H Miettinen

Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland

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Publications (95)578.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background: From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the WHO MONICA Project monitored coronary events and classic risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD) in 38 populations from 21 countries. We assessed the extent to which changes in these risk factors explain the variation in the trends in coronary-event rates across the populations. Methods: In men and women aged 35—64 years, non-fatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths were registered continuously to assess trends in rates of coronary events. We carried out population surveys to estimate trends in risk factors. Trends in event rates were regressed on trends in risk score and in individual risk factors. Findings: Smoking rates decreased in most male populations but trends were mixed in women; mean blood pressures and cholesterol concentrations decreased, bodymass index increased, and overall risk scores and coronary-event rates decreased. The model of trends in 10-year coronary-event rates against risk scores and single risk factors showed a poor fit, but this was improved with a 4-year time lag for coronary events. The explanatory power of the analyses was limited by imprecision of the estimates and homogeneity of trends in the study populations. Interpretation: Changes in the classic risk factors seem to partly explain the variation in population trends in CHD. Residual variance is attributable to difficulties in measurement and analysis, including time lag, and to factors that were not included, such as medical interventions. The results support prevention policies based on the classic risk factors but suggest potential for prevention beyond these.
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    ABSTRACT: Both cemented and uncemented hemiarthroplasties are acceptable methods for treating displaced femoral neck fractures. Cemented hemiarthroplasty has traditionally been recommended as being more safe and reliable. However, the cementing process carries a risk of fat embolism and cardiovascular problems. This study attempted to determine whether these complications can be avoided when using a modern uncemented stem. We retrospectively compared 222 hip fracture patients treated with hemiarthroplasty in our hospital. A total of 100 of these patients were treated with a hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented hemiendoprosthesis (Bi-Metric BFx) and 122 patients with a cemented hemiendoprosthesis (Lubinus SPII). Information on mortality and complications during the first 18.7 months was retrieved from patient files. Nine perioperative fat-embolic events were found in the cemented group and none in the uncemented group. During the initial hospital treatment, there were five deaths (4.1%) in the cemented group and one death (1%) in the uncemented group. There were significantly more perioperative fractures in the uncemented versus cemented group (7% versus 0.8%). We conclude that uncemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with more perioperative fractures than cemented hemiarthroplasty. However, perioperative cardiovascular disturbances may be less frequent with uncemented hemiarthroplasty, and early mortality may be lower with uncemented hemiarthroplasty.
    Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 06/2013; 102(2):124-128. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Obesity has been linked to the development of osteoarthritis of the knee and since the incidence of obesity is increasing, the need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is likely to increase. Conflicting findings have been reported concerning the relationship between obesity and TKA. It has been shown in several studies, that obese patients have poorer clinical results after operation. On the other hand it has also been reported similar results for obese and non-obese patients. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinically and radiologically the results of total knee artrhoplasty in obese patients. Material and Methods: The study consisted of 48 patients who had a TKA. The patients were divided in two groups according their body mass index. Patients of BMI over 30 were regarded as obese.Results: The obese patients had poorer clinical success at the final follow-up, their WOMAC scores were significantly higher compared to non-obese (pain 20.7 vs. 11.6; p = 0.021, stiffness 26.9 vs. 13.4; p = 0.006, physical function 26.5 vs. 14.4; p = 0.003). Differences were also found in the Knee (KS) and Function (FS) scores and a long-term postoperative ROM and (KS: 83.6 vs. 88.9; p = 0.01, FS: 63.6/76.3; p = 0.051, ROM: 104.6 vs. 109.6; p = 0.016). Non-obese patients reached better percentage improvement in the KSS compared to obese patients (KS change + 194.5% vs. + 59.5%, p = 0.03; FS change + 51.5% vs. + 14.9%, p = 0.19). Conclusions: Obesity has a negative impact on the outcome of TKA, assessed by patients' clinical function and satisfaction level.
    Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 01/2012; 101(3):198-203. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Aims: Alterations in periprosthetic bone are common sequlae of prosthetic im-plants.This prospective 3-year study was performed to follow regional periprosthetic bone turnover after uncomplicated total hip arthroplasty (THA) using single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Material and Methods: Eighteen patients (nine men, nine women: mean age 61 years, range from 50 to 73 years) with primary hip osteoarthritis underwent either uncemented or cemented THA. The SPECT measurements were taken 6, 12, and 36 months after THA. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were performed on the patients during follow-up.Results: The mean SPECT uptake ratios decreased significantly in the regions of interest (ROIs) during follow-up compared to baseline value, in the trochanter major (p = 0.006), the trochanter minor (p = 0.009) and the total area (p = 0.018). Despite these decreases the uptake ratios in the medial cortex (p = 0.014), tip (p = 0.002) and total area (p = 0.016) remained signifi-cantly higher in the operated side than in the contralateral side (non-operated) 3 years after THA. Changes in bone turnover in the vicinity of the implant did not correlate with changes in periprosthetic BMD.Conclusions: Local periprosthetic bone turnover decreased slowly after THA and did not recover to the level typical of non-operated hips. This led us to suggest that bone turnover around the femoral implants remains increased more than 3 years after THA even if there are no signs of failure of the prosthesis.
    Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 01/2012; 101(4):241-8. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity has been linked to the development of osteoarthritis of the knee and increases the probability to fall into total knee arthroplasty. In this study we compared short-term outcome of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in non-obese and obese patients. A total of 100 patients underwent TKA between October 2006 and March 2007. They were divided into two groups based on the body mass index: 52 of the patients were obese (BMI = 30 kg/m2) and 48 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2). The short-term out-come was studied using clinical, functional and radiological analysis. The mean of the follow-up period was 3 months. There were five complications (2 wound infections, phlebitis, nerve injury and massive edema) in obese patients group compared with no complications in non-obese (p = 0.028). The obese patients had also worse postoperative range of motion (110 degrees vs.118 degrees , p = 0.001) than non-obese and the number of technical errors was 17 in obese and 5 in non-obese group, respectively (p = 0.007). We suggest that obesity may impair the early outcome of total knee arthroplasty and obese patients should be informed about the increased risk of complications related to TKA. Key words: Total knee arthroplasty; body mass index; obesity; complications; range of motion; mechanical axis.
    Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 01/2010; 99(1):45-9. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events and total mortality among patients who had coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery during 1988-1992. A population-based myocardial infarction (MI) register included data on invasive cardiac procedures among residents of the study area. The subjects aged 35-64 years were followed-up for 12 years for non-fatal and fatal CHD events and all-cause mortality, excluding events within 30 days of the CABG operation. CABG was performed on 1158 men and 215 women. The overall survival of men who underwent CABG was similar to the survival of the corresponding background population for about ten years but started to worsen after that. At twelve years of follow-up, 23% (n=266, 95% CI 234-298) of the men who had undergone the operation had died, while the expected proportion, based on mortality in the background population, was 20% (n=231, 95% CI 226-237). The CHD mortality of men who had undergone the operation was clearly higher than in the background population. Among women, the mortality after CABG was about twice the expected mortality in the corresponding background population. In Cox proportional hazards models age, smoking, history of MI, body mass index and diabetes were significant predictors of mortality. The prognosis of male CABG patients did not differ from the prognosis of the corresponding background population for about ten years, but started to deteriorate after that. History of MI prior to CABG and major cardiovascular risk factors was a predictor of an adverse outcome.
    International journal of cardiology 03/2008; 124(1):72-9. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared the risk of acute coronary events in diabetic and non-diabetic persons with and without prior myocardial infarction (MI), stratified by age and sex. A Finnish MI-register study known as FINAMI recorded incident MIs and coronary deaths (n=6988) among people aged 45 to 74 years in four areas of Finland between 1993 and 2002. The population-based FINRISK surveys were used to estimate the numbers of persons with prior diabetes and prior MI in the population. Persons with diabetes but no prior MI and persons with prior MI but no diabetes had a markedly greater risk of a coronary event than persons without diabetes and without prior MI. The rate of recurrent MI among non-diabetic men with prior MI was higher than the incidence of first MI among diabetic men aged 45 to 54 years. The rate ratio was 2.14 (95% CI 1.40-3.27) among men aged 50. Among elderly men, diabetes conferred a higher risk than prior MI. Diabetic women had a similar risk of suffering a first MI as non-diabetic women with a prior MI had for suffering a recurrent MI. Both persons with diabetes but no prior MI, and persons with a prior MI but no diabetes are high-risk individuals. Among men, a prior MI conferred a higher risk of a coronary event than diabetes in the 45-54 year age group, but the situation was reversed in the elderly. Among diabetic women, the risk of suffering a first MI was similar to the risk that non-diabetic women with prior MI had of suffering a recurrent MI.
