[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neural crest cells (NCCs) constitute a population of neuroepithelial, migratory, multipotent stem cells that give rise to the peripheral nervous system, pigment cell, and much of the cranio-facial skeleton. Until recently, NCCs were thought to be a transient cell population that only existed during development. However, recent work has demonstrated that multipotent NCCs persist into adulthood within the stem cell niche of hair follicles. This raises the possibility that a patient's own NCCs could be harvested and used autologously to repair their injured nervous system. This work begins to explore the therapeutic potential of adult NCCs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The G-protein coupled C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) is highly overexpressed in a range of cancers and is therefore an excellent biomarker for cancer imaging. To this end targeted iron oxide nanoparticles were developed and utilised for in vitro imaging of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells overexpressing the CXCR4 receptor. Nanoparticles comprising an iron oxide core, encapsulated in a stabilising epichlorohydrin crossed-linked dextran polymer, were conjugated to a cyclopentapeptide with affinity to the CXCR4 receptor. The particles were characterized for their size, surface charge and r2 relaxivity at 4.7 T. MR imaging of the CXCR4 receptor with targeted iron oxide nanoparticles revealed an approximately 3-fold increase in T2 signal enhancement of MDA-MB-231 cells compared to non-targeted controls. Prussian blue staining of labeled MDA-MB-231 cells revealed darker and more intense staining of the cellular membrane. This study demonstrates the potential of targeted iron oxide nanoparticles for the imaging of the CXCR4 receptor by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
American journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging. 01/2013; 3(4):372-83.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Regenerative therapy is an emerging treatment modality. To determine migration and retention of implanted cells, it is crucial to develop noninvasive tracking methods. The aim was to determine ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection limits of ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide (USPIO) labeled mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Materials and Methods. 248 gel-phantoms were constructed and scanned on a 1.5T MRI-scanner. Phantoms contained human MSCs preincubated with USPIO nanoparticles for 2, 6, or 21 hours using 5 or 10 μ g USPIO/10(5) MSCs. In addition, porcine hearts were scanned after injection of USPIO labeled MSCs. Results. Using 21 h incubation time and 10 μ g USPIO/10(5) MSCs, labeled cells were clearly separated from unlabeled cells on MRI using 250.000 (P < 0.001), 500.000 (P = 0.007), and 1.000.000 MSCs (P = 0.008). At lower incubation times and doses, neither labeled nor unlabeled cells could be separated. In porcine hearts labeled, but not unlabeled, MSCs were identified on MRI. Conclusions. As few as 250.000 MSCs can be detected on MRI using 21 h incubation time and 10 μ g USPIO/10(5) MSCs. At lower incubation times and doses, several million cells are needed for MRI detection. USPIO labeled cells can be visualized by MRI in porcine myocardial tissue.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been widely used in clinical medicine as MRI contrast agents, hence their potential toxicity and adverse effects following administration have attracted particular attention. In the present study, high resolution magic-angle-spinning (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate statistical analysis was used to directly determine the metabolic consequences of specific-tissues, including kidney, liver and spleen following the intravenous administration of USPIO. Alterations of renal, hepatic and splenic function were reflected by changes in a number of metabolic pathways including small molecules involved in energy, lipid, glucose, and amino acids metabolism. The toxicological potential and metabolic fate of USPIO seems to be linked to their surface chemistry and particle size. Hierarchical principal component analysis was used to explore the multidimensional metabolic relationships between various biological matrices such as kidney, liver, spleen, plasma and urine. Information on the involvement of USPIO in transportation, absorption, biotransformation, biodistribution and secretion was derived from metabolic correlation analysis between different organs and biofluids. Such a metabonomic strategy provides methodology for investigating the potential adverse biological effects of similar nanoparticles on the environmental and human health and assessing the drug interventions on the targeted organ.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The metabonomic changes in murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line induced by ultrasmall superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been investigated, by analyzing both the cells and culture media, using high-resolution NMR in conjunction with multivariate statistical methods. Upon treatment with USPIO, macrophage cells showed a significant decrease in the levels of triglycerides, essential amino acids such as valine, isoleucine, and choline metabolites together with an increase of glycerophospholipids, tyrosine, phenylalanine, lysine, glycine, and glutamate. Such cellular responses to USPIO were also detectable in compositional changes of cell media, showing an obvious depletion of the primary nutrition molecules, such as glucose and amino acids and the production of end-products of glycolysis, such as pyruvate, acetate, and lactate and intermediates of TCA cycle such as succinate and citrate. At 48 h treatment, there was a differential response to incubation with USPIO in both cell metabonome and medium components, indicating that USPIO are phagocytosed and released by macrophages. Furthermore, information on cell membrane modification can be derived from the changes in choline-like metabolites. These results not only suggest that NMR-based metabonomic methods have sufficient sensitivity to identify the metabolic consequences of murine RAW264.7 macrophage-like cell line response to USPIO in vitro, but also provide useful information on the effects of USPIO on cellular metabolism.