[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AIMS:
Passive smoking is the inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and is a risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We aimed to describe the frequency of passive smoking among patients with CHD and to investigate the association between ETS exposure and smoking cessation.
METHODS AND RESULTS:
The EUROASPIRE III survey was conducted in 2006-07 among CHD patients up to 80 years of age from 22 European regions. Patients were interviewed and examined on average 15 months after hospital admission for CHD. Information was obtained on smoking prior to hospital admission, smoking at interview, and ETS exposure at home, at work, and at other locations. Breath carbon monoxide was measured to validate self-reported non-smoking. Among 8729 patients, 6060 (69.4%) were non-smokers prior to hospital admission, of whom 10.3% reported ETS exposure at home, 7.2% at work, and 13.8% at other locations. Overall, 24.2% of non-smokers were exposed to ETS at any place. Among the 2669 patients who were smoking prior to hospital admission, the likelihood of cessation at interview was lower in those with ETS exposure at home than in those without [25.3 vs. 58.1%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20-0.33]. This finding applied also to ETS exposure at work (32.2 vs. 52.7%; adjusted OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.76) and at other locations (38.0 vs. 52.8%; adjusted OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.48-0.84).
A noteworthy proportion of non-smokers with CHD are exposed to ETS. Passive smoking may jeopardize smoking cessation among CHD patients.
European Heart Journal 12/2013; 34(30). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht538 · 15.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: AimsCommon carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCIMT) is widely used as a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis, given its predictive association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The interpretation of CCIMT values has been hampered by the absence of reference values, however. We therefore aimed to establish reference intervals of CCIMT, obtained using the probably most accurate method at present (i.e. echotracking), to help interpretation of these measures.Methods and resultsWe combined CCIMT data obtained by echotracking on 24 871 individuals (53% men; age range 15-101 years) from 24 research centres worldwide. Individuals without CVD, cardiovascular risk factors (CV-RFs), and BP-, lipid-, and/or glucose-lowering medication constituted a healthy sub-population (n = 4234) used to establish sex-specific equations for percentiles of CCIMT across age. With these equations, we generated CCIMT Z-scores in different reference sub-populations, thereby allowing for a standardized comparison between observed and predicted ('normal') values from individuals of the same age and sex. In the sub-population without CVD and treatment (n = 14 609), and in men and women, respectively, CCIMT Z-scores were independently associated with systolic blood pressure [standardized βs 0.19 (95% CI: 0.16-0.22) and 0.18 (0.15-0.21)], smoking [0.25 (0.19-0.31) and 0.11 (0.04-0.18)], diabetes [0.19 (0.05-0.33) and 0.19 (0.02-0.36)], total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio [0.07 (0.04-0.10) and 0.05 (0.02-0.09)], and body mass index [0.14 (0.12-0.17) and 0.07 (0.04-0.10)].Conclusion
We estimated age- and sex-specific percentiles of CCIMT in a healthy population and assessed the association of CV-RFs with CCIMT Z-scores, which enables comparison of IMT values for (patient) groups with different cardiovascular risk profiles, helping interpretation of such measures obtained both in research and clinical settings.
European Heart Journal 08/2013; 34(30):2368-80. DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs380 · 15.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation is a common finding in patients with myocardial infarction, its incidence vanes between 4% and 25% in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. The présence of atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with a myocardial infarction, even after adjustment for several important atrial fibrillation risk factors and regardless of the timing of onset of atrial fibrillation. This subsequent 40% increase in mortality associated with atrial fibrillation during myocardial infarction suggests that closer attention should be paid to these patients. Further research is needed to identify ways to prevent the occurrence of atrial fibrillation during myocardial infarction and to determine the optimal atrial fibrillation therapeutics strategies to reduce mortality in patients with myocardial infarction.
Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases Supplements 06/2013; 5(2):114–118. DOI:10.1016/S1878-6480(13)70884-X
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In heart transplants, the significance of very late rejection (after 7 years post-transplant, VLR) detected by routine endomyocardial biopsies (EMB) remains uncertain. Here, we assessed the prevalence, histopathological and immunological phenotype, and outcome of VLR in clinically stable patients. Between 1985 and 2009, 10 662 protocol EMB were performed at our institution in 398 consecutive heart transplants recipients. Among the 196 patients with >7-year follow-up, 20 (10.2%) presented subclinical ≥3A/2R-ISHLT rejection. The VLR group was compared to a matched control group of patients without rejection. All biopsies were stained for C4d/C3d/CD68 with sera screened for the presence of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). In addition to cellular infiltrates with myocyte damage, 60% of VLR patients had evidence of intravascular macrophages. C4d and/or C3d-capillary deposition was found in 55% VLR EMB. All cases of VLR associated with microcirculation injury had DSAs (mean DSA(max) -MFI = 1751 ± 583). This entity was absent from the control group (p < 0.0001). Finally, after a similar follow-up postreference EMB of 6.4 ± 1 years, the mean of CAV grade was 0.76 ± 0.18 in the control group compared to 2.06 ± 0.26 in the VLR group respectively, p = 0.001). There was no difference in patient survival between study and control groups. In conclusion, VLR is frequently associated with complement-cascade activation, microvascular injury and DSA, suggesting an antibody-mediated process. VLR is associated with a dramatic progression to severe CAV in long-term follow-up.
American Journal of Transplantation 06/2011; 11(7):1478-87. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2011.03563.x · 5.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We aimed to develop and validate a simple coronary heart disease (CHD) risk algorithm applicable to asymptomatic men and women in France, and to compare its accuracy with that of the last published version of the Framingham risk function for cardiovascular disease.
