[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with ulcerative colitis have a significantly increased lifetime risk for the development of colorectal carcinomas. While genetic and genomic changes during carcinogenesis have been thoroughly studied in sporadic colorectal cancers, less is known about ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas. The aim of this study was to extend the identification of specific genomic imbalances to ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal carcinomas and to establish a comprehensive map of DNA gains and losses by investigating 23 tumor specimens from 23 patients. The molecular cytogenetic characterization was performed using comparative genomic hybridization; immunohistochemistry was used to measure proliferative activity and laminin-5 expression as a marker for invasiveness. The results indicate that these tumors are invariably aneuploid, with a high proliferative activity and increased invasive potential. The average number of copy alterations correlates with increased cyclin A levels (P=0.044), which is an independent predictor of risk of carcinoma development in ulcerative colitis. Despite severe genetic instability, the general pattern of specific chromosomal aberrations that defines sporadic colorectal carcinomas is maintained in ulcerative colitis-associated malignancies. High-level copy number increases (amplifications) are dispersed throughout the genome. Strikingly, these amplifications are much more frequent than in sporadic carcinomas and map to chromosomal regions that have not been described before.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 12/2003; 147(1):9-17. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to explore whether specific cytogenetic abnormalities can be used to stratify tumors with a distinctly different clinical course, we performed comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) of tumors from patients who were diagnosed with metastatic disease after an interval of less than 2 years or who remained free from distant metastases for more than 10 years. All patients presented with distant metastases after mastectomy indicating that none of the patients in this study was cured and free of remaining tumor cells. Tumors in the group of short-term survivors showed a higher average number of chromosomal copy alterations compared to the long-term survivors. Of note, the number of sub-chromosomal high-level copy number increases (amplifications) was significantly increased in the group of short-term survivors. In both short- and long-term survivors recurrent chromosomal gains were mapped to chromosomes 1q, 4q, 8q, and 5p. Copy number changes that were more frequent in the group of short-term survivors included gains of chromosome 3q, 9p, 11p and 11q and loss of 17p. Our results indicate that low- and high grade malignant breast adenocarcinomas are characterized by a specific pattern of chromosomal copy number changes. Furthermore, immunohistochemical evaluation of the expression levels of Ki-67, p27KIP1, p21WAF1, p53, cyclin A and cyclin E revealed a correlation between increased proliferative activity and poor outcome.
Analytical cellular pathology: the journal of the European Society for Analytical Cellular Pathology 02/2003; 25(3):103-14.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We sought an animal model able to discriminate metabolic and angiogenic processes in limb ischemia. For that we modified and evaluated a rat model of severe unilateral limb ischemia at rest. A two-stage surgical procedure entailing left femoral artery ligation preceded by interruption of collateral vessels originating from the infra-renal aorta and left iliac arteries was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats. The model was evaluated for up to 8 weeks with a transit-time flow meter, a laser Doppler perfusion imager, microspheres, arteriography and histology. It was found to be well tolerated with low mortality and perfusion in the foot skin was reduced up to 8 weeks, while collaterals were visible after 2 weeks. Histologic signs of ischemia were seen for up to 4 weeks. This rat model of severe limb ischemia at rest lasts up to 8 weeks and seems well suited for longitudinal studies of the pathophysiology of limb ischemia and healing mechanisms like angio- and arteriogenesis.
European Surgical Research 01/2003; 35(5):430-8. · 0.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In ischemic tissue hypoxia induces production of vascular growth factors, especially VEGF, which initiate local angiogenesis. Collateralization-or arteriogenesis-occurs at a distance from the ischemic tissue and depends on different growth factors such as FGF-2. A spatial discrepancy in endogenous growth factor production in limb ischemia may have implications for therapeutic angiogenesis. The present study elucidates if such spatial and temporal variation occurs.
A two-staged procedure was performed to generate severe long-lasting limb ischemia in 60 rats. At 1, 7, 28, and 56 days, subgroups were subjected to perfusion assessment with laser Doppler imaging and angiography. Muscle samples and foot skin were gathered to measure growth factor expression and signs of angiogenesis using immunohistochemistry.