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research 01/2011; 13(5):2049-2062. · 2.18 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ultra-small superparamagnetic particles of iron oxides (USPIO) have been developed as intravenous organ/tissue-targeted contrast agents to improve magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in vivo. However, their potential toxicity and effects on metabolism have attracted particular attention. In the present study, uncoated and dextran-coated USPIO were investigated by analyzing both rat urine and plasma metabonomes using high-resolution NMR-based metabonomic analysis in combination with multivariate statistical analysis. The wealth of information gathered on the metabolic profiles from rat urine and plasma has revealed subtle metabolic changes in response to USPIO administration. The metabolic changes include the elevation of urinary alpha-hydroxy-n-valerate, o- and p-HPA, PAG, nicotinate and hippurate accompanied by decreases in the levels of urinary alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, citrate, N-methylnicotinamide, NAG, DMA, allantoin and acetate following USPIO administration. The changes associated with USPIO administration included a gradual increase in plasma glucose, N-acetyl glycoprotein, saturated fatty acid, citrate, succinate, acetate, GPC, ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone and acetoacetate) and individual amino acids, such as phenylalanine, lysine, isoleucine, glycine, glutamine and glutamate and a gradual decrease of myo-inositol, unsaturated fatty acid and triacylglycerol. Hence USPIO administration effects are reflected in changes in a number of metabolic pathways including energy, lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism. The size- and surface chemistry-dependent metabolic responses and possible toxicity were observed using NMR analysis of biofluids. These changes may be attributed to the disturbances of hepatic, renal and cardiac functions following USPIO administrations. The potential biotoxicity can be derived from metabonomic analysis and serum biochemistry analysis. Metabonomic strategy offers a promising approach for the detection of subtle physiological responses on mammalian metabolism, and can be employed to investigate the potential adverse effects of other nanoparticles and nanomaterials on the environment and human health.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine the homing potential and fate of epidermal neural crest stem cells (eNCSCs) derived from hair follicles, and bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) of mesenchymal origin, in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory lesion model in the rat brain. Both eNCSCs and BMSCs are easily accessible from adult tissues by using minimally invasive procedures and can differentiate into a variety of neuroglial lineages. Thus, these cells have the potential to be used in autologous cell-replacement therapies, minimizing immune rejection, and engineered to secrete a variety of molecules.
Both eNCSCs and BMSCs were prelabeled with iron-oxide nanoparticles (IO-TAT-FITC) and implanted either onto the corpus callosum in healthy or LPS-lesioned animals or intravenously into lesioned animals. Both cell types were tracked longitudinally in vivo by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for up to 30 days and confirmed by postmortem immunohistochemistry.
Transplanted cells in nonlesioned animals remained localized along the corpus callosum. Cells implanted distally from an LPS lesion (either intracerebrally or intravenously) migrated only toward the lesion, as seen by the localized MRI signal void. Fluorescence microscopy of the FITC tag on the nanoparticles confirmed the in vivo MRI data,
This study demonstrated that both cell types can be tracked in vivo by using noninvasive MRI and have pathotropic properties toward an inflammatory lesion in the brain. As these cells differentiate into the glial phenotype and are derived from adult tissues, they offer a viable alternative autologous stem cell source and gene-targeting potential for neurodegenerative and demyelinating pathologies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stem cell therapy in the nervous system aims to replace the lost neurons and provide functional recovery. However, it is imperative that we understand the in vivo behaviour of these cells post-implantation. We report visualisation of iron oxide labelled bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) implanted into the striatum of hemi-parkinsonian rats by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional efficacy of the donor cells was monitored in vivo using the positron emission tomography (PET) radioligand [11C]raclopride. The cells were visible for 28 days by in vivo MRI. BMSCs provided functional recovery demonstrated by a decreased binding of [11C]raclopride. Although, histology confirmed the persistence of donor cells, no tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were present. This suggests that BMSCs may have a limited paracrine effect and influence functional recovery. We demonstrate, using multimodal imaging, that we can not only track BMSCs but also establish their effects in a pre-clinical model of Parkinson's disease.
