lung disease at age 3 years, but all were strongly associated with pulmonary function at age 6 years. Those with WFA below the 5th percentile at age 3 had lower pulmonary function at age 6 compared with those above the 75th percentile (FEV(1): 86 +/- 20 [SD] versus 102 +/- 18 % predicted, respectively). Pulmonary function was highest in those whose WFA remained >10th percentile from age 3 to 6 (FEV(1): 100 +/- 19 % predicted) and lowest in those who remained <10th percentile (84 +/- 21 % predicted). Patients with signs and symptoms of lung disease at age 3 years had lower pulmonary function at age 6 years. Aggressive intervention early in life aimed at growth and nutrition and/or lung disease may affect pulmonary function.
    Journal of Pediatrics 06/2003; 142(6):624-30. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines for managing cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have been widely circulated, but little is known about the variations in practice between sites and their association with outcomes. To determine whether differences in lung health existed between groups of patients attending different CF care sites and to determine whether these differences are associated with differences in monitoring and intervention. The analysis was conducted using data from the Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis from 1995 through 1996. This was an observational database collecting prospective information from a large number of CF patients undergoing routine care in North America. Participating sites that had at least 50 CF patients who had each made at least one visit to a center during the 2-year study period were ranked on the basis of median values for FEV(1) within each of three age groups (6 to 12 years, 13 to 17 years, and >or= 18 years). There were no prespecified interventions in this observational study. The frequency of patient monitoring and the use of therapeutic interventions were compared between sites in the upper and lower quartiles after stratification within the site for disease severity. Within-site rankings tended to be consistent across the three age groups. Patients who were treated at higher ranking sites had more frequent monitoring of their clinical status, measurements of lung function, and cultures for respiratory pathogens. These patients also received more interventions, particularly IV antibiotics for pulmonary exacerbations. We found substantial differences in lung health across different CF care sites. We found that frequent monitoring and increased use of appropriate medications in the management of CF are associated with improved outcomes.
    Chest 01/2003; 123(1):20-7. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to determine whether long-term treatment of young patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with dornase alfa maintains lung function and reduces respiratory tract exacerbations. This was a 96-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 49 CF centers. Inclusion criteria were age 6 to 10 years and forced vital capacity > or = 85% predicted. Patients were excluded for hospitalization for complications of CF within 2 months and use of dornase alfa within 6 months. Patients were treated with dornase alfa 2.5 mg or placebo once daily with a jet nebulizer and a compressor. Patients were randomized, 239 to dornase alfa and 235 to placebo. At baseline the mean age was 8.4 years, the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second 95% predicted, the mean forced expiratory flow, midexpiratory phase 85% predicted, and the mean forced vital capacity 102% predicted. At 96 weeks the treatment benefit for dornase alfa compared with placebo in percent predicted (mean +/- SE) was 3.2 +/- 1.2 for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P =.006), 7.9 +/- 2.3 for forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity (P =.0008), and 0.7 +/- 1.0 for forced vital capacity (P =.51). The risk of respiratory tract exacerbation was reduced by 34% in patients who received dornase alfa (relative risk 0.66, P =.048). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in changes in weight-for-age percentile. Adverse event profiles for the treatment groups were similar. Treatment of young patients with CF with dornase alfa maintains lung function and reduces the risk of exacerbations over a 96-week period.