There was an early twofold increase (P < 0.05) in both VEGF and FGF-2 levels in distal muscle from the ischemic leg, but no significant rise in the thigh. The concentrations decreased over time with an exception for VEGF in soleus and FGF-2 in anterior tibial muscle, which remained high. An increased capillarity was noted (P < 0.05) in soleus after 28 days, and the number of BrdU-positive ECs was elevated in all ischemic samples at 56 days. Collateral arteries were observed on the angiograms after 7 days.
The results suggest that in limb ischemia any major increase in vascular growth factor production is limited to ischemic tissue. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of growth factor production are complex and to a great extent influenced by inflammation.
Journal of Surgical Research 12/2002; 108(2):258-67. · 2.02 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chromosome 17q is highly susceptible to rearrangement mutations in breast cancer. c-erbB-2 at 17q11.2 approximately q21.1 is frequently amplified, as is a region at 17q22 approximately q24. As a step in the search for the target gene(s) of the 17q22-q24 amplification we determined whether the placental lactogen (PL) genes at 17q23 were amplified in 59 breast carcinomas. These genes were selected as their upregulation could theoretically be involved in breast cancer tumorigenesis. Amplification of the PL genes, and also of c-erbB-2, was detected using semi-quantitative PCR. The reliability of this method was confirmed since c-erbB-2 results obtained using PCR, Southern blotting and immunohistochemistry were in good agreement. The PL genes were amplified in 13 (22%) of the tumors. Furthermore, the PL and c-erbB-2 genes were frequently co-amplified although there is a non-amplified region between them. Expression of PL was investigated in 26 tumors and was detected in 16 of these cases including all 10 tumors with amplification of the PL genes. The tumors with PL gene amplification were all aneuploid. A trend was seen towards an increased incidence of lymph node involvement for tumors with amplification of the PL genes and for tumors with co-amplification of PL and c-erbB-2, which suggests a possible association with high malignancy.
Cancer Genetics and Cytogenetics 06/2001; 127(1):16-23. · 1.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to evaluate biological and genetic properties of early breast carcinomas we analyzed microdissected tissue from 33 primary breast carcinomas stage T1b and T1c with respect to the nuclear DNA content, the expression pattern of Ki-67, cyclin A, p27KIP1, p53 and p21WAF1, and chromosomal gains and losses. The results show that T1b carcinomas (6-10 mm, n=17) were frequently near-diploid (53%) with low proliferative activity and staining patterns of p53 and p21WAF1 that suggest the presence of wild type protein. The majority (12/16) of the T1c tumors (11-20 mm), however, was aneuploid, and proliferative activity and p53 expression were increased. Larger tumor size correlated with an increasing number of chromosomal copy number changes and in particular with regional amplifications. High level copy number increases (amplifications), however, were found exclusively in the aneuploid tumors. Amplification events correlated with elevated cyclin A and reduced p27 expression, respectively. Our results suggest that the sequential acquisition of genomic imbalances during tumor progression is accelerated in aneuploid tumors, and may contribute to the increased malignancy potential.
Analytical cellular pathology: the journal of the European Society for Analytical Cellular Pathology 02/2001; 22(3):123-31.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Disturbed cell cycle-regulating checkpoints and impairment of genomic stability are key events during the genesis and progression of malignant tumors. We analyzed 80 epithelial ovarian tumors of benign (n = 10) and borderline type (n = 18) in addition to carcinomas of early (n = 26) and advanced (n = 26) stages for the expression of Ki67, cyclin A and cyclin E, p21WAF-1, p27KIP-1 and p53 and correlated the results with the clinical course. Genomic instability was assessed by DNA ploidy measurements and, in 35 cases, by comparative genomic hybridization. Overexpression of cyclin A and cyclin E was observed in the majority of invasive carcinomas, only rarely in borderline tumors and in none of the benign tumors. Similarly, high expression of p53 together with undetectable p21 or loss of chromosome arm 17p were frequent events only in adenocarcinomas. Both borderline tumors and adenocarcinomas revealed a high number of chromosomal gains and losses. However, regional chromosomal amplifications were found to occur 13 times more frequently in the adenocarcinomas than in the borderline tumors. The expression pattern of low p27 together with high Ki67 was found to be an independent predictor of poor outcome in invasive carcinomas. The results provide a link between disturbed cell cycle regulatory proteins, chromosomal aberrations and survival in ovarian carcinomas.
