[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cytogenetic study of two central Amazonian species of Colostethus with nidicolous tadpoles indicated that Colostethus stepheni had 2n=24 chromosomes, whereas Colostethus nidicola had 2n=22 chromosomes. These species also differed in their NOR localization and C-banding pattern. These results suggest that karyotypic variation with a probable reduction in chromosome number and the presence of nidicolous tadpoles are independent events that may have occurred more than once during dendrobatid evolution.
Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics. 12/2012; 56(3):253-260.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Taxonomic changes have frequently occurred in the anuran genus Pseudopaludicola as a consequence of high morphological similarity among its species. The present work reports karyotypic analysis of three Pseudopaludicola species sampled in their type locality and four Pseudopaludicola populations from distinct localities, aiming at contributing to the systematics of this genus. Chromosomes were stained with Giemsa or submitted to the silver staining (Ag-NOR) and C-banding techniques. The karyotype was 2n=22 in P. mineira, Pseudopaludicola sp. and two populations of P. saltica. The chromosome pair 8 was heteromorphic in P. saltica, characterizing a XX/XY sex-determination system with telocentric X and submetacentric Y. Highly similar karyotypes with 2n=18 chromosomes were observed in P. canga, P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas, State of Maranhão, Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais and Icém, State São Paulo. The high similarity among the karyotypes 2n=18 suggested that the populations of P. aff. canga belong to the group 'pusilla', the same group of P. canga. The data demonstrated also that P. aff. canga from Barreirinhas (northeast region) is cytogenetically identical to P. canga with regarding the NOR site position in pair 3 and the presence of a heterochromatic block in the pair 2, whereas P. aff. canga from Uberlândia and Icém (southeast) had the NOR in the pair 9. Moreover, the cytogenetic data discriminated P. mineira and Pseudopaludicola sp. from the previously analyzed species with 22 chromosomes, and suggested that Pseudopaludicola sp. is an undescribed species. Sexual heteromorphic chromosomes are firstly reported in Pseudopaludicola and the data indicated the need of an extensive taxonomic review in this genus.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scanning and transmission electron microscopy and fluorochrome staining with DAPI were used to study the spermatozoa of Colostethus marchesianus from the type locality and Colostethus sp. (aff. marchesianus) from a different locality. The sperm cell of these species resembles those of most neobatrachian species, except for the presence of two complete flagella, a character previously described only for four unrelated anuran species belonging to the families Leptodactylidae, Rhacophoridae and Dendrobatidae. Although very similar, the spermatozoa described here showed slight differences in the length of their nucleus, in the extent of the subacrosomal cone over the nucleus, and in the curvature of the axial fiber seen in cross section. The absence of a juxtaxonemal fiber and the presence of a comma shaped axial fiber seem to be common characteristics of dendrobatid spermatozoa. The minor differences found in our study may indicate that the taxa studied here are distinct species. The evolutionary significance of spermatozoa biflagellarity is still unclear, although the presence of this trait in unrelated groups suggests independent origins.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe the sperm ultrastructure of five species of Colostethus from Brazil. The general structures of the spermatozoa (acrosomal complex and flagellar apparatus) were similar to species within the Bufonoidea. Colostethus brunneus, Colostethus sp. (aff. trilineatus), Colostethus nidicola and Colostethus sp. had biflagellated spermatozoa, whereas the spermatozoa of Colostethus stepheni had a single flagellum, a characteristic previously unknown for this genus. In addition, the spermatozoa of this species showed some mitochondria within the thick, undulating membrane. These characteristics are apparently common to dendrobatid species that have a single flagellum. Based on these findings, we tentatively consider biflagellarity to be an apomorphic condition in the Dendrobatidae. In addition, the results described here do not support the proposed regrouping of the ‘brunneus’ and ‘alagoanus’ groups in a monophyletic ‘trilineatus’ group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this paper, we report a chromosomal study of three Brazilian species of Colostethus, C. brunneus from the type locality, Colostethus sp. (aff. trilineatus), and Colostethus sp., which is morphologically similar to C. brunneus. The diploid number for C. brunneus was 2n = 24 chromosomes, in agreement with that previously described for specimens from Peru. Colostethus sp. (aff. trilineatus) and Colostethus sp. showed a very similar karyotype with 22 chromosomes. The NOR was located on pair 3 in C. brunneus, on pair 4 in Colostethus sp. (aff. trilineatus), and on pair 2 in Colostethus sp. In one specimen of Colostethus sp., an additional NOR site was located on pair 7 in only one of the homologs. This extra Ag-NOR site was confirmed by FISH using an rDNA probe. In addition to the NOR location, the C-banding pattern was also species-specific, despite the similar chromosomal morphology of the species. These results indicate that although these species may be closely related, there is a clear dichotomy in their chromosome number.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Colostethus marchesianus from the type locality and three related species had 2n = 22 chromosomes, which differed from most other Colostethus species that have 2n = 24 chromosomes. The species analyzed were morphologically similar and showed a conservative karyotype, although they could be distinguished from each other by their C-banding pattern. Additional NOR sites, heteromorphism in NOR size and heterochromatin, and an additional rDNA site detected by FISH, were observed. These data suggest that chromosomal rearrangements and hetrochromatin-related events may have contributed to the karyotype differentiation of these Colostethus.