    Diabetologia 01/2006; 48(12):2519-24. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the incidence of clinical diabetes as determined by the incidence of diabetes drug reimbursements within a 5-year period after the first myocardial infarction (MI) in patients who were non-diabetic at the time of their first MI. A population-based MI register, FINMONICA/FINAMI, recorded all coronary events in persons of 35-64 years of age between 1988 and 2002 in four study areas in Finland. These records were used to identify subjects sustaining their first MI (n = 2632). Participants of the population-based risk factor survey FINRISK (surveys 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2002), who did not have diabetes or a history of MI, served as the control group (n = 7774). The FINMONICA/FINAMI study records were linked with the National Social Security Institute's drug reimbursement records, which include diabetes medications, using personal identification codes. The records were used to identify subjects who developed diabetes during the 5-year follow-up period (n = 98 in the MI group and n = 79 in the control group). Sixteen per cent of men and 20% of women sustaining their first MI were known to have diabetes and thus were excluded from this analysis. Non-diabetic men having a first MI were at more than twofold {hazard ratio (HR) 2.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-3.4]}, and women fourfold [HR 4.3 (95% CI 2.4-7.5)], risk of developing diabetes mellitus during the next 5 years compared with the control population without MI. Many patients who do not have diabetes at the time of their first MI develop diabetes in the following 5 years.
    Diabetic Medicine 11/2005; 22(10):1334-7. · 3.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this paper present two methods of estimating the trend, seasonality and noise in time series of coronary heart disease events. In contrast to previous work we use a non-linear trend, allow multiple seasonal components, and carefully examine the residuals from the fitted model. We show the importance of estimating these three aspects of the observed data to aid insight of the underlying process, although our major focus is on the seasonal components. For one method we allow the seasonal effects to vary over time and show how this helps the understanding of the association between coronary heart disease and varying temperature patterns.
    Statistics in Medicine 11/2004; 23:3505-3523. · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Cohort studies have shown that smoking has a substantial influence on coronary heart disease mortality in young people. Population based data on non-fatal events have been sparse, however. Objective Study the impact of smoking on the risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) in young middle age people. Methods From 1985 to 1994 all non-fatal MI events in the age group 35–64 were registered in men and women in the WHO MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) project populations (18 762 events in men and 4047 in women from 32 populations from 21 countries). In the same populations and age groups 65 741 men and 66 717 women participated in the surveys of risk factors (overall response rate 72%). The relative risk of non-fatal MI for current smokers was compared with non-smokers, by sex and five year age group. Results The prevalence of smoking in people aged 35–39 years who experienced non-fatal MI events was 81% in men and 77% in women. It declined with increasing age to 45% in men aged 60–64 years and 36% in women, respectively. In the 35–39 years age group the relative risk of non-fatal MI for smokers was 4.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.9 to 6.1) in men and 5.3 (95% CI 3.2 to 8.7) in women, and the population attributable fractions were 65% and 55%, respectively. Conclusions During the study period more than half of the non-fatal MIs occurring in young middle age people can be attributed to smoking.