Journal of neuroscience methods 07/2009; 183(2):141-8. · 2.30 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study is to track iron-oxide nanoparticle-labelled adult rat bone marrow-derived stem cells (IO-rBMSCs) by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and determine their effect in host cardiac tissue using 2-deoxy-2-[F-18]fluoro-D: -glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET).
Infarcted rats were randomised to receive (1) live IO-rBMSCs by direct local injection, or (2) dead IO-rBMSCs as controls; (3) sham-operated rats received live IO-rBMSCs. The rats were then imaged from 2 days to 6 weeks post-cell implantation using both MRI at 9.4T and FDG-PET.
Implanted IO-rBMSCs were visible in the heart by MRI for the duration of the study. Histological analysis confirmed that the implanted IO-rBMSCs were present for up to 6 weeks post-implantation. At 1 week post-IO-rBMSC transplantation, PET studies demonstrated an increase in FDG uptake in infarcted regions implanted with live IO-rBMSC compared to controls.
Noninvasive multimodality imaging allowed us to visualise IO-rBMSCs and establish their affect on cardiac function in a rat model of myocardial infarction (MI).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the feasibility of using an inversion recovery pulse sequence and to define the optimal inversion time (TI) to assess myocardial infarction in mice by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) MRI at 9.4T, and to obtain the maximal contrast between the infarcted and the viable myocardium.
MRI was performed at 9.4T in mice, two days after induction of myocardial infarction (n = 4). For cardiovascular MR imaging, a segmented magnetization-prepared fast low angle shot (MP-FLASH) sequence was used with varied TIs ranging from 40 to 420 ms following administration of gadolinium-DTPA at 0.6 mmol/kg. Contrast-to-noise (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured and compared for each myocardial region of interest (ROI).
The optimal TI, which corresponded to a minimum SNR in the normal myocardium, was 268 ms +/- 27.3. The SNR in the viable myocardium was significantly different from that found in the infarcted myocardium (17.2 +/- 2.4 vs 82.1 +/- 10.8; p = 0.006) leading to a maximal relative SI (Signal Intensity) between those two areas (344.9 +/- 60.4).
Despite the rapid heart rate in mice, our study demonstrates that LGE MRI can be performed at 9.4T using a protocol similar to the one used for clinical MR diagnosis of myocardial infarction.
Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance 02/2008; 10:6. · 4.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to examine the association of arachidonic acid-related signal transduction with cerebral metabolism in patients with schizophrenia who have violently and dangerously offended while psychotic. Cerebral 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy was carried out in 11 male patients with schizophrenia who had violently offended (homicide, attempted murder, or wounding with intent to cause grievous bodily harm) while psychotic. Spectra were obtained from 70 x 70 x 70 mm(3) voxels using an image-selected in vivo spectroscopy pulse sequence. Niacin flush testing results were quantified as the volumetric niacin response. There was a strong, and negative, correlation between the volumetric niacin response and the metabolite concentration of inorganic phosphate expressed as a ratio of the total 31-phosphorus signal (p<0.005). Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia who have violently offended and have poor phospholipid-related signal transduction may have higher levels of cerebral energy metabolism.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Electrophysiological data confirm the existence of neurons that respond to both motor and sensory events in the macaque brain. These mirror neurons respond to execution and observation of goal-orientated actions. It has been suggested that they comprise a neural basis for encoding an internal representation of action. In this paper the evidence for a parallel system in humans is reviewed and the implications for human theory of mind processing are discussed. Different components of theory of mind are discussed; the evidence for mirror activity within subtypes is addressed. While there is substantial evidence for a human mirror system, there are weaknesses in the attempts to localize such a system in the brain. Preliminary evidence indicates that mirror neurons may be involved in theory of mind; however, these data by their very nature are reliant on the presence, and precise characterization, of the human mirror system.