International Journal of Gynecological Cancer 12/2000; 10(6):477-487. · 1.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is a rare, aggressive gynecological cancer; little is known about its cause. Previous studies have indicated that p53 immunopositivity is correlated with short-term survival in primary fallopian tube carcinoma. We examined p53 and p21/WAF1 immunostaining and TP53 mutation in exons 5 to 8 by single-stranded conformation polymorphism and constant denaturant gel electrophoresis in nine cases of primary fallopian tube carcinoma and their metastases/recurrences from patients who survived for between a few months and more than 20 years after diagnosis. We found that 1.) p53 immunopositivity without detectable p21/WAF1 immunostaining did not correlate with TP53 mutations in the conserved domains; 2.) mutations in TP53 occurred in two metastases/recurrences but not in their corresponding primary tumors; 3.) in two cancers, a TP53 mutation was observed in the primary tumor but not in the metastases/recurrences; 4.) constant denaturant gel electrophoresis seems to be more sensitive than single-stranded conformation polymorphism in detecting TP53 mutations; and 5.) in the nine cases studied, p53 immunoreactivity and/or TP53 mutation analysis did not correlate with tumor progression, survival, or response to treatment.
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 05/2000; 19(2):145-51. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The transition of normal epithelium to invasive carcinoma occurs sequentially. In colorectal and cervical carcinogenesis, this transition is reflected by histomorphologically defined grades of increasing dysplasia that untreated may progress to invasive disease. In an attempt to understand the role of chromosomal aberrations during tumorigenesis we have applied comparative genomic hybridization using DNA extracted from defined stages of colorectal and cervical tumors, from low- and high-grade astrocytic tumors and from diploid and aneuploid breast carcinomas. Genetic instability, as measured by the number of chromosomal copy alterations per case, increases significantly at the transition from precursor lesions to invasive carcinomas and continues to increase with tumor stage. Aggressive tumors have a higher number of copy alterations per case. High-level copy number changes (amplifications) become more prevalent in advanced-stage disease. Subtractive karyograms of chromosomal gains and losses were used to map tumor stage-specific chromosomal aberrations and clearly showed that nonrandom chromosomal aberrations occur during disease progression. In colorectal and cervical tumors, chromosomal copy number changes were correlated with nuclear DNA content, proliferative activity, expression levels of the tumor suppressor gene TP53, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21/WAF1, as well as the presence of viral genomes. Here we summarize and review the results of this comprehensive phenotype/genotype correlation and discuss the relevance of stage-specific chromosomal aberrations with respect to diagnostic applications.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 08/1999; 25(3):195-204. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC) is a rare and highly aggressive tumor. Twelve cases of PFTC (stages IA to IV) were analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization. The most consistent DNA gain was mapped to chromosome arm 3q in 11 of 12 cases. In six cases, the gain of 3q was present as a high level copy number increase (amplification) with a consensus region mapped to 3q26.2-qter. In the 12 cases, other frequent gains were located on chromosome arms 1q (in 11 cases), 2q (in 10), 7q (in 9), 8q (in 9), 5p (in 8), 6p (in 7), 12p (in 7), and 14q (in 6). Frequent copy number losses occurred on chromosome arms 16q (in 8 cases), 22q (in7), 6q (in 6). 8p (in 6), 18q (in 6), Xq (in 6), 1p (in 5), and 17p (in 5). All chromosomes were involved in chromosomal aberrations and the average number of copy alterations per case was 19.7. None of the 12 carcinomas revealed the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) genomes. All of the cases exhibited crude aneuploidy. Strong p53 immunoreactivity could be observed in 10 of 12 cases while p21/WAF1 expression was low or undetectable. These results indicate that PFTC is a genomically highly unstable cancer, an observation that is in agreement with the poor prognosis associated with this tumor. A high frequency of 3q-gains has also been observed in HPV-related carcinomas of the uterine cervix. However, none of the PFTC was HPV related, suggesting that the 3q-gain is independent from HPV DNA.