    Tobacco Control 03/2004; 13:244–250. · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Out-of-hospital deaths constitute the majority of all coronary heart disease (CHD) deaths and are therefore of considerable public health significance. We used population-based myocardial infarction register data to examine trends in out-of-hospital CHD deaths in Finland during 1983 to 1997. We included in out-of-hospital deaths also deaths in the emergency room and all deaths within 1 hour after the onset of symptoms. Altogether, 3494 such events were included in the analyses. The proportion of out-of-hospital deaths of all CHD deaths depended on age and gender. In the age group 35 to 64 years, it was 73% among men and 60% among women. These proportions did not change during the study. The annual average decline in the age-standardized out-of-hospital CHD death rate was 6.1% (95% CI, -7.3, -5.0%) among men and 7.0% (-10.0, -4.0%) among women. These declines contributed among men 70% and among women 58% to the overall decline in CHD mortality rate. In all, 58% of the male and 52% of the female victims of out-of-hospital CHD death had a history of symptomatic CHD. Among men with a prior history of myocardial infarction, the annual average decline in out-of-hospital CHD deaths was 5.3% (-7.2, -3.2%), and among men without such history the decline was 2.9% (-4.4, -1.5%). Among women, the corresponding changes were -7.8% (-14.2, -1.5%) and -4.5% (-8.0, -1.0%). The decline in out-of-hospital CHD deaths has contributed the main part to the overall decline in CHD mortality rates among persons 35 to 64 years of age in Finland.
    Circulation 09/2003; 108(6):691-6. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To analyse the trends in incidence, recurrence, case fatality, and treatments of acute coronary events in Finland during the 15-year period 1983-97. Population-based MI registration has been carried out in defined geographical areas, first as a part of the FINMONICA Project and then continued as the FINAMI register. During the study period, 6501 coronary heart disease (CHD) events were recorded among men and 1778 among women aged 35-64 years. The CHD mortality declined on average 6.4%/year (95% confidence interval -5.4, -7.4%) among men and 7.0%/year (-4.7, -9.3%) among women. The mortality from recurrent events declined even more steeply, 9.9%/year (-8.3, -11.4%) among men and 9.3%/year (-5.1, -13.4%) among women. The proportion of recurrent events of all CHD events also declined significantly in both sexes. Of all coronary deaths, 74% among men and 61% among women took place out-of-hospital. The decline in 28-day case fatality was 1.3%/year (-0.3, -2.3%) among men and 3.1%/year (-0.7, -5.5%) among women. The study period was characterized by a marked reduction in the occurrence of recurrent CHD events and a relatively modest reduction in the 28-day case fatality. The findings suggest that primary and secondary prevention have played the main roles in the decline in CHD mortality in Finland.
    European Heart Journal 03/2003; 24(4):311-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    A Papp, J Kettunen, H Miettinen
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of complicated total knee arthroplasty operations treated with radical wound revision and a pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap. Retrospective analysis in a university hospital during a five-year-period. Wound revision, debridement of the knee joint, replacing tibial plastics and a unilateral pedicled gastrocnemius muscle flap operation was performed to 10 patients after complicated total knee arthroplasty. After a median follow up time of 11.5 months 8/10 total knee arthroplasty joints were saved. As much as 80% of patients could save their knee joint with this treatment protocol. Treatment of this problem needs good collaboration with orthopaedic and plastic surgeons.
    Scandinavian journal of surgery: SJS: official organ for the Finnish Surgical Society and the Scandinavian Surgical Society 02/2003; 92(2):156-9. · 1.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A novel composite material with ultra-high strength and a low elastic modulus called carbon fiber-reinforced liquid crystalline polymer (LCP/CF) has been developed. We studied the fixation properties of an intramedullary LCP/CF rod in rabbit bone. The medullary canals of both femora were reamed with a drill 3.2 mm in diameter starting from the trochanteric fossa in eleven New Zealand White rabbits weighing on average 4.8 kg. A smooth LCP/CF rod 3.2 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was introduced into the medullary canal of both femora. The follow-up intervals were 0, 6, 12, and 52 weeks. The upper part of the harvested femora was cut into two pieces, each 25 mm in length. A mechanical push-out test was performed within 48 h to determine bone-implant interface attachment strength in the proximal (cancellous) and distal (cortical) locations. The mean push-out strength values at 0, 6, 12, and 52 weeks were 61, 250, 382, and 612 KPa in the cancellous location and 0, 32, 41, and 68 KPa in the cortical location, respectively. The strength of the bone/implant interface appeared to be quite low, similar to other uncoated or nonporous implants, but it was found to increase with time.
    Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 08/2001; 56(1):137-43.