A pooled analysis of four French prospective general-population studies.
The baseline and follow-up data from D.E.S.I.R., PRIME, Three City, and SU.VI.MAX studies were used. The 10-year CHD risk was estimated by the Cox proportional hazards model with candidate variables including age, gender, body mass index, waist circumference, family history of coronary heart disease, smoking status, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol.
The study population included 22,256 subjects (61.4% men) aged (SD) 56.0 years (8.3) without a personal history of CHD at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 8.0 years (2.3), 788 first CHD events occurred, 726 in men and 62 in women. The final model included age, gender, age × gender interaction, current smoking status, diabetes status, systolic blood pressure, total and HDL cholesterol. Using this model, the number of predicted coronary events fitted that given by the 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival estimates within each decile of estimated risk (calibration). This model had fair discrimination: Harrell C-index, 0.7831 (95% CI: 0.7704-0.7957). For comparison, the recalibrated Framingham risk function had equivalent performances compared to the French risk equation.
Our 10-year French CHD risk equation based on traditional risk factors performed at least as well as the recalibrated Framingham cardiovascular disease risk function.
European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology 04/2011; 18(2):175-85. DOI:10.1177/1741826710389354 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate associations of standard lipids and apolipoproteins with incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in older adults according to lipid-lowering treatment (LLT) in the primary prevention setting.
Within the 3C Study of men and women aged ≥ 65 years, standard lipids, apolipoproteins A-1 and B100 and hs-CRP were measured in baseline blood samples from 199 participants who developed a first CHD event over 4 years of follow-up and from 1081 subjects randomly selected from the initial cohort (case cohort study). Standardized hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by the Cox proportional hazard model.
In the random sample, 75.3% were free of LLT (non-users), 11.5% received statins and 13.4% fibrates. Among the non-users, all lipid parameters were significantly associated with future CHD (n = 145) after adjustment for age, gender, study center and educational level, and their HRs were comparable. For instance, the HR for LDL-cholesterol was 1.38 (95% CI: 1.13-1.69). These associations also existed and were stronger among statin users (n = 27 CHD), as shown by an HR for LDL-cholesterol of 2.20 (95% CI: 1.27-3.81). Additional adjustment for traditional risk factors and hs-CRP marginally modified HR estimates in those receiving or not receiving statins. Among fibrate users (n = 27 CHD), significant associations were observed for triglycerides only (1.68; 95% CI = 1.04-2.72) in fully adjusted analyses.
In older adults, standard lipids and apolipoproteins are stronger predictors of CHD in those receiving statins than in those who are not in the primary prevention setting. Under fibrate treatment, only triglycerides were independent predictors of CHD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the association between resting heart rate (RHR) and mortality and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) in the elderly.
Data derived from the Three-City Study, a French multicentre prospective study including 9294 community-dwelling elderly subjects aged ≥65 years at baseline examination between 1999 and 2001. The study population comprised 7147 participants (61% women) who were free of a pacemaker or any cardiac arrhythmias at baseline. RHR was measured twice at baseline in a seated position using an electronic tensiometer. Participants were then followed up bi-annually for vascular morbidity and mortality over 6 years. CHD events and cardiovascular death were adjudicated by an independent expert committee.
After 6 years of follow-up, 615 subjects died including 17.9% from cardiovascular causes. Subjects from the top quintile of RHR (>79 bpm) had respectively a 74% (95% CI, 1.3-2.3), a 87% (95% CI: 0.98-3.6, p = 0.06) and a 72% (95% CI, 1.3-2.3) increased risk of total, cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortality compared to those from the lowest quintile (<62 bpm), after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors and beta-blocker (BB) use in a Cox regression analysis. Associations with total mortality were consistent according to age, gender, BB use, diabetes and hypertension status (all p values for interaction >0.10). Conversely, RHR was not predictive of incident CHD (n = 228 events; top vs lowest quintile: HR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.6-1.5).
RHR is an independent risk marker of mortality but not of incident CHD events in community-dwelling elderly. Its routine measurement may help identify those who are at increased risk of mortality in the short term.
European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation: official journal of the European Society of Cardiology, Working Groups on Epidemiology & Prevention and Cardiac Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology 02/2011; 18(3):488-97. DOI:10.1177/1741826710389365 · 3.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The significance of C4d-Banff scores in protocol biopsies of kidney transplant recipients with preformed donor-specific antibodies (DSA) has not been determined. We reviewed 157 protocol biopsies from 80 DSA+ patients obtained at 3 months and 1 year post-transplant. The C4d Banff scores (1,2,3) were associated with significant increments of microcirculation inflammation (MI) at both 3 months and 1 year post-transplant, worse transplant glomerulopathy and higher class II DSA-MFI (p < 0.01). Minimal-C4d had injury intermediate between negative and focal, while focal and diffuse-C4d had the same degree of microvascular injury. A total of 54% of patients had variation of C4d score between 3 months and 1 year post-transplant. Cumulative (3 month + 1 year) C4d scores correlated with long-term renal function worsening (p = 0.006). However, C4d staining was not a sensitive indicator of parenchymal disease, 55% of C4d-negative biopsies having evidence of concomitant MI. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the presence of MI and class II DSA at 3 months were associated with a fourfold increased risk of progression to chronic antibody-mediated rejection independently of C4d (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the substantial fluctuation of C4d status in the first year post-transplant reflects a dynamic humoral process. However, C4d may not be a sufficiently sensitive indicator of activity, MI and DSA being more robust predictors of bad outcome.
American Journal of Transplantation 01/2011; 11(1):56-65. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-6143.2010.03364.x · 5.68 Impact Factor