International Journal of Gynecological Pathology 08/1998; 17(3):245-54. · 1.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have analyzed 30 cases of advanced-stage cervical squamous cell carcinoma (stages IIb-IV) by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). The most consistent chromosomal gain in the aneuploid tumors was mapped to chromosome arm 3q in 77% of the cases. Acquisition of genetic material also occurred frequently on Iq (47%), 5p (30%), 6p (27%), and 20 (23%). Recurrent losses were mapped on 2q (33%), 3p (50%), 4 (33%), 8p (23%), and 13q (27%). High-level copy number increases were mapped to chromosome 8, chromosome arms 3q, 5p, 8q, 12p, 14q, 17q, 19q, 20p, and 20q, and chromosomal bands 3q26-27, 9p23-24, 11q22-23, and 12p13. In the majority of the cases, the presence of high-risk human papilloma virus genomes was detected. High proliferative activity was accompanied by crude aneuploidy. Increased p21/WAF-I activity, but low or undetectable expression of TP53 were representative for the immunophenotype. This study confirms the importance of a gain of chromosome arm 3q in cervical carcinogenesis and identifies additional, recurrent chromosomal aberrations that are required for progression from stage I tumors to advanced-stage carcinomas.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 09/1997; 19(4):233-40. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One or more mevalonate derivatives of non-sterol type have been proposed to be of indispensable importance for cell growth. Conceivable mevalonate-dependent mechanisms involved in growth control are farnesylation of Ras proteins, regulation of c-myc expression, and N-linked glycosylation of the IGF-1 receptor. The latter mechanism might be rate-limited by dolichyl phosphate, which acts as a donor of oligosaccharides in glycoprotein synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum. In order to study the significance for cell proliferation of the three aforementioned mevalonate-dependent processings, their inhibitory response due to mevalonate deprivation was explored and compared with the effect on DNA synthesis in the malignant melanoma cell line SK-MEL-2. We found that mevalonate depletion due to treatment with 3 microM lovastatin for 24 h, which efficiently growth-arrested the cells, hardly at all affected the expression of c-myc, and although Ras prenylation was inhibited by 50%, the most pronounced effect of lovastatin was seen on N-linked glycosylation of IGF-1 receptors, which was inhibited by more than 95%. The order and magnitude of the decreased IGF-1 receptor glycosylation, which was followed by a decreased expression of IGF-1 receptors at the cell membrane, correlated well with the inhibition of DNA synthesis. We investigated whether dolichol, and in particular dolichyl phosphate, through its participation in N-linked glycosylation, act as regulators of IGF-1 receptor expression. First, we could confirm that exogenous dolichol became phosphorylated and in this form took part in the glycosylation processing. Secondly, we showed that dolichyl phosphate, in a dose-dependent manner, could increase the number of IGF-1 receptors at the cell membrane, simultaneously as DNA synthesis was stimulated. Taken together, our results provide direct evidence for an important role of dolichyl phosphate as a regulator of cell growth through limiting N-linked glycosylation of the IGF-1 receptor.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: p53 overexpression was present in the normal or dysplastic epithelium, but absent in the adjacent invasive cancers of five patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), when p53 immunostaining (IHC) was performed. In three of the five p53 immunoreactive dysplasias and adjacent p53 negative invasive cancers single stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) results from exon 7 and 8 were also obtained. Bandshifts in exon 7 were detected in two dysplasias, and bandshifts in exon 8 were found in a third. Sequencing of exon 7 in the first dysplasia with bandshift indicated a deletion of codon 241-242 (loss of CT) resulting in a frame shift. In the second dysplasia with bandshift a mutation was observed in codon 244 resulting in a Gly-->Arg substitution in the protein sequence. In the adjacent IHC p53 negative invasive cancer lesions, no bandshifts could be observed by SSCP, and sequencing did not reveal any mutated p53. WAF1/p21 (IHC) expression was assayed to study p53 function. Image cytometry (ICM) DNA analysis, estimating genetic instability, showed progress in DNA aberration for invasive cancer lesions as compared with the dysplasias. Human papillomavirus (HPV DNA) was not detected by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in any of the five cancers thus excluding possible p53 degradation caused by HPV protein. In conclusion, the finding of p53 mutations in mild, moderate, and severe dysplasia indicates that p53 mutation, not only p53 immunoreactivity, can be an early event in HNSCC carcinogenesis. The lack of p53 immunoreactivity in the invasive cancers adjacent to p53 positive dysplasias could possibly be attributed to loss of the mutant allele, or clonal heterogeneity.