    Journal of Pediatrics 01/2002; 139(6):813-20. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our objective was to describe the respiratory complications, clinical findings, and chest radiographic changes in the first year of life in infected and uninfected children born to HIV-1-infected women. We prospectively followed a cohort of 600 infants born to HIV-1-infected women from birth to 12 months in a multicenter study. Of these, 93 infants (15.5%) were HIV-1-infected, 463 were uninfected, and 44 were of unknown status prior to death or loss to follow-up. The cumulative incidence ( +/- SE) of an initial pneumonia episode at 12 months was 24.1 +/- 4.7% in HIV-1-infected children compared to 1.4 +/- 0.6% in HIV-1-uninfected children (P < 0.001). The rate of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) was 9.5 per 100 child-years. The HIV-1 RNA load was not higher in the group that developed pneumonia in the first year vs. those who did not. Children who developed lower respiratory tract infections or PCP had increased rates of decline of CD4 cell counts during the first 6 months of life. Lower maternal CD4 cell counts were associated with higher rates of pneumonia, and upper and lower respiratory tract infections. The rates of upper respiratory tract infection and bronchiolitis/reactive airway disease in infected children were not significantly different than in uninfected children. At 12 months, significantly more HIV-1-infected than uninfected children had tachypnea and chest radiographs with nodular and reticular densities. There was no relationship between cytomegalovirus infection in the first year of life and radiographic changes or occurrences of pneumonia. In conclusion, despite a low incidence of PCP, rates of pneumonia remain high in HIV-infected children in the first year of life. The incidence of pneumonia in uninfected infants born to HIV-1-infected mothers is low. Chest X-ray abnormalities and tachypnea suggest that subacute disease is present in infected infants. Further follow-up is warranted to determine its nature.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 04/2001; 31(4):267-76. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Pediatric Pulmonary and Cardiovascular Complications of Vertically Transmitted HIV (P(2)C(2) HIV) Study is a multicenter study examining pulmonary and cardiac outcomes in offspring of HIV-infected mothers. This portion of the P(2)C(2) study tests the hypothesis that infants exposed to, but uninfected by, maternal HIV have normal maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity (V'max,(FRC)). We obtained 500 measurements of V'max,(FRC) by rapid thoracic compression in 285 children ages 6-30 mo in five U.S. centers. The data were compared with those from a healthy cohort of children described elsewhere. V'max,(FRC) rose with height in a linear relationship. The slope of the regression line in the exposed infants did not differ statistically from the slope in the comparison group, but the intercept was about 20% lower (p < 0.001). Height and weight were comparable in the two cohorts, and the differences between intercepts persisted after adjusting for birth weight and gestational age. However, maternal HIV infection cannot be assumed to be the cause as the cohorts may have differed in other variables, such as socioeconomic status and frequency of maternal smoking and drug use. Also, measurements varied substantially within and between our five centers, probably in part because of different racial and ethnic distributions. In summary, maternal HIV infection probably has only a modest effect, if any, on maximal expiratory flow at functional residual capacity in uninfected infants.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2001; 163(4):865-73. · 11.99 Impact Factor
  • Pediatric Pulmonology 01/2001; 31(4):267-276. · 2.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The thoracoabdominal compression technique (TAC) is used to measure expiratory flow in infants. We investigated whether TAC caused a change in total thoracic compliance (Crs), resistance (Rrs), and respiratory system time constant (Trs). We studied 41 infants (mean age, 12.4 mo; SD, 7.5) from five centers studying longitudinal lung and cardiovascular function of infants from HIV-infected mothers. We measured Crs, Rrs, and Trs before and after TAC. Changes in Crs, Rrs, and Trs after TAC were not dependent on the length of time since TAC. Crs and Trs were reduced after TAC, p = 0.013 and p = 0.003, respectively, whereas Rrs did not change. When compared with uninfected infants, HIV-infected infants had a larger post-pre TAC percent decline in Crs (p = 0.003) and a post-pre TAC rise in mean Rrs (p = 0.03). These differences remained significant after adjusting for sex and age. When performing infant pulmonary function testing, TAC itself produces a temporary decrease in Crs and Trs that is more significant in infants at risk for abnormal lung volume or compliance. Therefore, the sequence of performing the infant lung function parameters should be the same each time the testing is repeated with TAC as the last parameter tested at each testing session.