Brain Research Reviews 07/2007; 54(2):286-93. · 7.82 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imaging methods such as nuclear medicine (including positron emission tomography), magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasound, and optical imaging can be used to provide information about the expression of genes, and the location of molecules and cells in intact animals or patients. In the setting of transplantation, this will allow monitoring of inflammatory responses, as well as the state of the graft. In this review, the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to imaging will be discussed, as well as their potential application to transplantation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell replacement therapy is undergoing a critical transition from being a discipline of the basic sciences to being recognized
as a potential component of medical practice. For multiple tissues, the use of stem cell transplantation to replace cells
lost due to traumatic injury or chronic degenerative processes is being pursued in a wide range of experimental models. Cell-based
therapies  have received much attention as novel therapeutics for treatment of cancer , autoimmune , cardiovascular
, inflammatory , and degenerative diseases [6,7]. A number of native cells, antigen-specific T-lymphocytes , or,
more recently, stem and progenitor cells have been used for these approaches. Such treatment offers the possibility of treating
a wide range of serious degenerative diseases that affect millions of people worldwide for which there are currently no cures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A period of secondary energy failure consisting of a decline in phosphocreatine/inorganic phosphate (PCr/Pi), a rise in brain lactate, and alkaline intracellular pH (pH(i)) has been described in infants with neonatal encephalopathy. Strategies that ameliorate this energy failure may be neuroprotective. We hypothesized that a neonatal rat brain slice model undergoes a progressive decline in energetics, which can be ameliorated with hypothermia or amiloride. Interleaved phosphorus ((31)P) and proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance (MR) spectra were obtained from 350 microm neonatal rat brain slices over 8 h in a bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C and at 32 degrees C in 7- and 14-d models. (31)P MR spectra were obtained with amiloride in a bicarbonate-free buffer at 37 degrees C in the 14-d model. Findings were similar in 7- and 14-d models. In the 14-d model, there was a Pi doublet structure corresponding to alkaline pH(i) values of 7.50 +/- 0.02 and 7.21 +/- 0.04. Compared with the stabilized baseline of 100, at 5 h PCr/Pi was 65 +/- 6.3 and lactate/NAA was 187 +/- 3 at 37 degrees C, but PCr/Pi and lactate/NAA were not significantly different from baseline at 32 degrees C. Nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)/phosphomonoester (PME) was 0.93 +/- 0.23 at 37 degrees C and 1.81 +/- 0.21 at 32 degrees C at 5 h. With amiloride exposure in the 14-d model, baseline pH(i) values were 7.25 +/- 0.09 and 6.98 +/- 0.02 and NTP/PME was 1.81 +/- 0.05; these parameters were not significantly different at 5 h. Our interpretation of these findings is that the brain slice model underwent secondary energy failure, which was delayed with hypothermia or amiloride.
Pediatric Research 09/2005; 58(2):288-96. · 2.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To measure regional T1 and T2 values for normal C57Bl/6 mouse brain and changes in T1 after systemic administration of manganese chloride (MnCl2) at 9.4 T.
C57Bl/6 mice were anesthetized and baseline T1 and T2 measurements obtained prior to measurement of T1 after administration of MnCl2 at 9.4 T. MnCl2 was administered systemically either by the intravenous (IV), intraperitoneal (IP), or subcutaneous (SC) routes. T1 and T2 maps for each MRI transverse slice were generated using commercial software, and T1 and T2 values of white matter (WM), gray matter (GM), pituitary gland, and lateral ventricle were obtained.
When compared with baseline values at low-field, significant lengthening of the T1 values was shown at 9.4 T, while no significant change was seen for T2 values. Significant T1 shortening of the normal mouse brain was observed following IV, IP, and SC administration of MnCl2, with IV and IP showing similar acute effects. Significant decreases in T1 values were seen for the pituitary gland and the ventricles 15 minutes after either IV or IP injection. GM showed greater uptake of the contrast agent than WM at 15 and 45 minutes after either IV or IP injections. Although both structures are within the blood-brain barrier (BBB), GM and WM revealed a steady decrease in T1 values at 24 and 72 hours after MnCl2 injection regardless of the route of administration.
Systemic administration of MnCl2 by IV and IP routes induced similar time-course of T1 changes in different regions of the mouse brain. Acute effects of MnCl2 administration were mainly influenced by either the presence or absence of BBB. SC injection also provided significant T1 change at subacute stage after MnCl2 administration.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 05/2005; 21(4):334-9. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative pathology is typical of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), and is thought to underlie clinical disease. Some morphometric studies have shown early focal neurone loss, but the full extent of TSE induced neuronal loss in the central nervous system is not known, and can only be accurately estimated using intensive morphometric techniques. We have used a murine scrapie model in which we determined the levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), a putative neuronal marker, by both high-performance liquid chromatography and high resolution, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in samples taken sequentially from the hippocampus. This scrapie model develops severe neuronal loss in the hippocampus, and the NAA levels showed a significant positive correlation with our previous morphometric estimates of neurone number. NAA measurement may therefore provide a practical alternative to intensive morphometric techniques in the investigation of neurodegeneration in the TSEs.
Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology 11/2003; 29(5):445-50. · 4.84 Impact Factor