International Journal of Oncology 07/1997; 11(1):97-104. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus are rare neoplasias that account for about 3% of large bowel tumours. Infections with human papillomaviruses are frequently detected in these cancers, suggesting that pathogenic pathways in anal carcinomas and in carcinomas of the uterine cervix are similar. Little is known regarding recurrent chromosomal aberrations in this subgroup of squamous cell carcinomas. We have applied comparative genomic hybridization to identify chromosomal gains and losses in 23 cases of anal carcinomas. A non-random copy number increase of chromosomes 17 and 19, and chromosome arm 3q was observed. Consistent losses were mapped to chromosome arms 4p, 11q, 13q and 18q. A majority of the tumours were aneuploid, and most of them showed increased proliferative activity as determined by staining for Ki-67 antigen. p53 expression was low or undetectable, and expression of p21/WAF-1 was increased in most tumours. Sixteen cancers were satisfactorily tested for the presence of HPV by consensus L1-primer polymerase chain reaction; nine were HPV positive, of which eight were positive for HPV 16.
British Journal of Cancer 02/1997; 76(10):1271-8. · 5.08 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: When SV40-transformed fibroblasts (line 90VAVI) were exposed to tunicamycin, an inhibitor of N-linked glycosylation, an extensive cell death occured compared with untransformed fibroblasts. A considerable cell loss was obtained within 24 h after tunicamycin addition, and after 72 h there were hardly any virus-transformed cells alive. A 2-h pulse treatment with tunicamycin was found to be almost as effective as a continuous 48-h treatment in killing the cells. Even such a short exposure as 7 min resulted in a drastically decreased cell viability (54%). The morphology of the dying tunicamycin-treated 90VAVI cells suggested that they were undergoing apoptosis. This was also supported by the appearance of nuclear condensation, as assayed by propidium iodide uptake, which was detectable within 2 h after tunicamycin addition. Furthermore, analysis of DNA from tunicamycin-treated 90VAVI cells by field inversion gel electrophoresis revealed DNA degradation into 50 kbp fragments within 2 h, and conventional agarose gel electrophoresis showed 'DNA laddering', indicating internucleosomal DNA cleavage, detectable after 36 h. Together with the finding that tunicamycin within seconds caused an elevation of [Ca2+]i, a well documented early feature of apoptosis in many experimental systems, these results strongly suggest that tunicamycin-induced cell death in 90VAVI is due to apoptosis. The short tunicamycin exposure required to trigger cell death in 90VAVI indicates that the apoptotic process is irreversibly induced soon after its addition. It seems unlikely that the pool of one or several specific N-linked glycoproteins could be depleted during such a short period. Instead the overall accumulation of unglycosylated proteins in ER might contribute to the apoptotic response in 90VAVI. Tunicamycin also killed and induced DNA degradation in the breast cancer cell line MDA-231.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Depletion of mevalonic acid (MVA), obtained by inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase using lovastatin, depressed the biosynthesis of dolichyl-phosphate and the rate of N-linked glycosylation and caused growth arrest in the melanoma cell line SK-MEL-2. The growth arrest was partially prevented by addition of high concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) to the cells, indicating that MVA depletion may inhibit cell growth through decreasing the number of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1R) at the cell surface. Such a decrease in receptor number might be a result of a lowered translocation of de novo synthesized receptors to the cell membrane which in turn might be a result of a decreased N-linked glycosylation of the receptor proteins. We could also demonstrate that IGF-1R became underglycosylated and that the amount of de novo synthesized IGF-1R proteins at the cell membrane was drastically decreased upon MVA depletion. Analysis of receptor proteins cross-linked with IGF-1, as well as binding assays and immunocytostaining confirmed that the number of functional membrane-bound IGF-1R was substantially reduced. The N-linked glycosylation and the expression of de novo synthesized IGF-1R proteins at the cell surface as well as the number of IGF-1 binding sites were completely restored upon replenishment of MVA. These effects of MVA were efficiently abrogated by the glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin. The translocation of IGF-1R to the cell membrane was shown to take place just prior to initiation of DNA synthesis in arrested cells stimulated with MVA. Additionally, there was a clear correlation between IGF-1 binding and initiation of DNA synthesis with regard to the MVA dose requirement. It was confirmed that inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase activity and N-linked glycosylation also depressed the expression of functional IGF-1R in other cell types (i.e. hepatoblastoma cells and colon cancer cells). Our data suggest that this mechanism is involved in MVA-regulated cell growth.