    American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 06/2000; 161(5):1567-71. · 11.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a complex illness characterized by chronic lung infection leading to deterioration in function and respiratory failure in over 85% of patients. An understanding of the risk factors for that progression and the interaction of these factors with current therapeutic strategies should materially improve the prevention of this progressive lung disease. The Epidemiologic Study of Cystic Fibrosis (ESCF) was therefore designed as a multicenter, longitudinal, observational study to prospectively collect detailed clinical, therapeutic, microbiologic, and lung function data from a large number of CF treatment sites in the U.S. and Canada. The ESCF also serves an important role as a phase-IV study of dornase alfa. To be eligible for enrollment, subjects must have the diagnosis of CF and receive the majority of their care at an ESCF site. In this paper, the authors present the ESCF study design in detail. Further, enrollment data collected at 194 study sites in 18,411 subjects enrolled from December 1, 1993 to December 31, 1995 are presented in summary form. This comprehensive study is unique in the detail of clinical data collected regarding patient monitoring and therapeutic practices in CF care. Two companion articles present data regarding practice patterns in cystic fibrosis care, including data on resource utilization and prescribing practices.
    Pediatric Pulmonology 11/1999; 28(4):231-41. · 2.30 Impact Factor
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    C Johnson, ME Wohl, SM Butler
    Value in Health 05/1999; 2(3):133-133. · 2.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to determine predictors of accelerated deterioration in radiographic manifestations of cystic fibrosis. The incidence and distribution of focally accentuated disease were also studied. From 230 patients, 3038 chest radiographs were scored using the Brasfield system. Scores were plotted against age, and a single age-based severity curve was created. Specific observations (at least one episode in the first 5 years of life of air trapping, linear markings, nodular cystic lesions, or large lesions) were assessed to determine predictors of accelerated decline in scores compared with the aggregate scores plotted in the age-based severity curve. Specific observations were noted as present or absent and graded as to severity. A specific observation was counted as present if seen on at least one occasion. (The number of occasions on which the observation was made did not affect statistical analysis.) We also evaluated the distribution of lung disease by assessing the severity and nature of disease through specific lobar distribution. Males showed a slightly greater rate of radiologic decline. Early development of air trapping or bronchiectasis was associated with an accelerated rate of decline over time. Lobe-dominant disease occurred in one third of all images and in two thirds of the patients. It varied with age in its incidence, location, and etiology. Hyperinflation or bronchiectasis that occurs before age 5 is associated with accelerated radiographic deterioration. The incidence and location of lobe-dominant disease varied with age in these patients.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 12/1998; 171(5):1311-5. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study presents a radiography-based database scoring changes over time in a large population of patients with cystic fibrosis. The purpose of this database is to provide comparison for groups of patients undergoing experimental treatment to assess effect of the treatment. The data may also be used to compare individuals with their age-matched cohorts with cystic fibrosis. From 230 patients, 3038 chest radiographs were scored using the Brasfield system. The scores from radiographs from all the patients were individually plotted for age, and a single age-based severity curve was created. The age-based severity curve was compared with similar curves derived from pulmonary function studies of a subset of the same patient population. We found high inter- and intraobserver reliability. The difference between the observers averaged 1.3 Brasfield points, the scale of which ranges up to 25 points. The age-based severity curve was presented as mean Brasfield scores versus age (birth to > 30 years) plotted with 95% confidence limits; the curve was also plotted in percentiles. The rate of decline of this curve was similar to the decline of pulmonary function studies in this patient population. The age-based curve, a structural anatomic parameter, differs from pulmonary function studies, which are functional. Thus the age-based severity curve provides an additional, independent basis for comparison between groups and individuals. It may be used for the initial assessment of lung disease and for gauging and predicting the rate of decline. The curve may be used as a long-range outcome criterion to evaluate new treatments in groups of patients with cystic fibrosis.