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    ABSTRACT: To examine socioeconomic differences in case fatality and prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI) events, and to estimate the contributions of incidence and case fatality to socioeconomic differences in coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. A population-based MI register study. The FINMONICA MI Register recorded all MI events among persons aged 35-64 years in three areas of Finland during 1983-1992. A record linkage of the MI Register data with the files of Statistics Finland was performed to obtain information on socioeconomic indicators for each individual registered. First MI events (n=8427) were included in the analyses. The adjusted risk ratio of prehospital coronary death was 2.11 (95% CI 1.82, 2.46) among men and 1.68 (1.14, 2.48) among women with low income compared with those with high income. Even among persons hospitalised alive the risk of death during the next 12 months was markedly higher in the low income group than in the high income group. Case fatality explained 51% of the CHD mortality difference between the low and the high income groups among men and 38% among women. Incidence contributed 49% and 62%, respectively. Considerable socioeconomic differences were observed in the case fatality of first coronary events both before hospitalisation and among patients hospitalised alive. Case fatality explained a half of the CHD mortality difference between the low and the high income groups among men and more than a third among women.
    Journal of Epidemiology &amp Community Health 08/2001; 55(7):475-82. · 3.39 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male gender is an established risk factor for first myocardial infarction, but some studies have suggested that among myocardial infarction survivors, women fare worse than men. Therefore, we examined the long-term prognosis of incident myocardial infarction survivors in a large, population-based MI register, addressing gender differences in mortality as well as the number of events and time intervals between recurrent events. Study subjects included 4900 men and women, aged 25-64 years, with definite or probable first myocardial infarctions who were alive 28 days after the onset of symptoms. At first myocardial infarction, women were older and more likely to be hypertensive or diabetic than men, and had a greater proportion of probable vs definite events. After adjustment for age and geographic region, men had 1.74 times the risk of fatal coronary heart disease relative to women (hazard ratio=1.63 and 1.55 for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, respectively) over an average of 5.9 years of follow-up. Number and time intervals between any recurrent event--fatal and non-fatal--did not differ by gender. These data suggest that men are far more likely to have a fatal recurrent event than women despite comparable numbers of events.
    European Heart Journal 06/2001; 22(9):762-8. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The clinical survival of joint arthroplasties is clearly associated with the quality of surrounding bone environment. Bone mineral density (BMD) is an important measure of bone strength and quality. Periprosthetic BMD can be measured by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with special software algorithms. We studied short-term reproducibility of the periprosthetic BMD measurements after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in 30 patients with primary osteoarthrosis. The operated knees and the contralateral control knees were measured twice and the results were expressed as a coefficient of variation (CV%). The average precision error was 3.1% in femoral regions of interest (ROI) and 2.9% in tibial ROIs after TKA. In the prosthesis-free control knees, CV% were similar; 3.2% and 2.5%, respectively. The best precision was found in the femoral diaphyses above the implant (1.3%), whereas the least reproducible BMD was determined in the patellar region of the TKA knees (6.9%). Our results confirm that DXA measures precisely small bone mineral changes around TKA and makes it possible to follow bone remodeling DXA and may provide a feasible method for monitoring TKA in the future.
    Calcified Tissue International 10/2000; 67(3):267-72. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the association of plasma insulin with all-cause, cardiovascular, and noncardiovascular mortality. We studied 22-year mortality data from the Helsinki Policemen Study The study population comprised 970 men, 34-64 years of age, who were free of coronary heart disease, other cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Area under the insulin response curve (AUC insulin) during an oral glucose tolerance test was used to reflect plasma insulin levels. During the follow-up period, 276 men died: 130 from cardiovascular and 146 from noncardiovascular causes. The hazard ratio (HR) for hyperinsulinemia (highest AUC insulin quintile vs. combined lower quintiles) with regard to all-cause mortality adjusting for age, was 1.94 (95% CI 1.20-3.13) during the first 10 years of the follow-up period and 1.51 (1.15-1.97) during the entire 22 years; adjusting for other risk factors, the HR was 1.88 (1.08-3.30) and 1.37 (1.00-1.87) during 10 and 22 years, respectively The corresponding HRs for cardiovascular mortality during 10 and 22 years were 2.67 (1.35-5.29) and 1.73 (1.19-2.53), respectively, for age-adjusted and 2.30 (1.03-5.12) and 1.39 (0.90-2.15), respectively, for multiple-adjusted HRs. A U-shaped association was observed between insulin and noncardiovascular mortality, multiple-adjusted HRs for lowest and highest versus middle AUC insulin quintiles were 1.85 (1.20-2.86) and 1.43 (0.91-2.24), respectively Hyperinsulinemia was associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Helsinki policemen independent of other risk factors, although these associations weakened with the lengthening of the follow-up period. The association of insulin with noncardiovascular mortality was U-shaped.