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/1996; 271(29):17453-62. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative genomic hybridization was used to screen the DNA extracted from histologically defined tissue sections from consecutive stages of colorectal carcinogenesis for chromosomal aberrations. No aberrations were detected in normal epithelium (n = 14). Gain of chromosome 7 occurred as a single event in low-grade adenomas (n = 14). In high-grade adenomas (n = 12), and overrepresentation of chromosomes 7 and 20 was present in 30% of the cases analyzed. The transition to colon carcinomas (n = 16) was characterized by the emergence of multiple chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomes 1, 13, and 20 and chromosome arms 7p and 8q were frequently gained, whereas chromosome 4 and chromosome arms 8p and 18q were recurrently underrepresented. The same tissue sections that were used for CGH were analyzed by means of DNA-ploidy measurements and immunohistochemical staining to quantify proliferative activity and p21/WAF-1 and TP53 expression. We observed that crude aneuploidy and increased proliferative activity are early events in colorectal carcinogenesis, followed by TP53 overexpression and the acquisition of recurrent chromosomal gains and losses during the progression from high-grade adenomas to invasive carcinomas.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 05/1996; 15(4):234-45. · 3.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Many studies have noted an association between amplification of single oncogenes and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We are investigating whether measurement of amplification in a larger number of proto-oncogenes increases the reliability of the prognostic information provided. As the first stage of this investigation, amplification (of c-erbB-2, cycD1, int-2, c-myc and MDM2), aneuploidy and altered expression of p53, which all indicate genetic instability, were studied in 117 primary breast adenocarcinomas. Amplification was correlated with aneuploidy (p=0.002) but not with altered expression of p53 even though the tumours with p53 overexpression were all aneuploid. Our results suggest that measurement of amplification is a potentially valuable prognostic factor.
International Journal of Oncology 02/1996; 8(2):359-65. · 2.66 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have chosen tumors of the uterine cervix as a model system to identify chromosomal aberrations that occur during carcinogenesis. A phenotype/genotype correlation was established in defined regions of archived, formalin-fixed, and hematoxylin/eosin-stained tissue sections that were dissected from normal cervical epithelium (n = 3), from mild (n = 4), moderate (n = 6), and severe dysplasias/carcinomas in situ (CIS) (n = 13), and from invasive carcinomas (n = 10) and investigated by comparative genomic hybridization. The same tissues were analyzed for DNA ploidy, proliferative activity, and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) sequences. The results show that an increase in proliferative activity and tetraploidization had occurred already in mildly dysplastic lesions. No recurrent chromosomal aberrations were observed in DNA extracted from normal epithelium or from mild and moderate dysplasias, indicating that the tetraploidization precedes the loss or gain of specific chromosomes. A gain of chromosome 3q became visible in one of the severe dysplasias/CIS. Notably, chromosome 3q was overrepresented in 90% of the carcinomas and was also found to have undergone a high-level copy-number increase (amplification). We therefore conclude that the gain of chromosome 3q that occurs in HPV16-infected, aneuploid cells represents a pivotal genetic aberration at the transition from severe dysplasia/CIS to invasive cervical carcinoma.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1996; 93(1):479-84. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comparative genomic hybridization serves as a screening test for regions of copy number changes in tumor genomes. We have applied the technique to map DNA gains and losses in 33 cases of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded primary breast tumors (13 fibroadenomas and 10 diploid and 10 aneuploid carcinomas). No genomic imbalances were found in fibroadenomas. Recurrent findings in adenocarcinomas include copy number increases for chromosomes 1q (14 of 20 samples), 8q (10 of 20), 17q (5 of 20), 6p (3 of 20), 13q (3 of 20), and 16p (3 of 20), and copy number decreases for chromosomes 22 (7 of 20), 17p (6 of 20), and 20 (3 of 20). Regional high level copy number increases were observed on chromosome bands 1q32, 8p11, 8q24, 10p, 11q13, 12p, 12q15, 17q11-12, and 17q22-24. The majority of the samples were studied for gene amplification of c-myc, c-erbB2, cycD1, and int-2 by means of Southern blot analysis. The comparison with DNA ploidy measurements revealed a different distribution and a significantly higher number of chromosomal aberrations in aneuploid tumors than in diploid tumors and in fibroadenomas.
Cancer Research 12/1995; 55(22):5415-23. · 8.65 Impact Factor