    American Journal of Roentgenology 04/1998; 170(4):1067-72. · 2.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the effect of repeated doses of aerosolized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase) on the development of anti-rhDNase antibodies, acute allergic reactions, and pulmonary function in patients with cystic fibrosis. A multicenter, open-label study in which 184 patients received 10 mg aerosolized rhDNase twice a day for 14 days followed by a 14-day washout period for a total of 6 treatment cycles. Serial determinations of anti-rhDNase antibodies and pulmonary functions were performed. Detectable anti-rhDNase antibodies developed in 16 (8.7%) patients. These patients had no changes in their symptoms from the time they entered the trial. Antibodies detected were all of the IgG isotype. Increases in both forced expired volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were noted from the beginning to the end of each cycle of treatment returning to baseline during the off-treatment period of each cycle. Seropositivity to rhDNase was not associated with allergic reactions and had no relationship on improvement in pulmonary function. Development of anti-rhDNase antibodies occurred in a small number of patients and was not associated with side effects. Intermittent administration of rhDNase for 24 weeks to patients with cystic fibrosis was well tolerated and was not associated with anaphylaxis in any patient. Pulmonary function improved significantly during the 14-day cycles while rhDNase was administered and returned to baseline when rhDNase was discontinued.
    Journal of Pediatrics 08/1997; 131(1 Pt 1):118-24. · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purulent sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has long been known to contain large DNA-rich fibers believed to impede airway drainage. We present a novel approach to study sputum structure using fluorescence microscopy to confirm the presence of large DNA-rich fibers and visualize for the first time filamentous actin in all sputum samples examined from patients with cystic fibrosis and chronic bronchitis. Both actin and DNA co-localize in the filaments previously identified as DNA alone. Treatment of sputum samples with recombinant human DNase I or the actin-filament-severing protein, gelsolin, both previously found to decrease viscosity, dissolves the sputum fiber bundles. Purified human DNA does not form large fibers alone in vitro but does so in the presence of filamentous actin, and these fiber bundles dissolve when treated with either gelsolin or DNase I. These findings implicate actin-DNA interactions in the pathogenesis of airway disease and identify both polymers as targets for therapy.
    American Journal Of Pathology 04/1996; 148(3):919-27. · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Respiratory disease in patients with cystic fibrosis is characterized by airway obstruction caused by the accumulation of thick, purulent secretions, which results in recurrent, symptomatic exacerbations. The viscoelasticity of the secretions can be reduced in vitro by recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase), a bioengineered copy of the human enzyme. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to determine the effects of once-daily and twice-daily administration of rhDNase on exacerbations of respiratory symptoms requiring parenteral antibiotics and on pulmonary function. A total of 968 adults and children with cystic fibrosis were treated for 24 weeks as outpatients. One or more exacerbations occurred in 27 percent of the patients given placebo, 22 percent of those treated with rhDNase once daily, and 19 percent of those treated with rhDNase twice daily. As compared with placebo, the administration of rhDNase once daily and twice daily reduced the age-adjusted risk of respiratory exacerbations by 28 percent (P = 0.04) and 37 percent (P < 0.01), respectively. The administration of rhDNase once daily and twice daily improved forced expiratory volume in one second during the study by a mean (+/- SD) of 5.8 +/- 0.7 and 5.6 +/- 0.7 percent, respectively. None of the patients had anaphylaxis. Voice alteration and laryngitis were more frequent in the rhDNase-treated patients than in those receiving placebo but were rarely severe and resolved within 21 days of onset. In patients with cystic fibrosis, the administration of rhDNase reduced but did not eliminate exacerbations of respiratory symptoms, resulted in slight improvement in pulmonary function, and was well tolerated.
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/1994; 331(10):637-42. · 54.42 Impact Factor
  • A A Colin, M E Wohl
    Pediatrics in Review 06/1994; 15(5):192-200. · 0.82 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
318.05 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2006
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Department of Radiology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Center for Brain Mind Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2004
    • New York Presbyterian Hospital
      • Department of Critical Care
      New York City, New York, United States
  • 1988–2004
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Boston, MA, United States
    • St. Michael's Hospital
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
    • Wolfson Childrens Hospital
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 2003
    • Genentech
      San Francisco, California, United States
  • 2001
    • Mount Sinai School of Medicine
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Manhattan, NY, United States
  • 2000
    • Children's Hospital Los Angeles
      Los Angeles, California, United States