    Diabetes Care 09/2000; 23(8):1097-102. · 7.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Low socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with increased coronary heart disease mortality rates. There are, however, very little data on the relation of SES to the incidence, recurrence, and prognosis of myocardial infarction (MI) events. The FINMONICA MI Register recorded detailed information on all MI events among men and women aged 35 to 64 years in 3 areas of Finland during the period of 1983 to 1992. We carried out a record linkage of the MI register data with files of Statistics Finland to obtain information on indicators of SES, such as taxable income and education, for each individual who is registered. In the analyses, income was grouped into 3 categories (low, middle, and high), and education was grouped into 2 categories (basic and secondary or higher). Among men with their first MI event (n=6485), the adjusted incidence rate ratios were 1.67 (95% CI 1.57 to 1.78) and 1.84 (95% CI 1.73 to 1.95) in the low- and middle-income categories compared with the high-income category. For 28-day mortality rates, the corresponding rate ratios were 3.18 (95% CI 2.82 to 3.58) and 2.33 (95% CI 2.03 to 2.68). Significant differentials were observed for prehospital mortality rates, and they remained similar up to 1 year after the MI. Findings among the women were consistent with those among the men. The excess coronary heart disease mortality and morbidity rates among persons with low SES are considerable in Finland. To bring the mortality rates of low- and middle-SES groups down to the level of that of the high-SES group constitutes a major public health challenge.
    Circulation 05/2000; 101(16):1913-8. · 15.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The interpretation of conventional multivariate analyses concerning the relation of insulin to the risk of atherosclerotic disease is complex because of correlations of insulin with other risk factors. Therefore, we applied factor analysis to study the clustering of risk factors in the baseline data of the Helsinki Policemen Study (970 healthy men aged 34 to 64 years) and investigated whether these clusterings predict coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk. Areas under the glucose and insulin response curves (AUC glucose and AUC insulin) were used to reflect glucose and insulin levels during oral glucose tolerance tests. During the 22-year follow-up, 164 men had a CHD event, and 70 men had a stroke. Factor analysis of 10 risk factor variables produced 3 underlying factors: insulin resistance factor (comprising body mass index, subscapular skinfold, AUC insulin, AUC glucose, maximal O(2) uptake, mean blood pressure, and triglycerides), lipid factor (cholesterol and triglycerides), and lifestyle factor (physical activity and smoking). In multivariate Cox models, the age-adjusted hazard ratio for insulin resistance factor during the 22-year follow-up was 1.28 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.50) with regard to CHD risk and 1.64 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.08) with regard to stroke risk. Lipid factor predicted the risk of CHD but not that of stroke, and lifestyle factor predicted a reduced CHD risk. Factor analysis including only 6 risk factor variables proposed to be central components of insulin resistance syndrome (body mass index, subscapular skinfold, AUC insulin, AUC glucose, mean blood pressure, and triglycerides) produced only a single insulin resistance factor that predicted the risk of CHD and stroke independently of other risk factors.
    Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 03/2000; 20(2):538-44. · 6.34 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
578.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1989–2013
    • Kuopio University Hospital
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2012
    • University of Eastern Finland
      • Faculty of Health Sciences
      Joensuu, Province of Eastern Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2010
    • University of Kuopio
      • Department of Medicine
      Kuopio, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2008
    • Pohjois-Karjalan Sairaanhoito
      Yoensu, Eastern Finland Province, Finland
  • 1999–2006
    • National Public Health Institute
      Helsinki, Southern Finland Province, Finland
  • 2005
    • Central Hospital Central Finland
      Jyväskylä, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 2001
    • University of Minnesota Duluth
      Duluth, Minnesota, United States
  • 1996–1998
    • Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center
      • Department of Medicine
      Lubbock, TX, United States
  • 1995–1997
    • University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
      • Division of Hospital Medicine
      San Antonio, TX, United States